Communication technologies to be chosen have to be cost efficient, should provide good transmittable range, better security features, bandwidth, power quality and with least possible number of repetitions. Bluetooth technology can be a possible option for communication of control signals and to transmit energy consumption data. In view the of implementing this technique, B.S. Koay et al. proposed a Bluetooth based energy meter that can collect and transmit the energy consumption data wirelessly to a central base station . Power Line Carrier (PLC) and Broadband Power Line (BPL) communication are the other possible options of data transfer supporting the higher level communication suites such as TCP/IP. One of the popular communication technologies is PLC, which uses the existing electricity grid, cellular pager network, mesh network, combination of licensed and unlicensed radio, wireless modem, existing internet connection, power line communication, RS-232/485, Wi- Fi, WiMAX, and Ethernet with protocol to upload data using IEC DNP. PLC technology is highly efficient for automation of data in smart meter applications. In spite of substantial overhead caused by the large IPv6 header; this protocol can be applied even at low PHY layer data rates. This technology, with the combination of the MAC algorithm can achieve satisfactory delay times and throughput. Though this combination might slightly reduce the usable data transfer rate, it will not affect the overhead at MAC layer. IP based network protocol would be another promising option for communication because of its advantages over other technologies while satisfying the security standards of the smartgrid communications. In addition, TCP/IP technology can also be used as a common platform for multiple communication devices.
Since 2010, papers and researches on smartgrid have paid attention to intelligent system monitoring. Some of the last implementations of Power system frequency monitoring network (FNET) applications on wide-area monitoring systems (WAMS) were discussed in . Fig. 3.4 shows the building blocks of the FNET system. Widely installed sensors such as frequency disturbance recorders (FDRs) are collecting and transmitting phasor measurements from the North American Power grids to a local client or a remote data centre. In Fig. 3.5, a modularized FNET application system was demonstrated. Due to its hierarchical framework, any particular element could be rearranged easily. The applications of FNET system are explored in many fields in power systems such as dynamic monitoring, stability estimation, real-time control and smartgrid solutions. A wavelet-based method for achieving frequency and voltage derivatives characteristics was proposed in  in order to do disturbance analysis. In , an energy efficient security algorithm was developed for smartgrid WAMS. Three principles were proposed in the paper. First of all, energy consumption is one of the important considerations. Three factors named energy, security and time need to be balanced. In addition, encryption algorithms could increase the implementation efficiency and reduce energy consumptions by code optimization. Lastly, the security strength of encryption algorithms has close relationship with operation model, key length and the number of iterations, which could be changed in affecting total energy consumption.
Now a day’s automobile in changing its phase to build the eco friendly vehicles, in the process electric vehicles are evolved and large improvement is needed to improve its performance. These electric vehicles play a key role in smartgrid, generally these vehicles are to being charged at evening hours which causes sudden increment in the load, and this can be avoided by scheduled charging plans during non peak hours. Moreover the electric vehicles can be used as storage devices, the stored energy can be availed during peak hours or supplied back to grid and can be profited. The
Recent work in this area includes , which utilized a custom cyber-security testbed architecture in order to detail attack and mitigation scenarios within that simulated microgrid environment. These scenarios utilize common hacking tools to exploit vulnerabilities while mitigation is attributed to anomaly-based Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) and firewalls. The authors in  give an overview of the relevant cyber security and privacy issues along with some recommendations proposed by NIST and other recent works. The authors in  summarize some of the requirements and vulnerabilities of the current grid including many of the protocols and common practices as well as vulnerabilities and challenges are detailed well. The authors in  present a review of the work related to guaranteeing availability in smartgrid communications, and a common communication topology is detailed in which privacy compromising attributes are discussed. The authors in  supply the reader with some attack categories, and some security fundamentals in the areas of access control, authentication, and privacy along with intrusion detection are also discussed.
In the last years, with the advent of Smart Grids, many research and demonstration projects have seen the light in order to involve electric system in the implementation of advances in information and communication technologies, in order to improve network efficiency, reliability, security and quality of service. Before new implementations are performed, previous results have to be studied, and taken into account. In this line, this work presents the methodology, results and conclusions of the evaluation of the SmartGrid functionalities developed by 5 different DSOs during DISCERN project in order to select the optimal, cost-effective and most replicable solutions for the strategic development of the intelligence at medium voltage (MV) and low voltage (LV) networks.
The current power grid is facing many challenges that it was not designed or engineered to handle which range from congestions and major blackouts to the overwhelming increase in demand and security concerns. The current electric grid was established before the 1960’s. It is believed that the electric grid is the most complex and gigantic machine ever made in human history; it consists of wires, cables, towers, transformers and circuit breakers installed together in outdated manner. During the 60’s, computers and sensors were used to monitor and slightly control the grid; however, fifty years later these sensors are considered less than ideal. Presented here is a review of the smartgrid communication network in terms of configuration, bandwidth and latency requirements as well as the technology used. We simulate the access layer of the smartgrid net- work and show that no single available communication technology can be used for all layers of the smartgrid; thus, different technologies for different layers are needed. A new protocol for optimizing the smartgrid is recommended.
Unlike Automated Meter Reading (AMR), which simply uploads consumption information from meter to a few remote servers, AMI facilitates the measurement and control of energy distribution and consumption via a 2-way communication between smart meters, Smart Meter Data Management (SMDM) and other servers in utility's network. Such communication can be periodic or on-demand depending on configuration and situation. AMI also allows remote configuration and querying of smart meters, for instance, energy supply to a consumer’s facility can be remotely shut down. As the ubiquitous part of the smartgrid, meters in close proximity communicate with each other directly using low- power links and can also act as transit node for packet routing in a mesh-like topology. The number of meter per routing cluster varies from about 1,000 meters in rural areas to around 10,000 in urban centres . In the end, each AMI will contain millions of smart meters clustered in smaller service areas. In theory, the smart meters could interconnect in a mesh topology using low-power links (eg IEEE802.15.4, 802.11, 1901.2), a common feature of these links is their lossy nature. As the last mile of AMI, NAN can use wireless, PLC or a mix; we chose PLC in this paper. Smart meter can also act as gateway for other meters (gas, water), Home Area Network (HAN) devices and PEV; all of which are resource-
Smartgrid stakeholders need to analyze security levels from the perspective of a global risk assessment of each smartgrid use case and sub- system considered in the end-to-end architecture. SmartGrid Cyber Security Specificities The European Commission has expressed con- cern about measures to ensure a high common level of network and information security across the Union.6 The U.S. White House has also expressed concern about cyber security and protecting critical infrastructures.7 As a large system of distributed and intercon- nected systems, the smartgrid offers an excep- tionally large attack surface. Every asset of the smartgrid (i.e., home gateways, smart meters, substations, control room) is a potential target for a cyber attack. An attack over a critical node may jeopardize the grid security and lead a cas- cade effect to a whole system blackout.
The communication system in smartgrid is very important for data acquisition, data analysis and control of the smart grid’s components and devices. There thousands smart meters and controlled devices that deployed throughout the smartgrid. As a result, there is a huge amount of data that has to be continuously and bi-directionally transferred by the communication system. Therefore, research efforts should concentrate on de- veloping appropriate high data rate communication technology or improving existing technologies such as WLAN or cellular networks. Today, the data rate of WLAN and cellular networks is relatively high compared to other technologies but it should be further increased by using new modulation techniques and improved trans- mitters/receivers.
each of the components can be seen as a prosumer. The prosumers tend to autonomously manage their resources. Moreover, they tend to aggregate together and form a bigger cluster to facilitate local power exchange as well as to gain a larger power of the collective to trade power with their surrounding. For instance, a group of prosumer households can cluster together to form a neighborhood energy community, which is a larger prosumer. Likewise, a group of neighborhood energy communities can form a district energy community (yet a larger prosumer) at the next aggregation level. This clustering could further be recursively repeated at various aggregation levels. More- over, the prosumers can dynamically reorganize to effi- ciently adapt to the change in their environment. Appar- ently, the autonomy, aggregation into layers, recursive property, and dynamic adaptation of the prosumer based smart grids closely matches the properties of a holonic system. Accordingly, we model each prosumer as a holon and the entire smartgrid as a holarchy. The smartgrid holarchy has the following major features that contribute to the overall efficiency of the system.
for the deployment of smartgrid technology worldwide with their implementation challenges. The smartgrid deployment issues that include: smartgrid infrastructure, communication technologies, potential barriers, and de- velopment of possible viable solutions for such imple- mentation were also explored. This study also aimed at developing an integrated platform to continuously invest- tigate the impacts of RE on the smartgrid which will assist the power utilities to develop an improved national power grid that will help to build a sustainable society. The proposed integrated platform comprises with feasi- bility study to investigate the prospects of RE in Austra- lian context; prediction model to assess the energy gen- eration from RE sources; real-time experiments and simu- lation model to explore the impacts on integrating RE into the smartgrid. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 discusses the smartgrid initiatives worldwide; smartgrid deployment issues are represented in Section 3. Section 4 presents integration of renewable energy with smartgrid. Section 5 concludes the paper with future di- rections.
a flexible highly efficient and reliable transformer (HEART) for power exchange between generation and utilization with an advantage of voltage regulation .The emerging technology of power electronic transformer has been innovated, which realizes voltage transformation, galvanic isolation and power quality enhancements in a single unit. The conventional approach is replaced by the power electronics providing fundamentally different and more complete approach in transformer design. The proposed HEART is capable of meeting the future needs of power electronics centralized systems.The proposed converter can achieve very high voltage conversion ratio with high frequency isolation and bidirectional energy flow, thus it can be used as the interface equipment of high voltage and low voltage dc power grid. With the help of IOT, this HEART can be linked with smartgrid and it also can be controlled from remote area.
dynamic and collaborative infrastructure namely the smartgrid: smart houses will make use of communication, interaction and negotiation with energy devices, other smart houses, the network operator and energy service companies in their strive for optimal energy usage and cost reduction. Web services provide a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across applications, enterprises, and community boundaries. They enable the creation of architectures that reflect components' tendency toward autonomy and heterogeneity. Therefore, the concept of service oriented architectures is well suited for the future smartgrid. However, a paradigm shift is needed. Enterprises no longer are the only providers of services, but customers become active parties, offering their own services to each other and to enterprises, effectively creating a highly dynamic collaborative ecosystem. Based on local autonomy and internal goals the household determines whether or not an energy service is offered and executes its own control in interaction with external parties.
SmartGrid is the modern development in electricity grid. Recent electrical grids are becoming weak with respect to the electrical load variation of appliances inside the home. The higher the population, the more load on the grid. Improving the efficiency of grid by remotely controlling and increasing reliability, measuring the consumptions in a communication that is supported by delivering data (real- time) to consumers, supplier and vice versa is termed as SmartGrid. Automated sensors are used in Smart Grids. These sensors are responsible in sending back the measured data to utilities and have the capability to relocate power failures and avoid heating of power lines. It employs the feature of self-healing operation. Literally, the concept of Smart Meter is commenced from the idea of SmartGrid. Figure 4 shows the architecture of smartgrid.
The US legal system and the legal process in relation to smart grids, is closely re- lated to the development some bills related to US electricity market : In 1965, the northeast experienced its first power failure, in 1977 the Federal Power Commission (FRC) reformed as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), then in 1978 the National Energy Act was passed, which then led to the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). In 1992 the Energy Policy Act was passed and then in 2003 Northeast once again experienced a power failure, following this in the years 2005, 2007 and 2009 the 2005 Energy Policy Act, Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA07) and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA09) were each passed respectively. Of these Acts the Energy Independence and Security Act directly dealt with Smart Grids and added related regulations, in Title XIII specified the “Statement of policy on moderniza- tion of electricity grid”, a “Smartgrid advisory committee” and “Smartgrid task force”, “Smartgrid technology research, development, and demonstration” and so on. Then the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act set a budget to invest in the development of SmartGrid, including SmartGrid Investment Grant Program, SmartGrid Demonstration Program . In terms of policy, in 2003 the U.S. De- partment of Energy proposed the “‘Grid 2030’: A National Vision for Electricity’s Second 100 Years”, in 2012 it proposed the “2010 SmartGrid Report” .
Bruce Lee Here, I am Bruce Lee again. If I add some more comment on this, yes. I agree with Mr. Hans. That means that the objects that—they're the smartgrid project is to we need to get something for the—some technology and that [inaudible] [00:53:44]. So, now as Mr. Hans also mentioned that currently as far as my understanding, that taskforce people for the Korea Smart City project, now ready and very actively and it's also it is by the Korean government and the KSGI as well. Now seven cities in Korea now really involved in this new project and total of eight consortia for this Korea Smart City project are already applied application and that's why now it is on the—under that feasibility study by the Korean government right now. So, probably from last year, that this project initiative then some of the any other foreign stakeholders will be added to this project as well. Thank you.
Many quite different stakeholders are involved, namely traditional large- scale commodity providers, distribution network operators (utilities), typical consumers, emerging small-scale producers, metering service providers, IT com- ponent developers/providers, and several regulatory and standardization insti- tutions. Most of these parties have no strong background in IT security. This may be one explanation why the smart metering infrastructure rolled out so far in many countries is plainly insecure, and why — even despite of the efforts by various groups involved — in the recent definition of the German regula- tions the mentioned security architecture problems regarding the integration of hardware security modules in smart meter gateways and PKI have not been properly addressed and solved. Moreover, part of the stakeholders have conflict- ing economic interests, while for an overall solution, they need to co-operate in non-trivial ways both during the definition and the deployment of smartgrid related solutions. This is certainly one of the main reasons for the major delays we are currently experiencing, such that no running large-scale secure solution is in existence these days.
C-DAX uses an Information Centric Network (ICN) architecture that operates on top of the IP pro- tocol. An ICN is well-suited to the challenges of the electrical grid since it is a distributed approach that aims to be highly scalable and more resilient to disruptions and failures [Ahl+12]. The flavor of ICN used in C-DAX is the Publish-Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm [Ain+09]. C-DAX clients host smartgrid applications and can play multiple roles as subscriber or publisher. For instance, a sensor device might be a publisher of sensor data, while a smart meter can publish measurements and subscribe to a data feed of energy prices. C-DAX provides the middle-ware to these publisher and subscriber clients for the interaction with the C-DAX cloud. The C-DAX cloud is responsible for routing and delivering the messages from publishers to subscribers in a safe, reliable and scalable manner. The cloud consists of a network of so-called C-DAX nodes, hosts located, for example, at distribution substations. Examples of clients are (smart) utility meters, Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) and Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs).
Today, an electricity disruption such as a blackout can have a domino effect—a series of failures that can affect. It is widely agreed that energy conservation and renewable energy are critical to securing our energy future, but smarter electricity systems - smart grids - are imperative to tap the full potential of modern energy solutions. A smartgrid can also serve as a platform for innovation in energy services, which gives customers more information about their energy footprint and ways to manage their electricity consumption. There is a carbon emission reduction potential, directly through more optimal production and transmission of electricity, and indirectly through influencing of consumer behaviour.
This renewed electric system will enable seamless integration of large renewable and distributed generation resources. It will also facilitate the integration of energy storage technologies to support state and federal legislation and policy goals such as greenhouse gas reductions, Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) and electric transportation initiatives. Grid 2.0 incorporates the next generation of broadband wireless and field area telecommunications technologies to support high speed, low latency information exchange among highly distributed devices. Smartgrid efforts will merge advanced data analytics and intelligent systems into existing grid control systems, resulting in a complex system-of- systems to provide integrated grid control and ubiquitous, real-time grid-state information. As a result, opportunities will emerge to reliably link customer demand response and other smaller distributed resources into wholesale market operations with the requisite ability to coordinate operational dispatch between wholesale market objectives and distribution grid objectives.