Stakeholder participation

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ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER COMMITMENT: THE ANTECEDENT ROLE OF STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION

ENHANCING STAKEHOLDER COMMITMENT: THE ANTECEDENT ROLE OF STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION

Kerzner(1996),indicates that Stakeholder Participation leads to increased commitment to the project. Also, a study by Kanungo, (1982) supports this the view that Stakeholder Participation is an antecedent to organizational commitment. It also specifically argued that those individuals with high levels of project involvement, which stems from positive experiences on-the-job (Kanungo 1982; Witt 1993; Cohen 1999), make attributions for these experiences to the project. Thus, having previously received benefits from the project and being obligated by the norm of reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960) to repay them, and high role involvement, makes stakeholders feel compelled to reciprocate in some form. Cohen (1999) adds that stakeholders reciprocate to the extent that their positive experiences are attributed to the efforts of project officials. These are reciprocated with increased affective organizational commitment to the persons who caused them. According to Tansky et al., (1997), Role participation influences affective commitment to the project and continuance commitment to the project. Another argument by Cohen (1999) is that role participation is positively related to normative commitment. Stakeholders that internalize the appropriateness of being loyal to their community initiatives (Meyer & Allen, 1997) are likely to be more participative in their roles than those who do not. Strong normative commitment translates into high role participation because one will invest his/her efforts to meet his/her beliefs regarding loyalty expectations. Furthermore, becoming highly involved in one’s role is a kind of self persuasion of the good of being a normative, committed stakeholder. Further still, role participation and stakeholder commitment were the key structures in Cohen’s (2000) study, and there was a strong relationship between role participation and stakeholder commitment. Mathieu and Zajac (1990) made a Meta analysis that examined the relationships among antecedents, correlates, and consequences of stakeholder commitment. They found moderate relationship between role participation and stakeholder commitment and the relationship between role participation and Affective Commitment was stronger than that of role participation and Continuous Commitment. Likewise, Ketchand and Strawser (2001) stated that the relationship between role participation and Affective Commitment was stronger than that of Continuance Commitment. From the above literature review it can be hypothesized that:
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Bottom-up adaptive management and stakeholder participation for clean water and healthy soils in a complex social-ecological system

Bottom-up adaptive management and stakeholder participation for clean water and healthy soils in a complex social-ecological system

The contribution of stakeholder participation to scientific inquiry is an important strategy in promoting an adaptive management approach in policy and practice, and examining alternative stable states and scenarios (Klenk et al., 2015; Peterson et al., 1997). Although the need for increased participation in the generation of solutions is well-established, integrating participant feedback into current science, research, and decision-making processes is challenging (Fazey et al., 2014; Klenk et al., 2015; Reed, 2008). Stakeholder processes are needed to manage uncertainty, adaptively define problems, and expand the set of solutions that can be considered for multiple end-users in research, policy, and practice (Dietz et al., 2003; Fazey et al., 2014; Patterson et al., 2013; Van der Brugge and Van Raak, 2007). High levels of complexity and uncertainty require diverse knowledge and values of multiple stakeholders across scientific and other communities of practice (Folke et al., 2005; Ostrom, 2009; Patterson et al., 2013). Participatory processes that integrate explicit and tacit knowledge can add legitimacy and accountability in instances when science occurs amid ambiguous political, social, environmental, and economic values (Bäckstrand, 2003; Norton and Steinemann, 2001; van den Hoek et al., 2014). The need for stakeholder involvement is demonstrated by the gap between scientific knowledge and the generation of useful adaptation information for decision makers, a gap that persists despite a growing body of literature in climate, hydrological, and engineering sciences (Bradshaw and Borchers, 2000; Fowler et al., 2007; Pahl-Wostl et al., 2007). Without stakeholder engagement, scientific models can present solution sets that
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Assessment of Stakeholder Participation in Water Resources Management in Machakos Sub-County, Machakos County, Kenya

Assessment of Stakeholder Participation in Water Resources Management in Machakos Sub-County, Machakos County, Kenya

Stakeholder participation has been shown to be an effective approach in increasing access to safe water and sanitation in many parts of the world. This study investigated stakeholder participation in management of water resources in Machakos Sub-County of Machakos County, Kenya. Specifically, it sought to assess the level of community participation in water resources management, collaboration between stakeholders, stakeholder contribution in increasing access to reliable water resources and the challenges facing the participatory approach of water resources management in the Sub-County. The research design used was a descriptive survey. The sampling techniques entailed simple random sampling and purposive sampling. The research tools comprised household questionnaires, interview schedules, observation record sheets and photography. A total of 217 households were selected through simple random sampling technique. The data were analyzed statistically and findings presented using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that the key stakeholders in water resources management in the Sub- County were; WRMA, NEMA, CAAC, Tana- Athi WSB, SHGs, MWSCO, WRUAs, TARDA and private water service providers. The results of the study showed that the mean quantity of water available for domestic use from household constructed sources was significantly lower than the recommended BWR of 50 litres/ person/ day ( x =29.61 litres/ person/ day, σ=19.41, p 0.05, n= 217, df=2). Further, most of the household heads participated in community water resources management activities despite not belonging to community- based water associations(x 2 = 4.564, p= 0.205, n= 217,df= 3). The study also found that there was a significant relationship between training in water resources
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INFLUENCE OF STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION ON GROWTH OF STUDENTS’ POPULATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA

INFLUENCE OF STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION ON GROWTH OF STUDENTS’ POPULATION IN SELECTED PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA

Stakeholder participation in decision making provides various benefits at all levels of the institution. The study sought to investigate the influence of stakeholders’ participation on the growth of students’ population in selected private universities in Kenya. The study was guided by distributed leadership theory. Descriptive research design was used in the study. The study used random sampling technique to select research participants. The study targeted private universities in North Rift, South Rift and Nyanza region of Kenya. The unit of observations was staff and students in various departments and faculties existing in the institutions. The study used purposive sampling to select research respondents. Questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics with the aid of SPSS version 23.0 and presented using frequency distribution tables. The findings of the study indicated that stakeholder participation is increased by a unit, there will be increase in growth of student population by a margin of 0.656. The study concludes that stakeholder’s involvement plays a critical role in growing students’ population. Top management of the private universities will get insight on various strategic issues with regard to student population through the recommendations of the study.
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The Evaluation of Stakeholder Participation of Projects Developed in Turkey and Certified in Voluntary Carbon Markets

The Evaluation of Stakeholder Participation of Projects Developed in Turkey and Certified in Voluntary Carbon Markets

CDM projects are on a voluntary basis and including stakeholder participation, but the subject of whether or not they have achieved their goals is discussed. It is important to examine the CDM projects in terms of participation, because in the 6th article of the Paris Agreement which was signed at the 21st Conference of the Parties in 2015, will take effect after 2020, the new mechanism to be applied will be similar to the CDM, even though the name of the CDM is not mentioned in the article. Instead, in the 6th article of the Agreement, three new mechanisms have been introduced on climate policy, two of which are market based approaches, and one is non-market based approach, and by 2020, it is stated that the rules and processes of the new mechanisms specified in the article six will be established.
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Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems

Developing a dynamic framework to examine the interplay between environmental stress, stakeholder participation processes and hydrological systems

Using a detailed literature review approach of how participation programmes and projects have been evaluated by researchers (Carr et al. 2012), a framework has been developed for this research that captures and links together five aspects of stakeholder involvement (Fig. 1). The framework is based on a model by which environmental stress events, in combination with factors of the social setting or context, lead to specific features of a stakeholder participation process (e.g. well facilitated, representative of all interest groups, inclusive of a wide collection of knowledge) that in turn result in intermediary (often non-tangible) outcomes such as innovation, the creation of trust, shared knowledge and information or increased understanding of the views of others. Evidence suggests that features of a good participation process positively correlate to the achievement of intermediary outcomes. For example, Newig and Fritsch (2009) found that innovative solutions emerged from more intensive communication, information flow, fairness and representativeness. Intermediary outcomes do not relate to a direct change in resource management at the point in time at which they are evaluated, but evidence suggests they may be essential to achieve resource management improvements (Conley and Moote 2003, Connick and Innes 2003, Genskow 2009). The combination of the process and the emerging intermediary outcomes are therefore expected to lead to resource management outcomes such as an improvement in the ecological condition of the water resource or enhanced community resilience to drought events and improved economic well-being. These outcomes are expected to alter how environmental stress events take place and manifest themselves in the future, hence the framework is dynamic.
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Power, responsibility and justice:practices of local stakeholder participation in flood risk management in England and Germany

Power, responsibility and justice:practices of local stakeholder participation in flood risk management in England and Germany

stakeholders in the planning and implementation of flood management measures have on whether resources are distributed in such a way as to ensure that all individuals have the ability to prepare for and protect themselves from flood impacts. Importantly, although forms of protest from local stakeholders against the state play an important role in local stakeholder influence on decision-making, I am particularly interested institutionalised opportunities for local stakeholders to participate and influence decision-making. Existing literature suggests that such opportunities can improve decision-making outcomes. In the literature on local stakeholder participation in European FRM planning, local stakeholder participation is seen to lead to a number of benefits such as, social learning (Pahl-Wostl, 2006), active citizenship, community empowerment and the improved acceptance and quality of decisions, which improves legitimacy (Webler et al. 1995; Chambers 2002; Paton 2007; Walker, Whittle, Medd & Watson, 2010; Featherstone et al. 2012). Such benefits can be enabled through decentralisation, stronger local government, and improved local democracy (Featherstone, Ince, Mackinnon, Strauss & Cumbers, 2012; Painter, Orton, MacLeod, Dominelli & Pande, 2011). In addition, it is argued that rather than requiring local stakeholders to self-organise and take responsibility, decisions related to the definition of problems and their solutions should be deliberated and co-produced (Mees et al. 2016). By drawing on more varied skills, knowledge and resources (both human and financial) (Paton, 2007; Walker et al, 2010), trust, communication and collaboration among and between various actors can be promoted (Wachinger & Renn, 2010). All these features are seen as essential for the improvement of the management of natural hazards (Kuhlicke et al. 2012). Moreover, Arnstein (1969) argued that “participation without redistribution of power is an empty and frustrating process for the powerless” (p. 216), a statement
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Influence Of Stakeholder-Participation Models In The Implementation Of Selected Rural Market Stalls Projects In Vihiga County, Kenya

Influence Of Stakeholder-Participation Models In The Implementation Of Selected Rural Market Stalls Projects In Vihiga County, Kenya

Rural development is the process of undertaking initiatives that are aimed at overall improvement of the quality of life of rural people (Nchuchuwe & Adejuwon, 2012). In Africa, rural development has become a priority issue owing Abstract: Development agencies that are advocating for increase in rural development projects acknowledge that stakeholder participation in development projects is so critical to the point that it has the potential to determine project outcome. However, there is little literature on the influence of stakeholder-participation models on the undertaking of various project life-cycle phases; yet project life cycle is fundamental in project management because how stakeholders are engaged in these phases determines project outcome. The available studies have tended to focus on the influence of the models on project outcome, ignoring the aspect of how the models influence specific project processes of initiation, planning, implementation and termination which are critical in determining what kind of outcome a project will have. This study was undertaken in Vihiga County of Western Kenya in order to establish stakeholder-participation models that were applied in the implementation of selected rural market stalls projects in this county; and also to examine influence of those models on the implementation of the projects. Being qualitative in nature, the study employed a case study design in which an in-depth examination of 4 purposively selected market stalls projects was undertaken. Document review, observation, key informant in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were used to collect data; while content analysis, within-case analysis and cross-case analysis were used to analyze data. The study found out that top-down, contractual and consultative stakeholder-participation models were applied in the implementation of Jeptul, Chavakali, Majengo and Wemilabi market stalls projects and the models were largely responsible for the failure of the four projects.
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Stakeholder participation in regional tourism planning: Brazil's Costa Dourada project

Stakeholder participation in regional tourism planning: Brazil's Costa Dourada project

Hall (2000a) points out that with increasing privatisation there is a greater need to examine the role of interest groups in collaborative arrangements because different actors involved in policy formulation carry different degrees of influence. He makes the important point that "power can be hidden behind the facade of 'trust' and the rhetoric of 'collaboration', and [can be] used to promote vested interest through the manipulation of and capitulation by weaker partners" (Clegg and Hardy, 1996:678; Hall, 2000a: 150). Power imbalances were also identified by Bramwell and Sharman (1999) in their examination of the Hope Valley case study. Furthermore, Reed (1997) contends that the rhetorical underpinnings of existing models for community-based tourism planning (Blank, 1989; Gunn, 1994a; Murphy, 1985) are weakly developed. In her view, power relations are a key issue that is under-explored in this field. Reed (1997:567) examines stakeholder participation in the development of a tourism plan for Squamish, British Columbia in Canada, and she concludes that "power relations may alter the outcome of collaborative efforts or even preclude collaborative action" in community tourism planning. Gray (1989) argues that, while some difference in power between stakeholders is important so that negotiations do not reach a stalemate, large differences in power may dissolve collaborations because very powerful stakeholders may resort to less collaborative means to achieve their goals.
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Analytic Hierarchy Process for Stakeholder Participation in Integrated Water Resources Management

Analytic Hierarchy Process for Stakeholder Participation in Integrated Water Resources Management

Abstract. This paper focuses on the applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) to develop a model for water resource management in the Pranburi watershed by using stakeholder participation. The hierarchy model structure of the Pranburi watershed was developed by the experts based on IWRM and classified into 4 criteria, 15 sub-criteria, and 3 alternatives. The questionnaire method was the tool used for obtaining a weighing for comparison between the pairs of criteria obtained from community representatives. The finding revealed that the important criteria are the environmental factors. The highest ranked of the alternatives is the watershed planning strategy. These results implied that community focused stakeholder participation in the decision-making process for water resources in Pranburi watershed gave a positive outcome. This research clearly presented the capability of the AHP approach integrates with IWRM principle for water resource planning. The AHP approach can analyze the community representative’s relevant data before decision making, by applying pairwise comparison of the AHP technique, can reduce bias during decision making. More importantly, the government should support collaboration with local officers and the community in the decision making policy on water resource planning.
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Evaluation of logical framework approach and its effect on stakeholder participation in the design and execution of projects. (A Case of Economic Stimulus Programmes in Nairobi County

Evaluation of logical framework approach and its effect on stakeholder participation in the design and execution of projects. (A Case of Economic Stimulus Programmes in Nairobi County

The problem statement underlying the study was the observable shortcomings of community stakeholder participation and involvement in management of ESPs, difficulties in the setting of th[r]

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Social Impact Assessment as a vehicle to better understand and improve stakeholder participation within urban development planning: The Maltese Case

Social Impact Assessment as a vehicle to better understand and improve stakeholder participation within urban development planning: The Maltese Case

Waldren, 1998; Abram and Weszkalnys, 2013; Conrad, 2012; Conrad et al., 2011a; Conrad et al., 2011b; Cornwall, 2008; Forester, 1989; 1999; 2009; Fraser et al., 2006; Healey, 2003; 2006; 2010; Hysing, 2013; Mansuri and Rao, 2013; Pares, 2012; Taylor et al., 1995; Vella et al., 2015a; Vella and Borg, 2010), which notably include power dynamics and lobbying by more influential groups. Those groups that are less organised, who incidentally are usually those who are more vulnerable, may end up not getting involved, even if they try. This is sometimes a political strategy by the government or its agencies, or the developer, who do not want to cause any 'ripples' by involving certain groups (Healey 2006; Forester 2009). Best practice guidelines, commentators and critics of public and stakeholder participation, however, caution practitioners to be vigilant and make sure that such groups are included in participatory practices (e.g. Becker and Vanclay, 2003; de Vente et al., 2016; Esteves et al., 2012; Reed, 2008; Vanclay and Esteves, 2011), especially with increasing acceptance of emerging trends that include a heightened attention to human rights; the evolution of social performance standards and the rise of local content requirements (Esteves et al., 2012: 38). Some go as far as suggesting that these groups should be given the resources necessary for their participation (e.g. Dietz and Stern, 2008). This of course may be difficult when there is no official participatory framework (such as Stakeholder Engagement Plans (SEP), see e.g. Franks and Vanclay, 2013) during the project development cycle, participation is limited to the legally mandated consultation by the environmental authority (Leighninger, 2014), or the temporality and financial constraints of the EIA make it difficult to put such guidance into practice.
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Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy

Meaningful stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning with offshore energy

As our oceans get busier, and competition for resource access grows, the need for more effective and integrated management of the marine environment becomes increasingly pressing (Crowder et al., 2006; Douvere et al., 2007). Marine spatial planning is seen as the main tool to resolve conflict between stakeholders, integrate multiple sectors, and rationalise the multifaceted complexities of marine management (Douvere et al., 2007; Ehler and Dourvere, 2009, Chapter 1). Marine spatial planning is inherently a participatory process in which stakeholders play a fundamental role (Ehler & Douvere, 2009; Calado et al., 2010). The importance of stakeholder participation in marine spatial planning is recognised in international, regional, and national policies (Calado et al.. 2010; Flannery & Cinnéide, 2008; Commission of the European Community, 2008), and in some places is now required by law (Kerr et al., 2014). Indeed, stakeholders are included to some capacity in almost all marine spatial planning process (Collie et al., 2013); however, the scope and extent of stakeholder involvement differs greatly among countries (Collie et al., 2013), and is often culturally influenced (Elher, personal communication, Ocean Visions Consulting, 2017).
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Managing corporate social responsibility (CSR) together : the effect of stakeholder participation and third party endorsements on the effectiveness of CSR initiatives

Managing corporate social responsibility (CSR) together : the effect of stakeholder participation and third party endorsements on the effectiveness of CSR initiatives

Thirdly, perceived levels of skepticism towards insurers’ social responsible behavior are reduced when consumers feel that they are involved in the CSR initiative. As such, the presence of stakeholder participation processes could be seen as a demonstration of an organization’s trustworthiness and its sincere commitment towards the initiative, which in turn reduces perceptions of skepticism (Lewicki et al., 1998). Furthermore, as increasing involvement allows individuals to obtain information about how an organization actually behaves, this removes some of the uncertainty that could otherwise turn into skepticism. Additionally, CSR initiatives that are managed with the participation of stakeholders are likely to be perceived as more transparent. This, in turn, resonates with Kang and Hustvedt (2014), that found transparency to be an important factor that influence important consumer outcomes.
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An Analysis of Variables That Influence Stakeholder Participation and Support for Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural North Carolina

An Analysis of Variables That Influence Stakeholder Participation and Support for Sustainable Tourism Development in Rural North Carolina

The respondents in this study had a mean score of 64.98 and a standard deviation of 6.89 on the support for sustainable tourism index (Figure 4.7). These respondents can be differentiated based on five variables (see Table 4.12). Perceived impact was selected as the variable for prediction in the decision tree because it had the smallest p value (p<.05). The respondents were divided into three groups represented by Branch 1, Branch 2, and Branch 3 based on the individual stakeholder’s perceptions of the tourism impact. There were thirteen variables that were not statistically significantly different (p value = .05) to justify the split of node 0. The variables that were not statistically significantly different were, county respondents lived in, participation in gardening, participation in fishing, participation in hiking, participation in golf, participation in camping,
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Assessing the capacity for effective multi-stakeholder participation in innovation platforms: The case of Research-Into-Use Project in Rwanda

Assessing the capacity for effective multi-stakeholder participation in innovation platforms: The case of Research-Into-Use Project in Rwanda

Shifts from one approach of research and development interventions to another are not merely change of modus operandi but they also entail a shift in competences (including knowledge skills and attitudes) for the various actors. The AIS approach and in particular, the innovation platform is characterised by greater interaction between actors in a constructive manner - requiring a levelled playing ground for doing so. Levelling ground implies dealing with complexities of power relations, building mutual respect and trust as well as enhancing the communicative capabilities including negotiation and conflict management. Such competences are part of the software, which drives the orgware to enhance the organizational capabilities that lead to better generation and use of the hardware or technologies. The competences required for gainful participation in IPs may vary across different stakeholders categories depending on their levels of empowerment and experience. In addition to creating space and facilitating interactions between actors in an IP, it is critical that their capacity needs are identified and addressed as part of the intervention.
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Who Cares: Stakeholder participation and the Use of Performance Information in Strategic Planning

Who Cares: Stakeholder participation and the Use of Performance Information in Strategic Planning

The question of the use of performance information is under consideration. One issue arises from the effect of stakeholders’ participation in the use of performance information. Ho (2003) examined local actors’ perceptions of performance measurement and the practice of performance reporting of cities with populations ranging from 10,000 to 100,000. The Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA) researched performance measures used by its municipal members (Tigue, 1994). Taylor (2011) used combined models to examine factors that influence the use of performance information in Australian state agencies and found that the use of performance information is impacted by stakeholder support, culture in public organizations, and the external environment. Van de Walle and Bovaird (2007) indicated that politicians, planners and top managers, among others, would be the main users of performance information, underlying the process of searching, analyzing, and summarizing the information before making decisions. Previous studies focused on professionalism and managerial capacity in performance measurement. Some explored participants’ contribution to strategic plans, as well as the use of performance information regarding democratic control capacity, behavioral assumptions among interest groups, top management commitment, bureaucratic rationality and technocracy, and responsiveness to governmental reform (Moynihan, 2008; Van Dooren & Van de Walle, 2008; Van Dooren, Bouckaert, & Halligan, 2010).
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Stakeholder participation and stakeholder protest: On the planned revision of the EU Organic regulation

Stakeholder participation and stakeholder protest: On the planned revision of the EU Organic regulation

In 2001 the EU Commission was prompted by its perception of a “disconnect” between the Union and its citizens to codify a set of governance principles in a white paper on “European Governance” (EC 2001). The objective of the governance reform is to “open up policy- making to make it more inclusive and accountable.” 3 The involvement of all actors and stakeholders 4 in the policy-making process (participation) is an important principle; an additional aim is to speed up the policy-making process. Community law should be applied by more flexible means in order to do justice to specific regional circumstances. A further aim is more effective enforcement of Community law, in order to strengthen the functioning of the single market and the credibility of the Union. As a matter of principle, before the EU takes action, it should always clarify the issue of subsidiarity, i.e. whether any action is necessary at all and, if so, whether it should be taken at EU level.
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How stakeholder participation can contribute to systematic reviews of complex interventions

How stakeholder participation can contribute to systematic reviews of complex interventions

Our approach to stakeholder involvement revealed that lack of involvement in primary studies, as well as in systematic reviews, may compromise the validity of reviews in several ways. First, our comparison of user-generated components with previous research illustrated that researchers may not identify all of the important components. Second, the type and quality of interac- tions between providers and bene fi ciaries may be hugely in fl uen- tial, but not always considered when reviewing treatment fi delity. Third, short-term outcomes can mediate or moderate impact, but they may be ignored, reducing the explanatory power of the review. And fi nally, variation in the surrounding context in terms of organisational and social support for the intervention may have a greater in fl uence than normally acknowledged in effectiveness reviews. We also found that in realist reviews, it is worth looking at the conceptual security of the key concepts, to determine whether there is a shared under- standing of the phenomenon. In effectiveness reviews of complex interventions, it may also be critical to go beyond the
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Sustainability impact assessment for improved food security. The benefit of local stakeholder participation.

Sustainability impact assessment for improved food security. The benefit of local stakeholder participation.

Thus, it is recommended that stakeholder involvement be considered from the planning phase through to the final evaluation, which is so critical to sustainable development, and thereby move away from simple technocratic decision-making towards a more dialogic approach (EIARD 2003; Bond and Morrison-Saunders 2011; Kiara 2011; Morgan 2012). Bebbington et al. (2007), Maredia (2009) and Singh et al. (2012) mention that indicators of sustainable development should be selected, revisited and refined upon based on the appropriate communities of interest. Stakeholder involvement is not only important in order to identify different perspectives, objectives and values, but also to align those different views and to reduce the chance that a conflict will arise. Participation adds to the understanding of the project itself, and thereby helps with the acceptance of decisions and ownership. The process ensures that results are locally adapted and relevant, and therefore contribute to the overall sustainability (Cashmore et al. 2009; Cosyns et al. 2013; Stoeglehner and Neugebauer 2013). This also requires a learning attitude to be shown by all the stakeholders involved. Stoeglehner and Neugebauer (2013) argue that stakeholder implication should even be added as “the fourth pillar“ of sustainable development. Stakeholder involvement may have different levels of intensity. Considering stakeholder involvement in the context of sustainability impact assessment means to actively involve stakeholders at all stages of a development initiative. Simply informing and consulting them is insufficient (Stoeglehner and Neugebauer 2013).
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