International collaboration in research and development (R&D) is becoming increasingly important in creating the knowledge that makes research and business more competitive. Organizations are currently facing critical and unprecedented challenges in an ever dynamic, constantly changing and complex business environment . All types of economic activities are moving in the direction of globalization . From the other direction, the growing internationalization of R&D activities challenges multinational corporations (MNCs) to formulate technology strategies and manage increasingly diffused and assorted networks of R&D laboratories and alliances in the context of disparate national institutions . By the emergence of the increasing de-centralization and globalization of work processes, many organizations have responded to their dynamic environments by introducing virtual teams. Additionally, the rapid development of new communication technologies such as the Internet has accelerated this trend so
The Frascati Manual was written by and for the national experts in OECD member countries who collect and issue national R&D data and submit responses to OECD R&D surveys, which definition is very similar to the accounting definition of the experimental development: “systematic work, drawing on knowledge gained from research and practical experience, that is directed to producing new materials, products and devices; to installing new
Isaksson (2007) notes that “an effective innovation system is important for total factor productivity growth.” This is generally defined as a network of institutions that influence the way a country acquires and uses knowledge. Over time, innovation systems encourage increased research and development, which leads to new processes, products, and improvements in human capital. The study found that “national innovative capacity” is strongly related with economically significant innovations (Isaksson, 2007). This capacity can be measured through research and development expenditure or growth in indicators such as patents and trademarks. However, a country’s economic status may play a role in determining the effect of innovation on economic growth. For example, developed countries may have stronger and secure institutions, which encourages technological progress in the form of patents. On the other hand, developing countries may have a weak innovation infrastructure, dissuading technological investments and creation.
differ from other sectors of the economy with regard to research and development; how the current RDC model compares and interacts with other research and development arrangements, including the university sector, cooperative research centres and other providers; and whether there are other models which could address policy objectives more effectively;
Comparing New Zealand with similar countries does not change its relative position. The Ministry of Research, Science and Technology uses six “reference countries” when examining New Zealand’s comparative performance: Australia, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Norway and Sweden. These countries were chosen “as having a number of similar characteristics to New Zealand regarding population, size of the economy, and stage of economic development". 8 However, the averages 9 for the “reference
The Institute for Biodynamic Research in Darmstadt (Germany), for which I work, is the oldest private research institute for organic and biodynamic farming in Europe. Cooperation with other private and public research institutes plays a very important role in our work. This is not only the result of limited staff and financial resources, but also in order to combine different backgrounds and disciplines. Table 3 shows the most important topics on which currently one or more projects are under way. We use partly common research methods and tools, like field and pot trials, chemical and biochemical analyses and partly new methods or criteria are developed, e.g. for food quality assessment (protein analysis with wheat, durability of potatoes). A project on the picture creating methods is going to be launched in cooperation with a Swiss and a Danish organization. A recently finished project on fertilization based on long-term trials has been carried out in cooperation with six other institutes in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Sweden and Switzerland. Some of our activities in plant breeding are part of a German-Swiss group of biodynamic breeders (Kunz et al., 1997). An important element of biodynamic plant breeding is the regional development and preservation of cultivars which can (under certain preconditions) or should be done by each farmer (Spiess, 1996; Müller, 1996). Therefore, the biodynamic approach in this field is in contrast to the current tendency towards commercial breeding by large international companies, but is in line with the aims of sustainable regional development. Another research topic in our institute is, of course, the optimization of the biodynamic preparations and investigations on their effects. This includes, for example, experiments with different stirring methods for the spray preparations. The effects are evaluated by classical parameters (plant growth, chemical contents, etc.) and by picture creating methods.
Software engineering or software development that will produce prototype requires a special way so that the system can be developed in accordance with the wishes and needs of potential users [1-3]. Selection of a research study methods especially in research related to the development of software engineering should be appropriate to the problem and faced and not to create new problems , it is because of many selection methods in software engineering research [1- 5]. Methods of research and development in research related to software engineering allow their interaction as a means of communication between software developers with prospective users of engineering software through prototype software before it becomes a final product [1,6]. Model research and development in software engineering research methods is to produce a product and also to test the effectiveness of these products through a validation test and review by
Two years later, the Barcelona European Council stated that ‘Research & Development and Innovation is a key driver for the knowledge-based society.’ In its Communication of March 2003 ‘Innovation policy: updating the Union’s approach in the context of the Lisbon strategy’ (COM(2003)112), the Commission pointed out that innovation can take many forms and considered the ‘consequences for the design of innovation policy and for the different means by which innovation policy is put into action, so that they are not hampered by a view of innovation which is too restrictive.’ EU-specific issues affecting innovation policy were addressed and new directions for innovation policy were proposed, including interaction with other policy areas. In March 2005, the European Council
Statistics showing public and private expenditure on research and development (R&D) in the UK are published by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) in their annual statistical releases on Gross Domestic Expenditure on Research and Development, and their annual UK Government Expenditure on Science, Engineering and Technology series. This series, known as SET statistics, was previously published by the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
The Business Sector Research & Development Survey 2001 continues a series of biennial surveys carried out by Forfás and its predecessors for over two decades. The most recent survey was carried out in 2002. The reference period for most of the data collected was the calendar year 2001. The field work for the survey was performed on behalf of Forfás by the Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI) in the period July – December 2002. A methodological note on operational procedures including sampling, fieldwork procedures, re-weighting and analysis of the data is included as an appendix to this report (see Appendix 2).
Management is defined as the provision of an environment within groups and organizations, so that the organizations and the individuals within them can achieve their goals and objectives by utilizing human, material and financial resources. Development is defined as the process of increasing the socio-economic condition of people from a lower to a higher state of a society by the education and training of the people. So Management Development entails an increase in the socio-economic condition of the people occasioned by the provision of a conducive environment for achieving goals and objective. Management DevelopmentResearch entails searching again and taking a cursory look at Management Development phenomena of interest. Management DevelopmentResearch could be a route to Sustainable Development of a Third World Country like Nigeria by sustaining the momentum and extending the reach. Sustainable Development is the process of meeting the needs of the present generation without jeopardizing the chances of meeting the needs of future generations. The main objective of the paper is to determine how Management DevelopmentResearch could be used as a route to Sustainable Development in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study are to determine if Management DevelopmentResearch could be used as a route to Sustainable Development in Nigeria, to ascertain if Management Training Research could be used as a route to Economic Development and beyond it in Nigeria, to find out if Management Learning Research could be used as a route to Economic Growth and beyond it in Nigeria. All the objectives were achieved in the study.
Pilot is one of the most important factors to ensure aviation safety. The article focuses on the Pilots Development Plan- ning (PDP) problem. It is different from other countries that pilots are developed by airways themselves in China. Pro- motion of every pilot needs specified quantity of flight experience hours which are accumulated in daily flights. In the same time, the promotion routes of pilots are diversified. So keys of PDP problem are to estimate the number of pilots who have promotion qualification in different planning period and to optimize their promotion and transfer in all routes. After analyzing characteristics of pilot training, a PDP road map is drawn which shows the typical process for pilots’ promotion and transfer. An optimization model which has promotion qualification constraints is built to solve PDP problem. According to different pilot development patterns, the method is proved to be effectively by a case study. The research has practical significance for Chinese airways.
Hevner et al. (2004) defined DSR through distinguishing design sciences from natural sciences that enhance the state-of-the-art of artificial sciences. As the IS artefact design knowledge, insights, and skills revealed by a design researcher are collectively developed, McKay et al. (2008, 2007) called for re-conceptualizing the current technology centric design as it seems that Hevner et al. (2004) conception of IS embraces abounding of the IT artefact from other essential components together from behavioral, organizational and social context. Therefore, McKay et al. (2012) broadened Hevner’s two paradigms (of design) as CC and HC DSR. Conceptualization of design science promoted by Hevner et al. (2004) has been called the “IT design science research school” (Carlsson, 2007, p.213). A technological focus and the view centered to IT artefact for innovation excludes numerous soft factors that result in lack of collective details of design problems as it has been theoretically demonstrated (McKay et al. 2012). Iivari (2007) criticized that Hevner et al.’s (2004) pragmatism, arguing that IS development in design science must be grounded in better theories and ontologies, going beyond a mere method for innovative artefacts design.
The CDOT Library, located in the Staff Materials building, has the most comprehensive collection of transportation materials in Colorado. It has a database of 18,000 holdings and is available to the department online through CDOTs network. The Staff Librarian can perform online searches of databases including TRIS (Transportation Research Information Service.) The library also has several special collections including: AASHTO, TRB, CDs, videotapes, and career development. The library is open to the public.
Dissemination and Knowledge Management: Just as there are opportunities to improve the Bank’s research functions, we must find more effective ways to disseminate the high quality research we produce jointly with our partners, and make it accessible to policymakers and the development community. This need is in no way unique to research at the Bank, but it is nonetheless of singular importance for this “product line.” While part of the challenge is that internal and external non-research “customers” can be uninterested in (or even suspicious of) research, or are simply too pressed by their other responsibilities to accord it greater attention, there is more that researchers and Bank managers can do as well. The management of the research department is putting increased emphasis on effective non-academic dissemination and application of research in addition to the research product itself and its validation by peers. Managers in other parts of the Bank also can contribute through the quality standards they set for knowledge products, sharing of information on priority knowledge gaps, and efforts to promote greater unit-level as well as project-level engagement with DEC on filling those needs.
Beacon Management Review (BMR) is an attempt to showcase SIBM’s students’ acumen in understanding the business environment and their interest in research. RSDT is yet again proud to launch the Beacon Management Review (BMR), Volume III which will be released on Management Day 2013. This year’s issue included research articles on wide range of topics ranging from strategy and finance to human resource and marketing management to economics and development.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the current state of China’s logistics development and the future development. In order to fulfill the research ob- jective, a literature-based survey and content analysis is used to investigate the development level of China’s logistics research, also, second-hand data based statistical analysis is used as the main method to study the development of Chinese logistics in this paper. While every effort has been made to ensure that the most up-to-date data is available in the analysis, this is not always possible due to the obvious reasons for data scarcity and data integrity. De- spite the improvements and progress made by the government and other agencies, the current logistics infrastructure, especially the transportation network, customs procedures and warehousing facilities are still lacking. Fu- ture developments are also highlighted to portray an accurate assessment of China’s logistics situation. This is the latest comprehensive research on the development of China’s logistics in the known scope. It provides an opportu- nity for companies that want to enter the Chinese market to understand the development of China’s logistics.
The scope of my perspective falls somewhere between the poles of this spectrum of literature. My experience derives from a research institute in which the commitment to scientific research is primary, and is essentially, the whole program of the institution. That said, much of what will be discussed here is also relevant to development in a research-intensive university. At this writing a list of articles in Wikipedia encompasses hundreds of medical and/or biological research institutes, concentrated, but not exclusively, in North America and Western Europe. Therefore biomedical research institutes, like the Hutch, are a substantial component of the scientific enterprise world-wide. As mentioned, experience with their development may be expanded usefully to apply to research-intensive universities, academic departments, and other elements within them, that function essentially as research institutes.
ployment situation in Tianjin and the Tianjin economic. They thought that the economic development of Tianjin would lead Tianjin to promote employment. Wu Jingkun (2012) considered the development of Tianjin culture and the need to innovate to optimize the flow of commerce personnel work together to make recommendations promote the flow of commerce from the economic foundations. Jiang Xiaochuang (2014) thought that Tianjin has the advantage of the port; Tianjin should make use of port resources and the promotion of port throughput; Tianjin should promote common economic development. Liu Haiyuan and Wu Jinlong (2009) put forward that Tianjin needs the development of logistics; the limiting factor is the shortage of practical talents. Yang Guoliang (2006) proposed that the logistics development of Tianjin needs to adapt to the current national policies. Most scholars analyzed from the factors which affect the development of Tianjin, but they were lack of the data anal- ysis and they did not do in-depth research on the specific situation in Tianjin. Based on the fact, we use a lot of data to analyze it and solve the problem.