Scientists, engineers and technologists are continuously on the lookout for materials which can be used as substitute for conventional materials or which possess such properties which would enable their use for new designs and innovation. Lately, a large amount of laboratory experimental studies have been carried out, wherein soil is mixed with artificial and natural fibers. Besides soil, concrete has also been extensively reinforced with different waste fibers like lathe scrap (Qureshi et.al, 2016). Soils have been mixed with fibers like hair, bamboo Coconut (coir), fiber Sisal, Palm fiber, Jute, Flax, and Pine etc. Soil Stabilization can also be done by adding lime, cement, calcium chloride, sodium chloride etc. Sometimes combination of both fibers and chemicals has been used. (Chen and Wang 2006) studied; different types of additional admixtures were used with cement to stabilize a soft soil with a high natural content. (Punthutaecha et.al 2006) uses class F fly ash, bottom ash, polypropylene fibers, and nylon fibers to know and increase volume alteration chattels of sulfate affluent expansive soils. Ash stabilizers provided enhancement in plummeting swelling, shrinkage, and plasticity characteristics by 20–80% whereas fibers treatments resulted in varied improvements. In together, class F fly ash mixed with nylon fibers was the most effective treatment on both Dallas and Arlington soils, which also led to improvement in strength of soils. (Okunade 2008) carried research on the effects of wood ash and sawdust admixtures on the engineering properties of a burnt laterite-clay bricks. The admixtures were added in various combinations of proportions by volume (from 0 to 10%). It was discovered that the major contribution of the sawdust admixture is the reduction in dry density of finished burnt brick product. (Henry & Ogunribido 2009) carried research on geotechnical properties of sawdustash stabilized south
Sawdust was obtained from a sawmill at Wazo-tuntun in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The sawdust sample was burnt into ashes in a steel container (Fig. 1). The ash obtained was ground after cooling with the aid of mortar and pestle. The yield calculation was carried out and tests were conducted to determine the properties of the sawdustash (SDA). This ash was analyzed at West Africa Portland Cement Company, Sagamu, Ogun State, Nigeria to determine the oxide composition of the SDA.
support the foundation and transfer the load. In construction point of view soil should be strong and capable for bearing the load without its failure. We all know that the soil nature is an isotropic i.e. the properties of soil are not same at each location therefore to improve the properties of soil we add sawdustash and lime to the soil. Stabilization is one of the solutions. This expansive soil possesses peculiar properties such as swelling and shrinkage. In monsoon, these soils absorb water and swell, whereas in summer they shrink due to evaporation of water. Due to such behavior of soil it is inappropriate to rely on the strength characteristics, different stabilizing materials are used in varying percentages, so that they can match the specifications of the construction industry. This study is an attempt to analyze the effect of SDA and Lime on Expansive soils, for improvement in compressive strength and swelling- shrinkage characteristics and increase its suitability for effective use in construction. The proportion for addition of SDA and Lime was taken as 1%,2%,3%,4% and 5%. Key Words: Expansive soil, stabilization, Compressive Strength, SDA, Lime.
ABSTRACT:In the study, it was found that the use of sawdustash (SDA) in the bituminous mixture as a filler. Various tests such as sieve analysis, specific gravity test, chemical analysis and plasticity index test were performed to evaluate the suitability of sawdustash as filler in hot mix bituminous concrete. For this purpose ordinary Portland cement was replaced with sawdustash (SDA) as a filler to make asphalt briquettes. The samples were prepared by replacing the OPC with SDA at O%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% and 100%. A number of samples were prepared with OPC and SDA in different proportion. In all samples Marshall test was conducted to study the effect of SDA in the bulk density, voids in mineral aggregates and total voids in the bituminous mixture. The flow value and stability also evaluated in the test. After the Marshall test was conducted on the samples and their results were evaluated, it was found that the cement can be partially replaced with 10% SDA at 5.5% bitumen content.
ABSTRACT: Soil is one of the most important and dynamic material used in various construction projects including multi storied buildings, earth canals etc.The fact that soil may provide all the resistance characteristics necessary for a project illustrates the importance of soil to be strong enough to bear the designed standard loads.Most of the soil failures have been attributed to its poor strength. As we know stabilization of soil by adding lime, cement, bitumen etc. are expensive and therefore require an economic replacement. In egg consumption, India has 5 th rank in the world. Hence a huge amount of eggshell wastes are produced every year. In the absence of an effective waste disposal, the utilization of eggshell for soil improvement will be a welcome development.In the same way, SawDustAsh could be employed for such similar reasons. Polypropylene has been added as a fibre and resulted in the improvement of tensile strength of expansive soils.In this thesis work, We have studied about the suitability of Egg Shell Powder, SawDustAsh and Polypropylene as possible additive materials to improve the strength of soil. Soil samples were collected and stabilized with these additive materials in different proportions. The engineering properties were carried out to access the behaviour of soil with the addition of these additive materials. Addition of Egg Shell Powder, SawDustAsh and Polypropylene to soil sample lead to increase in strength and decrease in its Swelling properties.This research investigates an experimental study of improving engineering properties of soil with Egg Shell Powder, Polypropylene and SawDustAsh.
Naranagowda M., et al (2015) had studied the impact of sawdust and flyash on expansive soil stabilization the tests that were conducted the natural soil sample collectedwere consistencylimits, specific gravity, California bearing ratio (CBR), compaction, differential swell indexand UCC. Further these tests were repeated on addition of sawdustash with soil by adding 5, 10, and 15% ofboth sawdustash and fly ash.The result showed that sawdustash was very appropriate for soil stabilization of lateritic soil. Koteswara etal (2012) did a study on the stabilization of marine clay using sawdust and lime. It was noticed that the liquid limit of the marine clay had decreased by 15.43% on addition of 15% SawDustAsh (SDA) and then reduced further by 27.50% on addition of 4% of lime. It was noticed that the plastic limit of the marine clay had improved by 4.08% on addition of 15% Sawdustash (SDA) then further improved by 11.50% at 4% addition of lime. The plasticity index of the marine clay decreased by 26.47% when 15% Sawdust was added and decreased by 49.57 % on further addition of sawdustash (SDA). Optimum Moisture content (OMC) of the clay was observed to have decreased by 15.37% when 15% Sawdustash was added then further increase in sawdust caused a decrease by 17.91%. The Maximum dry density (MDD) of the soil was noticed to have improved by 1.96% when 15% ofSawdust was added and on further 4% increase, there was a further improvement by 1.10% on addition of 4% lime to the soil.The general result showed that Sawdustash is appropriate for use in stabilization and as well very economical for low volume roads especially in developing countries.
Abstract: - The high cost of conventional Building materials is a major factor affecting housing delivery in Nigeria. This has necessitated research into alternative materials of construction. This paper presents the results of an investigation carried out on the use of SawDustAsh(SDA) as partial replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement(OPC) in sandcrete hollow blocks, in order to determine the optimum quantity of SDA in percentage by weight of OPC, so as to effectively reduce the cost of Building production. The percentage of SDA is in gradation of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%, two mix ratios (1:6 and 1:8) were used, and the blocks produced were tested for Density and Compressive strength. The results of the tests showed that as the percentage of SDA increased, Density and Compressive strength decreased. At 28days the Compressive strength of blocks with 10% SDA replacement are 2.2N/mm 2 and 2.0N/mm 2 which satisfy the requirement. specified by the National Building Code (2006). It was concluded that up to 10% SDA replacement can be used for non-load bearing walls for 1:8 mix at 28days curing age. Also, up to 10% replacement for 1:6 mix can be used for load and non- load bearing walls.
Concrete is the most popular building material in the world. Concrete is known to be the most wide spread structural material due to its quality to shape up in various geometrical configurations. It is an assemblage of cement, fine and coarse aggregates and water. Over 300 million tones of industrial wastes are being produced per annum by various industrial and agricultural processes. These materials possess problems of disposal, health hazards and aesthetic problems. The global consumption of cement is too high due to its extensive use in concrete. Over 5 billion tonnes of cement is produced in the world per year. However, the production of cement is diminishing the limestone reserves in the world and also requires a great consumption of energy. River sand has been the most popular choice for the fine aggregate component of concrete in the past, but overuse of the material has led to environmental concerns, the depleting of securable river sand deposits and a concomitant price increase in the material. Thus there is the need to search for local materials as alternatives for the construction of functional but low-cost buildings in both rural and urban areas. construction industries are in the stress to identify alternative materials to replace the demand for natural sand and cement. On the other and, the advantages of utilization of byproducts or aggregates obtained as waste materials are pronounced in the aspects of reduction in environmental load and waste management cost, reduction of production cost as well as augmenting of concrete. To overcome the stress and demand for natural fine aggregate and cement, researchers and practitioners in the construction industries have identified some alternative materials such as fly ash, slag, limestone-powder, siliceous materials, sawdustash. In India attempts have been made to replace cement by sawdustash. Concrete is by far the most widely used man made construction material and studies indicate it will continue to be so in years and decades to come. About five billion tons of concrete are used around the world each year, enough for close to one ton for each person per year, at a volume of about 400 liters per person. Such versatility of concrete is due to the fact that from the common ingredients, namely, cement, aggregates and water, it is possible to tailor the properties of concrete so as to meet the demands of any particular situation. The advances in concrete technology has paved the way to make the best use of the locally available materials by judicious mix proportioning and proper workmanship, so as to result in a concrete satisfying the performance requirements.
1) Sawdustash: Dry sawdust concrete weighs only 30% as much as normal weight concrete and its insulating properties approximate those of wood. With proper cement to sawdust ratios, it is not flammable. Experimental study evaluated the behaviour of concrete properties both in plastic and hardened states with the inclusion of various waste products such as fly ash, coconut ash, Rice husk ash are available. Sawdust has been used in concrete for at least 30 years, but not widely. Although seriously limited by its low compressive strength, sawdust concrete can be made to perform well in certain floor and wall applications. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC)of different grades are available depending on the country codal classification. Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) normally classify three grades of OPC namely: 33, 43 and 53, which are commonly used in construction industry. The possibility of using SDA as part replacement of OPC need to be investigate for confident used of these materials. The review of literature however, could not find any comparative study on the effect of concrete properties when cement of varying grades were partially replace by SDA are addressed together. Thus, in the present work a holistic approach was adopted to investigate the possibility of using SDA as a construction material.
At first, the sawdust sample (SD) was processed and washed separately with running water for few minutes and then washed with distilled water, well dried under sun, burned at 500ºC for 4 hrs and then screened to pass through 200 mesh sieve (63 µm) to obtain what is known as sawdustash (SDA). Then, the OPC cement was substituted with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 wt. % of SDA as shown in Table 3. The fineness of each cement mix and its density were determined (Table 3).
Rice husk was obtained from rice milling factories in Afikpo, Ebonyi State and Sawdust from wood mills in Owerri, Imo State, all in South Eastern Nigeria. These materials were air-dried and calcined into ashes in a locally fabricated furnace at temperatures generally below 650 o C. The rice husk ash (RHA) and sawdust ash (SDA) were sieved and large particles retained on the 600μm sieve were discarded while those passing the sieve were used for this work. No grinding or any special treatment to improve the quality of the ashes and enhance their pozzolanicity was applied because the researchers wanted to utilize simple processes that could be easily replicated by local community dwellers. The RHA had a bulk density of 770 Kg/m 3 , specific gravity of 1.84, and fineness modulus of 1.48. The SDA had a bulk density of 810 Kg/m 3 , specific gravity of 2.05, and fineness modulus of 1.89. Other materials used for the work are Ibeto brand of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with a bulk density of 1650 Kg/m 3 and specific gravity of 3.13; crushed granite of 20 mm nominal size free from impurities with a bulk density of 1515 Kg/m 3 , specific gravity of 2.96, and fineness modulus of 3.62; river sand free from debris and organic materials with a bulk density of 1590 Kg/m 3 , specific gravity of 2.68, and fineness modulus of 2.82; laterite free from debris and organic materials with a bulk density of 1450 Kg/m3, specific gravity of 2.30, and fineness modulus of 3.30; and water free from organic impurities.
Some researchers have also investigated the possibility of ternary blended systems whereby OPC is blended with two different pozzolans. The ternary blended system has the additional environmental and economic advantages that it enables a further reduction of the quantity of OPC in blended cements and also makes it possible for two pozzolans to be combined with OPC even if neither of them is available in very large quantity. Elinwa, Ejeh, and Akpabio (2005) investigated the use of sawdust ash in combination with metakaolin as a ternary blend with 3% added to act as an admixture in concrete. Tyagher, Utsev, and Adagba (2011) found that sawdust ash-lime mixture as partial replacement for OPC is suitable for the production of sandcrete hollow blocks. They reported that 10% replacement of OPC with SDA-lime gave the maximum strength at water- cement ratio of 0.55 for 1:8 mix ratio. Frı´as et al. (2005)studied the influence of calcining temperature as well as clay content in the pozzolanic activity of sugar cane straw-clay ashes-lime systems. All calcined samples showed very high pozzolanic activity and the fixation rate of lime (pozzolanic reaction) varied with calcining temperature and clay content.Fadzil et al. (2008) studied the properties of ternary blended cementitious (TBC) systems containing OPC, ground Malaysian RHA, and fly ash (FA). They found that compressive strength of concrete containing TBC gave low strength at early ages, even lower than that of OPC, but higher than binary blended cementitious (BBC) concrete containing FA. Their results suggested the possibility of using TBC systems in the concrete construction industry and that TBC systems could be particularly useful in reducing the volume of OPC used. Rukzon and Chindaprasirt (2006)investigated the strength development of mortars made with ternary blends of OPC, ground RHA, and classified fly ash (FA). The results showed that the strength at the age of 28 and 90 days of the binary blended cement mortar containing 10 and 20% RHA were slightly higher than those of the control, but less than those of FA. Ternary blended cement mixes with 70% OPC and 30% of combined FA and RHA produced strengths similar to that of the control. The researchers concluded that 30% of OPC could be replaced with the combined FA and RHA pozzolans without significantly lowering the strength of the mixes.
SawDustAsh and Metakaolin Mix: Figure 4 shows the variation in the compressive strength of the SCC mixes when both SDA and MK are used as binder materials along with the fly ash. The trend shown by the mixes is an inclining one. Though the addition of SDA and MK has shown the increase in the compressive strength but there is a remarkable increase in the compressive strength at 30% replacement of OPC with 15% of SDA and 15% of MK. The strength of the mix M10 is almost equal to the mix M6. In M6 company manufactured product metakaolin was used but in mix M10 we can replace the cement with 15% waste material (SDA) to attain same strength. This study showed that both SDA and MK can be used together, along with fly ash to attain a good strength SCC mix.
Soil modification is the addition an some waste materials like sawdustash and construction waste to soil to change its index properties, while soil stabilization is the treatment of soils to enable their density and strength to be improved such that they become totally suitable for construction beyond their original classification. The physical additives such as construction waste and sawdustash can be mixed with the soil to improve the texture, increasing strength characteristics. The aim of this study is to investigate and to show the potential use of construction waste and sawdustash as an additive to stabilize a clay soil. This is an experimental studies to determine the concentration of construction waste and sawdust ash as an additive, the development of compressive strength. A laboratory was conducted on soil sample of clay soil stabilized using construction waste and sawdustash. This paper focuses on the development of compressive strength of clay soil stabilized with construction waste and sawdust at varying percentages such as (5,10,15,20) and (1,1.5,2,2.5,5,10) respectively.The result shows that construction waste and sawdust ash is a waste material. Construction waste is taken from chepauk and sawdust is taken from Neelangarai.It can be used as additives to clay soil and increasing the engineering properties of the soil.
Different materials utilized all through exploratory projects led on crisp and solidified cement for different blends. Different test like workability, compressive quality are clarified here and This section manages the presentation of test outcome, and examination on compressive quality improvement of control cement and rice husk ash, fly ash, glass powder, wheat straw ash, sawdustash, Sugar bagasse ash and glass powder Concrete at distinctive curing period.
source to effectively reduce the sound level. However, India has not yet yielded much into this issue as noise reduction methods are costly. So, it is necessary to find out cost effective solution to control industrial noise. It is very difficult to estimate and control the noise at different workplaces in industry. However the motivation behind this is the availability of lot of new sound absorption material such as Saw wood dust & cement, Saw wood dust & Glue, algae (Sheval) & cement, algae (Sheval) & glue, Coconut fiber & perforated plate, Bamboo & Glue etc with different acoustical properties. The noise levels have to be estimated in the working condition and depending upon the working condition suitable type of construction material is to be applied so as to control the noise effectively in industrial sector. Consulting the importance of noise pollution and availability of new materials; in this dissertation it will be attempted to study the techno- economical feasibility of the various new construction materials for the effective noise control in industrial sector. From the studies it is seen that the architects and engineers are not providing much of the attention to control the industrial noise which is otherwise very harmful to the health of the workers and directly affects the production. This may be mainly due to the cost of the materials which are commonly used to control the noise. It is also seen from the studies that the conventional materials and methods has their own limitations. From the above study has also indicated that the new construction techniques and materials are available in the market and they can be used more effectively for efficient noise control.
Sachin N. Bhavsar, Hiral B. Joshi, Priyanka K. Shrof, Patel Ankit J. (2013) evaluated swelling potential of expansive soil in its natural state as well as when mixed with varying proportion of marble dust (from 30 to 50%). It is concluded that the impact of marble powder on black cotton soil is positive. It gives maximum improvement in the swelling and linear shrinkage properties of black cotton soil.
From a bar chart it is observed that the Weight of black cotton + fly ash is 4.191kg. From this it is concluded that the bricks manufacture by using black cotton & fly ash are light in weight than other. If light weight bricks are manufactured the dead load of the structure will be less. Hence it can be effectively used in internal partition wall. It will be cost effective in the region where Black Cotton Soil is available in large amount it can be transported for manufacture of bricks. 5.2. Compressive strength Of Different CSEB Brick
Studies of ash exposure related to volcanic activity among the residents of the Etna area (Sicily, Italy) have shown an increase in the rate of acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases [1,2] and accumulation of heavy metals in the airways . In a recent study Censi and co-workers  demonstrated that inhalation of airborne particulate from Mount Etna eruptions may be respon- sible for fibrotic lung disease. The possible health effects experienced by construction workers excavating basaltic rock, which forms from volcanic eruptions, have never been investigated.