This paper explores the design and development of a new type of wing technology called shape shifting or morphing aircraft wings. Morphing aircraft wings are based on the dynamics of a bird wing, fundamentally ensuring that flow remains smooth and disruption is minimized. This is accomplished by eliminating the surface dislocations between the wing and the flaps, reducing and delaying the formation of vortices caused by lift-induced drag. These benefits will further increase aircraft performance by reducing take-off distances, landing distances, increasing climb rates, increasing stability and reducing the overall noise generated by the airframe. In addition, the increase in lift can also lead to a reduction in wing size, which implies a reduction in overall weight and a further reduction in fuel consumption.
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Representation is a performative product in two linked senses: it is performed in the theatrical sense (i.e. it is both done and shown to be done (Schechner 2002)) and in the speech-act sense (it is a speech or other act which establishes, or contributes to establishing, a state of affairs) (Austin 1975; Butler 1997). A performative account initially emphasises roles over types or forms because role emphasises the crucial place of practice, or acts, in constituting representation. Political actors do not simply occupy or exemplify (for example) types or forms which exist independently of their actions; types do not have a practical existence outside their enactment as roles by agents. Inherent to the act of claiming – implicitly or explicitly 4 – to represent a constituency is a constituting or reinforcing the social availability of that role. The representative claim framework emphasises the situated or contextual dynamics of producing relations of representation, rather than a wholesale break with a stress on typology-construction (e.g. in the work of Mansbridge and Rehfeld). The emphasis on roles and practices highlights three features of representative politics which provide crucial underpinnings for the concept of the shape-shifting representative. First, it stresses representation’s variability: it is a protean phenomenon that can be formal and informal, electoral and non-electoral, national and trans-national, potentially happening in multiple spaces and possessing many guises. Second, it stresses representation’s contingency and dynamism: there’s a lot ‘going on’ in representation, a constant process of making, receiving, accepting or rejecting representative claims. And third, this approach highlights representation’s aesthetic and cultural character: would-be representatives need to ‘make representations’ (in the sense of artistic portrayals or depictions, such as candidates for office constant use of phrases such as ‘hard-working families’, ‘strivers’ or ‘battlers’) of their constituents to try to get the latter to recognise themselves in the claims being made (Saward 2010). 5
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This in turn led to a recognition that when we engage in life‐modelling / life‐drawing exchange, we encounter, often intuitively, aspects of different traditions and histories. The emotional tenor or dynamic of a session can be informed by participants' instinctive engagement with the shifting histories of the model, but also with the different histories of people in the room. Others are conjured into the space involuntarily. There is a degree of fusion ‐ as a model I note that figures drawn of me commonly represent a combination of my features, the artists' own and something else. It is not uncommon for me to look at a painting and see a spit‐image of a relative or somebody I had been thinking of looking back. Similarly, it is not uncommon for models to drift off into a reverie only to find when they look at a drawing that something of where their mind wandered to is captured on an artist's sketch ‐ often incidentally. A splash of colour, a mountain range ‐ and in the case of very
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Furthermore, Reiniger’s mode of working, with few collaborators in an atelier that had been the garden summerhouse of her patron, Louis Hagen, was far removed from the modern industrial methods practised in the great innovative studios of the Weimar film industry. Reiniger’s animation is a fusion of the ancient art of shadow theatre and the cinema, and she was unswerving in her desire to make films for children based on fairy tale, fable, and children’s literature. Her artist peers and collaborators, such as Walter Ruttmann, Berthold Bartosch and Oskar Fischinger, were modernist artists working in the medium of film, rather than the feature film-makers of the Weimar film industry, or indeed the animators of fable and folk tale that later worked for companies like Disney or Warner Brothers. Ruttmann, Fischinger and Bartosch worked within an avant-garde, modernist field, exploring shape, rhythm and movement in their animations, frequently without any narrative dimension, let alone one deriving from folk or fairy tales which are cherished as archetypal tales, and which through their evocation of an ancient oral tradition offer us ‘the most vital connection we have with the imaginations of the ordinary men and women whose labour created our world’. 6
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(open points) and juveniles (filled points) of the spiny lobster S. verreauxi main- tained at 21 –238C. Each point in (a,b) is based on 4 – 11 replicate measurements, respectively [30,31]. The phyllosoma points represent instars 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 17. The standard errors for each RMR value are all less than 20% of the mean. The LSR equations for the scaling lines and their coefficients of determination (r 2 ) and significance levels ( p) for phyllosoma larvae and juveniles are: (a) Y ¼ 23.931 þ 2.142 (X ), r 2 ¼ 0.988, p ¼ 0.00001; Y ¼ 24.574 þ 2.991 (X), r 2 ¼ 1.000, p , 0.00001; and (b) Y ¼ 2 0.773 þ 1.002 (X), r 2 ¼ 0.995, p , 0.00001; Y ¼ 20.673 þ 0.829 (X ), r 2 ¼ 0.993, p ¼ 0.00353, respectively. The number by each line is the scaling slope (exponent). Linear extrapolations of the empirical scaling lines for the phyllosoma larvae are shown as dotted lines to highlight the ontogenetic scaling shifts for both body shape (a) and metabolic rate (b).
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Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are a group of materials that revert to pre-programmed shapes when exposed to a stimulus. Shrinky Dinks is a commercially available children’s toy based on pre-stressed polystyrene sheets that shrink when exposed to heat. Instead of triggering the sheets to shrink in plane, Dickey et al. Developed a method to coerce polystyrene sheets to fold and deform to create a hinging response. This process allows otherwise uniform polymer substrates to be folded into many different geometries defined by the hinges (illustrated in Figure 14).
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If we do wish to make equal access to justice a reality, we must re- ly on the market rather than the government and design market- driven mechanisms to assist the poor. Such mechanisms already ex- ist; one example is the contingency fee, another is class actions. De- spite the apparent differences between the two, these mechanisms share one thing in common: they both channel market forces to the benefit of the disadvantaged. They created a market in legal services where none existed before. With this insight in mind, the proposed fee-shifting rule seeks to follow in their footsteps. It identifies a gap in the market, which is covered by neither contingency fees nor class actions, and attempts to fill it. To be sure, the proposed progressive one-way fee-shifting mechanism is not intended to replace contingen- cy fee arrangements. It would be applied only in cases of a gross re- source imbalance between the parties. Contingency fees would be re- tained for cases in which there is no such imbalance to enable access to justice when both parties are equally equipped (or ill-equipped). Almost a quarter of a century ago, John Leubsdorf made the fol- lowing optimistic observation: “The message of the [Equal Access to Justice] Act may be that Congress is now willing to award fees to a relatively poor party who prevails [in litigation] against a wealthy in- stitutional litigant.” 241 Thus far, this prediction has yet to material-
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Shifting cultivation is one of the earliest forms of agricultural systems and dates back to about 7,000 B.C., when man began to change its mode of life from food gathers and hunters to cultivators. It is a very primitive form of agriculture Pareta, (2013). Traditional shifting cultivation, practiced by indigenous farmers, has been found to be a well-balanced and ecologically sound system. In this system, the fallow period had been sufficiently long to restore soil fertility and to prevent weed infestation. However, at present, intensive land use associated with the current socioeconomic condition results in various types of environmental deterioration such as land degradation, declining crop yield, and deforestation Kendawang, et al, (2004). The practice of shifting cultivation occurs every year, the destruction of thousands of hectares of forests and bushes; this activity introduces changes on natural ecosystems through the destruction of soil and vegetation cover Ranjan and Upadhyay, (2001). Declining soil productivity and increasing weed problems lead farmers to abandon fields after a few years Arifin and Hudoyo, (1998).
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Arguably, for a focus on employability in labour market discourse and policy to be both fair and effective we need to consider the wealth of reasons why those without employment are unable or unwilling to work. In particular, recognition must be made of all dimension of individual employability, beyond possessed competence, including the social group characteristics which clearly shape labour market opportunity. Moreover, the demand-side also needs to be addressed not least the specific skills required in many jobs that can only be obtained once in employment or in funded vocational training. Therefore, without access to jobs or specific training, and recognition by employers of the worth of that training, then employment is likely to be difficult to come by for many of the most disadvantaged in society. Therefore, investing in the means by which all those in the labour market or prospective labour market entrants can attain the attributes desired by employers and the ability to present and ‘sell’ these attributes effectively will only be effective alongside wider social and educational policy, such as the development and proper enforcement of equal opportunities legislation and effective active labour market policies to support those seeking employment. It would seem to require a broad demand-side focus including employer engagement both to identify and address required competencies and deficiencies and also to promote employer responsibility for both providing training and in recruiting from the broadest spectrum of workers possible, as well as generating the conditions for the creation of adequately-rewarded and satisfying work accessible to all.
The dependent variable is profit shifting and it is calculated according to the method of Dharmapala and Riedel (2013) shown in equation (1). CSR is a parent company’s corporate social responsibility index and it is measured as the equal weight of three pillar scores (environmental, social, and governance performance). We include the following controls for both parent and subsidiary companies: Territorial — a dummy that equals one for countries with a territorial tax system, and zero for countries under a worldwide tax system, Total assets — the natural logarithm of total assets, leverage — the ratio of total debt to total assets for the firm, ROA —a firm’s returns on assets, defined as earnings before tax divided by total assets, Fixed assets/TA —a firm’s asset tangibility, and R&D/TA —a firm’s R&D intensity . Each observation is a subsidiary firm tied to a foreign parent firm. Different types of fixed effects are utilized in each regression. Industry-year fixed effects are based on 2-digit NACE level. Country-year fixed effects are fixed effects for the subsidiary’s country. Stars, ***, **, and *, indicate significance levels at the 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. t-statistics, based on robust standard errors clustered at the subsidiary level, are reported in parentheses. A complete description of variables along with their sources is in Table 1.
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In the European context, national policies have generally been referred to as “Europeanized” when they are afffected by the processes of EU integra- tion, which is the political and economic coming together of participating member states in Europe (Olsen 2002). More specifĳically, Europeanization can occur either in a “bottom-up” or a “top-down” fashion, i.e. either the European level transforms domestic policies or member states are able to ‘upload’ their domestic policy preferences to the EU level and thereby shape EU policy (Graziano & Vink 2007). Interestingly, it has been formally extended to other countries beyond the EU member states, in particular for the purposes of controlling migration (Lavenex 1999). Some scholars argue that the process has further created a “European” style of governance, i.e. a set of beliefs, norms and identities, not to mention complex institutions and decision-making procedures (Lavenex 2001: 852). All in all, EU integration has been predominantly understood as a set of advances achieved primarily through intergovernmentalism, whereby powerful member states try to realize their policy preferences through bargaining and negotiation with one another at the EU level (Moravcsik 1998), although other scholars argue that the involvement of the EU’s supranational actors in one sector generates a momentum (or “spill-over”) that will lead to further integration of others (Guiraudon 2000).
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Abstract: The background of the life of pesantren ulemas and tarekat in Indonesia cannot be separated from various social and political dynamics, religious organizations such as pesantren and tarekat tend to be involved in practical politics. The participation of pesantren in practical politics automatically invites prolonged conflict within the pesantren and tarekat. The Islamic community in Jombang which was once united by an Islamic political ethic became divided, as a result of Kyai Musta'in in 1977 shifted support from PPP to Golkar. This difference in political orientation occurs among religious leaders, the Kyais especially in the internal NU, who maintain affiliation with the only Islamic party, PPP, and Kyai Musta'in and his close associates affiliated with Golkar. This gave birth to a situation where mutual blame occurred. This study uses a qualitative method with the Phenomenology approach. To help unravel the problem of shifting the political orientation of the tarekat kyai in the Rejoso pesantren, the writer uses two theories. The main theories of Max Weber's theory of rational action and supporting theories of Antonio Gramsci's Hegemony Theory. The results of the study analyzed the political behaviour of the Kyai Tarekat Qodiriyah Wan Naqsabandiyah in Jombang, having different political affiliations, the Rejoso Tarekat of Political orientation to Golkar, the Cekat Tarekat of its political orientation to PPP and the Undar Tarekat of its political orientation to PKB. The three tarekat organizations in Jombang each have pilgrims or supporters who are equally interested in the community.
T he designs refrain from moulding and following the contours of the body, they do not aim to accentuate or enhance the curves of body nor are they restrictive body modifying garments. These designs are to promote freedom of the body and liberation from categorisation methods and reductive mechanisms of dress. The final designs create new design shape and structure with and around the body that are not dictated by the bust, waist and hip. When wearing the pieces the outline and contours of the body shape within is not clearly revealed as seen in Figure 36. While the pieces are designed for women and the research is female based, gender becomes blurred within the pieces. This is relevant to today with the increased social awareness of body shape and gender identity and assignment. The designs hope to encourage individual expression, promoting how one feels through what one wears and whom they want to project, uninhibited by their body shape and dress signifying gender binaries. The semi concealed body within the pieces challenges our pre-determined behaviour and thoughts towards how our body interacts with dress. The designs question if the wearer feels differently towards their body within, and if the effect of only part revealing the body impacts ones thoughts and feelings surrounding the interaction of design and body. Lindqvist (2013) states that the “volume and size of a garment affects the body wearing it” (p.46), the garment has the ability to transform the expression of the body. By not fully revealing one’s body shape creates imagination of the body within, it also questions the necessity of seeing the contours of the body (Figure 36 and Figure 37).
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Research for this article was collected within the frame- work of a larger research and intervention project in Swaziland known as MaxART (Maximising ART for Better Health and Zero New HIV Infections). 1 The pro- ject was designed to encourage researchers, activist orga- nizations, and implementation scientists to work collaboratively with the Swazi Ministry of Health to: 1) identify and minimise structural factors to treatment ac- cess, 2) expand HIV testing and counselling (HTC), 3) investigate the everyday realities of people living with HIV (PLHIV) seeking treatment, and 4) ensure that the ambitious expansion of HIV care and treatment was car- ried out within a human rights framework . The ul- timate aim of the project was to assist in the massive expansion of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Swaziland in order to test the evidence from the HPTN 052 trial, which hypothesised that widespread use of ART would prevent new HIV infections at a population level . To achieve this ambitious aim, various globally instigated processes, principles, and strategies were introduced and intensified in Swaziland, including the shifting of several tasks, such as provider-initiated HIV testing and coun- selling, nurse-led ART initiation, and the involvement of PLHIV in the delivery of HIV care .
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(The Internet) offered new options to share the “classical” small-scale stories created in story circles at various corners of the globe. The World Wide Web also gave rise to new forms, Blogging, in text only or with video, as well as the social networking sites on the web offer new opportunities to share short personal stories (3). Examples of these online story spaces will be explored in this paper, along with early television forms, computer specific forms, gallery specific forms and performative forms. This selection of work illustrates the experimentation with digital form that Manovich in “The Language of New Media” (2001) terms “database narrative” and Hayles (2005) calls “possibility space”. Both terms help to define the territory in which the form of documentary is shape-shifting as a result of the revolution in digital technology.
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Even though they are not valid AES, by looking at Fig.6 it seems clear that there is some kind of relationship between them. By analyzing the conversion from a single CT2 rule to a set of T1 rules, we can see they all share the same shape, up to a certain point. In fact, by generating all the possible T1 rules from the combinations of the acceptable AES of the CT2 sets involved in a rule, each AES of the CT2 set used in the consequent part is paired with all the possible combinations of the AES of the antecedent CT2 sets. Therefore, each T1 inference output set, is simply obtained from an AES of the CT2 consequent set, cut at one of the possible heights computed by evaluating the antecedent part of the rule.
Fig. 9 We illustrate the emergence of SSR in the STS model for the same parameters as in Fig. 6d. a A fixed realization of the signal (blue) and three realizations (different common noise realizations) of the output of the STS population for N = 1000 and ε η = 0 (black, green, and red). For better visualization the output is convoluted with a Gaussian filter and all outputs and the signal are rescaled to unit variance and zero mean over the time window shown. For vanishing independent noise, the individual spike trains of the population are identical for a fixed realization of the signal and the common noise. In this case signal transmission is not improved by the large population size. b Same as in a but for ε η = 0.5 (close to the point of stochastic resonance). The individual noise leads to shifting of spikes, such that the convoluted summed output is smoothed. Note that the three realizations of the output are all close to the input signal as well as to each other, indicating a reliable signal transmission. c Same as in a but for ε η = 2 (far beyond the point of stochastic resonance). Note that our average over a comparatively short time window implies the suppression of long-term variability (corresponding to leaving out low-frequency components of the coherence function)
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Chapter Four: Include project methodology and design whole methodology in general, in addition start to design the algorithms of two methods (Histogram Shifting, Spread Spectrum), as result, we designed algorithms based on literature survey (embedding and extracting )for each method in order to improve and achieve the aim of the research.
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In conclusion, changes in net mesh shape (square mesh and T90) and net mesh size (36S and 40S) were found to increase the length selectivity of the red mullet in the Black Sea co mpared to traditional tra wl codends. In particular, it was observed that 40S codends selected larger size groups than the others. In recent years, escape mortality (due to skin injures and exhaustion) as well as selectivity of trawl codends is of great importance. In this context, it has been reported that 40S (26.3%) t rawl codend for the red mullet gives the lo west escape morta lity rate compared to the 44D (46.3%) and 50D (27.4%) trawl codends. However, it is stated that this condition is not re lated to the mesh size or shape (Dü zbastılar, Laleli, Özgül & Metin, 2015; Düzbastılar et al., 2017). 40S codend contributes to the protection of stockpiles of the red mu llet. There is a limited nu mber of selectivity studies for sustainable fisheries in the Blac k Sea , wh ich constitutes an important part in terms of red mu llet production. However, it was reported that the use of 44 mm dia mond will be started in 2020. At present, the current red mu llet size groups are quite low. But the increase in the size groups put ashore can lead to even better pricing. More e xtensive and detailed selectivity studies are needed during commerc ial fishing to protect fisheries management and sustainable red mu llet stocks in such an area where production is intensive.
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ABSTRACT:A number of techniques for the reduction of interval system have been presented by various researchers. But the validity of the method is based on the resulting error by the model reduction. The system with parameter variations within bounds creates intervals in the coefficients of the system polynomial; hence the system is called interval system. This method represents the reduction of the order of Interval system about a general shifting point ‘a’ .The selection of this shifting point ‘a’ done based upon the arithmetic mean of the real parts of the poles of four high order fixed systems obtained by Kharitonov’s theorem. The denominator of the reduced model obtained by Least Square method while the numerator is obtained by matching the power series expansion of the original high order system with the reduced model . A numerical example is provided to demonstrate various aspects of theoretical results. KEYWORDS: Least Squares Mean, Large scale Interval system, order reduction.