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A novel approach for road surface wetness detection with planar capacitive sensors

A novel approach for road surface wetness detection with planar capacitive sensors

With the increasing level of automation in today’s motor vehicles, the detection of road surface conditions becomes more important. Knowing the condition is of great relevance for highly or fully automated driving in demanding situa- tions, caused by weather conditions, in order to return the motor vehicle from a critical situation to a safe state. Be- sides existing data from the environment and motor vehicle sensors, innovative approaches have to be investigated in or- der to reliably determine the road surface condition, since today’s motor vehicles have no direct information about a road’s current state. Therefore, both the safety of passengers and traffic participants can be increased. Road surface wet- ness is one of the conditions which has to be detected. A possible type of sensor suitable for the detection of road sur- face wetness is the capacitive sensor, due to its wide range of features.
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Prototype Road Surface Management System

Prototype Road Surface Management System

The Road Surface Management System (RSMS) is a powerful tool that can provide an overview and rough estimate of a roadway system’s condition at the network level and the approximate costs for future improvements in towns and small cities. This helps municipalities and local agencies to ap- ply limited budget resources and provide the greatest road quality benefits. To control the cost of roadway surface deterioration, local agencies and municipalities need to make cost-effective deci- sions regarding the maintenance, rehabilitation, and reconstruction of the roadway network. RSMS can help in assessing the condition of the network, weighing alternatives, and establishing long- term treatment plans and budgets. In this paper, RSMS is used to evaluate a university campus road network in the state of Idaho and to establish the necessary repair methods for 10 selected sections in the campus network.
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An approach to produce a GIS database for road surface monitoring

An approach to produce a GIS database for road surface monitoring

Road Surface Monitoring (RSM) is the process of detecting the distress on paved or unpaved road surfaces. The primary aim of this process is to detect any distress (such as road surface cracks) at early stages in order to apply maintenance on time. Early detection of road cracks can assist maintenance before the repair costs becomes too high. Local authorities should have an effective and easy to use monitoring process in place across the road network to meet their obligations. The process of adding geographical identification metadata to the photos is called “Geo-tagging”. The proposed method in this work entails capturing GPS information when the photo is taken for the road surface distress, then attaching the photo to a map. The location disclosure in the act of geo-tagging of a photo provides qualities to the digital map. In that respect, a specific richness of the GIS dataset arises when they disclose the road surface distress photos.
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A participatory sensing framework to classify road surface quality

A participatory sensing framework to classify road surface quality

Participatory sensing networks rely on gathering personal data from mobile devices to infer global knowledge. Participatory sensing has been used for real-time traffic monitoring, where the global traffic conditions are based on information provided by individual devices. However, fewer initiatives address asphalt quality conditions, which is an essential aspect of the route decision process. This article proposes Streetcheck, a framework to classify road surface quality through participatory sensing. Streetcheck gathers mobile devices’ sensors such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer, as well as users’ ratings on road surface quality. A classification system aggregates the data, filters them, and extracts a set of features as input for supervised learning algorithms. Twenty volunteers carried out tests using Streetcheck on 1,200 km of urban roads of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Streetcheck reached up to 90.64% of accuracy on classifying road surface quality.
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Introducing Road Surface Conditions into a Microscopic Traffic Simulation

Introducing Road Surface Conditions into a Microscopic Traffic Simulation

The introduction of highly automated driving functions is one of the main research and development efforts in the automotive industry worldwide. In the early stages of the development process, suppliers and manufacturers often wonder whether and to what extend the potential of the systems under development can be estimated in a cheap and timely manner. In the context of a current research project, a sensor system for the detection of the road surface condition is to be developed and it is to be investigated how such a system can be used to improve higher level driving functions. This paper presents how road surface conditions are introduced in various elements of the microscopic traffic simulation such as the actual network, the network editor, a device for detection, and an adaptation of the standard Krauß car following model. It is also shown how the adaptations can subsequently affect traffic scenarios. Furthermore, a summary is given how this preliminary work integrates into the larger scope of using SUMO as a tool in the process of analyzing the effectiveness of a road surface condition sensor.
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Influence of traffic and transportation characteristics over road surface temperature (RST)

Influence of traffic and transportation characteristics over road surface temperature (RST)

Previous studies that related to road temperature, notably road surface temperature (RST) had been done extensively by scholars in western countries especially temperate countries. They had used various kind of method and platform; fix field stations (Gustavsson, Borgen & Green 2001), vehicle mounted with infrared camera (Chapman, Thornes, & Bradley 2001), on-ground remote sensing and airborne remote sensing, as their instruments. All of these methods are limited in term of study area, as they may only cover either one or several routes, and small site or a medium scale study area. Worst, those methods required lots of time to cover those wide area, and difficult to be analyzed spatially in short period of time; which are not preferable for ad hoc planning decision making.
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Development of Attribute-Assign-Editor for Road Surface Point Cloud Data

Development of Attribute-Assign-Editor for Road Surface Point Cloud Data

Abstract—In recent years, road register has been drawn and recorded in order to determine various road statuses. The data includes road names, investigated data, starting and ending point of the road, the road intersecting point, etc. Importantly, to undergo road maintenance, annual corrections for work and road facilities are necessary. Also, research in the utilization of point cloud data in diverse fields is currently being examined. In previous studies, the authors have been applying point cloud data to numerous stages of construction life cycle management. This paper will reveal the utilization of point cloud data by using the editor system the authors have constructed. Finally, the authors put this system into practice on road surface data, determined possible outcomes for road maintenance in road registration, and demonstrated a range of possibilities of using point cloud data in various considerations and discussions.
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The Influence of Road Surface on an Automobile’s Braking Characteristics

The Influence of Road Surface on an Automobile’s Braking Characteristics

o f cohesion o f the surfaces with the wheels is differ­ ent ([11] to [18]). For example, the surface o f the road, fit for traffic, is covered with sand or slush, is coated with ice in certain places, etc. Furthermore, the values o f the deceleration o f the vehicles and the cohesion coefficients o f their wheels while brak­ ing on different road surfaces in each definite case will be submitted. Such data are necessary while analysing and modelling the vehicle’s movement under various road conditions, while restoring the course o f traffic accidents and while carrying out an examination o f traffic accidents.
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Washing operation of a road surface washing mechanism for decontaminating radioactive substances

Washing operation of a road surface washing mechanism for decontaminating radioactive substances

The guidelines of the Ministry of the Environment describe the normal use of the machine for decontami- nation. This involves holding the washing nozzle near the waist, blasting the water against the target such as the road or wall, and washing the entire surface. In the proposed method, however, the nozzle is not held near the waist but very close to the target. To be specific, the distance between the nozzle and the target is controlled at about 0.01 m. Regardless of the water pressure, as the distance between the nozzle and the target decreases, the impact of the collision increases [4]. The proposed method there- fore increases the impact generated by the commercially available machine. Moreover, a sufficiently high impact finely destroys the surface of the target [5]. Hence, the system not only washes off the radioactive substances on the surface of the target, but also removes those that have been absorbed into pores on the surface. In other words, the proposed method is used to grind the surface of the target by means of a commercially available high-pressure washing machine. Thus, the method has the ease of use of high-pressure washing and the efficiency of grinding.
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Aerodynamic Behavior of Snowflakes on an Uneven Road Surface during a Snowstorm

Aerodynamic Behavior of Snowflakes on an Uneven Road Surface during a Snowstorm

The depth of snow cover was expressed as a volume fraction; i.e ., the volume ratio of snow particles to air. The analysis conditions for a dump model were set the same as the conditions of the supposed road. Because the wind direction of the snowstorm was dominant in one direction, this wind direction was set as the orientation of the x-axis in the numerical analysis. Figure 7 shows the analysis region for each dump model.

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Classification of Steps on Road Surface Using Acceleration Signals

Classification of Steps on Road Surface Using Acceleration Signals

Studies using bike for monitoring road condition are reported. A bike is light comparing with a car and usually does not have a sus- pension, so it can detect small step even if its speed is slow. More- over, the bike can enter a narrow street that a car cannot so that the monitoring system can cover area closely. Eisenman etal. pro- posed BikeNet which monitors cyclist experience and makes a map with several sensors mounted on the bike [1]. This system needs to equip sensors on bie body so that there is a difficulty to increase participants. Reddy etal . proposed data sharing platform named Biketastic which enriches experimentation of finding good routes and sharing route information among cyclists. This system does not need specialized sensors equipped on the bike but only need smartphone to be worn by the cyclist [13]. This system evaluates the route in terms of safety, efficiency, and enjoyment. Verstockt etal. proposed a method to categorize the road type using data col- lected at worn smartphone of cyclist [14]. Their algorithm receives 5 seconds of acceleration data and calculates their magnitude and then classifies it into 6 road terrain types based on random forest of binary decision trees. Therefore, although their proposed method can be utilized for macroscopic road terrain classification, it can- not be suited for microscopic road damage monitoring like a road damage detection.
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Thermal Mapping in Flat Lowlands and Undulating Uplands – A Comparison of Results

Thermal Mapping in Flat Lowlands and Undulating Uplands – A Comparison of Results

In conclusion, it appears that in flat landscapes altitude has less predictability value for road surface temperature than in undulating uplands. Former areas are being more influenced by advancing air masses and general weather changes rather than local landscape. In addition, thermal mapping results appear to be more inconclusive in flatlands, compared to uplands. Nevertheless, there are still some cases in Lithuanian roads, for example, where road temperature consistently dropped lower than air during most of the measurement events. Therefore, thermal mapping is still a valid method for determining such cold spots. It seems that thermal mapping must be done in perfect extreme conditions to get good results. Therefore, this causes additional difficulties when choosing the right night in a climate such as one in Lithuania, since clear and calm nights can be a rarity on a particular season when the surveillance is planned.
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Measuring the Relationships of Road Service Quality and Road Traffic Accidents

Measuring the Relationships of Road Service Quality and Road Traffic Accidents

1) The “Quality Assessment System for Completed Road Work” developed and published by the Construction Industry Board Malaysia in 2011 serves as an independent method to assess and evaluate the quality of workmanship of newly completed road works [30]. The standard was structured around five dimensions of road works service quality: (i) road surface, (ii) slope and retaining structure, (iii) drainage, (iv) bridges and other structures, and (v) traffic and road furniture. Based on these dimensions, the standard represented defect groups as the parameter to benchmark the quality of the road works. However, those parameters are assessed through close observations by the used of either special equipment or visually, and only qualified assessor who certified by the QLASSIC Assessors Certification Training is eligible to carrying out the assessment. 2) A model of RTAs in Turkey developed by [31]. The
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EVALUATION OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD PAVEMENTS FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY ANALYSIS

EVALUATION OF SURFACE CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD PAVEMENTS FOR TRAFFIC SAFETY ANALYSIS

At skidding resistance measurements it's assumed that owing to winter maintenance the paved surface is freed from snow and ice. The influence of precipitation manifests itself as a decrease of the skidding resistance and therefore the risk for aquaplaning. Aquaplaning is that the development that a driving vehicles on tyres looses contact with the paved surface (as there remains a skinny layer of water within the whole ‘contact’ space between the tyres and therefore the road surface) through the 234 high vehicle speed, the thick water layer on the paved surface and therefore the scant tyre profile. Schematically shows however a rubber tyre rolls or slides over a wet paved surface. Three zones square measure distinguished:
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Evaluating Automobile Road Vibrations Using BS 6841 and ISO 2631 Comfort Criteria

Evaluating Automobile Road Vibrations Using BS 6841 and ISO 2631 Comfort Criteria

This study was conducted to investigate vibration characteristics of a passenger car and the transmission of vibration to the passengers. Five roads were considered for the tests. It was shown that for each road surface, VDV values rise as the vehicle velocity increases and at each speed, rough road surfaces have more VDVs than that of the smooth roads. The variations of VDV values in terms of road roughness for different road surfaces were investigated in the context of comfortable ride. It is found that VDV values increased as the road roughness (IRI value) was increased.
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The vibrations induced by surface irregularities in road pavements – a Matlab® approach

The vibrations induced by surface irregularities in road pavements – a Matlab® approach

Interaction between wheels and road surface causes a dy- namic excitation which generates waves propagating in the soil, and impinging on the foundations of nearby structures. At a particular site, the dynamic properties of the vehicle’s suspension system, the vehicle speed and the elevation of the road surface unevenness determine the vibration levels [1]. Heavy goods vehicles and buses are found to produce the most perceptible vibrations. The vehicle models used to de- scribe the dynamic behaviour of a vehicle are composed of discrete masses, springs, friction elements and dampers [2–6]. When a linear vehicle model is used, vehicle Frequency Response Functions (FRF) facilitate the calculation of the axle loads [2, 3]. Local road unevenness is described by a deter- ministic function that represents the deviation of the travelled surface from a true planar surface. Global road unevenness can also be described in a stochastic way by a Power Spectral Density (PSD) [7–12].
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Impact of Volcanic Ash on Road and Airfield Surface Skid Resistance

Impact of Volcanic Ash on Road and Airfield Surface Skid Resistance

Abstract: Volcanic ash deposited on paved surfaces during volcanic eruptions often compromises skid resistance, which is a major component of safety. We adopt the British pendulum test method in laboratory conditions to investigate the skid resistance of road asphalt and airfield concrete surfaces covered by volcanic ash sourced from various locations in New Zealand. Controlled variations in ash characteristics include type, depth, wetness, particle size and soluble components. We use Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) for most road surface experiments but also test porous asphalt, line-painted road surfaces, and a roller screed concrete mix used for airfields. Due to their importance for skid resistance, SMA surface macrotexture and microtexture are analysed with semi-quantitative image analysis, microscopy and a standardised sand patch volumetric test, which enables determination of the relative effectiveness of different cleaning techniques. We find that SMA surfaces covered by thin deposits (~1 mm) of ash result in skid resistance values slightly lower than those observed on wet uncontaminated surfaces. At these depths, a higher relative soluble content for low-crystalline ash and a coarser particle size results in lower skid resistance. Skid resistance results for relatively thicker deposits (3-5 mm) of non-vesiculated basaltic ash are similar to those for thin deposits. There are similarities between road asphalt and airfield concrete, although there is little difference in skid resistance between bare airfield surfaces and airfield surfaces covered by 1 mm of ash. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for maintaining road safety and effective cleaning techniques in volcanic ash environments.
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Road safety audit on a major freeway: implementing safety improvements

Road safety audit on a major freeway: implementing safety improvements

curves identifies where there were visibility restrictions in the left lane due to the height of vegetation (i.e. the case of the median concrete barrier on left horizontal curves) or the height of the guardrail as well as in the right lane mainly due to the tunnel wall. Suggestions of the RSA team included de- creasing the speed limit, placement of appropriate warning signs, elimination of plantation on horizontal curves, improve- ment of road surface skid resistance and speed limit enforce- ment. In order to increase speed limit compliance, the RSA team proposed the use of automatic speed cameras. It is worth noting however that speeding should be treated with a com- bination of measures including roadway treatments and be- havioral countermeasures [20]. The RSA team proposed for pilot awareness campaigns to promote the acceptance by the public of the use of automatic speed cameras (section 4.2). 3.5 Decision sight distance
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Road Infrastructure and Road User’s Satisfactions: A Case Study of Motorway Route 7, Thailand

Road Infrastructure and Road User’s Satisfactions: A Case Study of Motorway Route 7, Thailand

Motorway route 7 is one of the most important road networks that connects Bangkok and Eastern region together. The overall satisfaction from 890 samples is 3.30. The overall mean satisfaction level of out-bound direction from Bangkok – to Eastern region is higher than the in-bound direction. Two variables of Smoothness of road surface and Number of lanes do create the same mean satisfaction level. The collaborative between government organizations responsible for Tourism and Infrastructure Development is important. The highway authorities of motorway are responsible to create a safe environment for road users and provide service to them in order to maximize the satisfaction level since all motorway road users has to pay the toll fee of between 30 – 120 Thai Bath (approximately RM 3 – RM12). Users are expected much more when they have to pay the toll fees. Raising the serviceability level of highway authorities certainly can support the Tourism industry. In this study, the results can be served as a guideline to highway authorities to place their emphasis on improving the service on the in-bound direction first. They are suggested to invest their maintenance budget on the items that receive low level of satisfaction; in particular, the amenities such as the cleanliness of public toilets . Safety is also a main concern for road users as they rated the satisfaction level of less than 3 on average.
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Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Process to Define Maintenance Priorities of Forest Road Network: an Application in the Italian Alpine Region

Spatial Multi-Criteria Decision Process to Define Maintenance Priorities of Forest Road Network: an Application in the Italian Alpine Region

The combination of GIS tools and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) techniques is used to develop a Decision Support System to rank the maintenance priorities of a forest road network according to the actual conditions and needs. The decision-making process is divided into 4 stages. The first stage fixes the objectives of the analysis as the minimization of the sediment production from road surface and the maximization of the social value of the road. The second stage defines the hierarchical structure of the decision problem. At this stage the set of factors (criteria) to maximize each objective and the evaluation methods are defined. At the third stage AHP analysis is applied using a specific application running on ArcGIS, to calculate the evaluation layer that represents the importance of each road according to the set objectives. The values of the evaluation layer are used at the fourth stage to rank the maintenance inter- ventions according to the given benefit. The methodology has been tested in a forest road network with an extension of 107.8 km including in the analysis the real budget constraints and maintenance costs.
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