The low performance mean score of the participants who rated the teachers’ instructional practices as “teachercentred” might be attributed to the teachers’ failure to understand that learning is facilitated when differences among learners are recognized and attempts are made to teach the students differently (Gardner & Rogers, 1971). It may also be due to the teachers’ teaching strategies. Kittel (1957) noted that “furnishing learners with information in the form of underlying principles promotes transfer of learning” (p. 403) and “what is transferred depends upon the teaching method (Cronbach, 1954 p.68). This assumption is corroborated by Hornstein’s (1990) study which observed that half of the students in his investigation disliked social studies. The finding was explained to the teaching strategy whereby the instruction relied heavily on textbooks and by implication teaching was teacher-centred or expository. Thus, the same subject taught differently may produce great or little transfer. The low performance of the students in this study by teacher-centred strategy could also be a product of the participants’ interest in social studies. Research indicates that students enjoy learning more and learn better when what they are studying is of personal interest and relates to their lives (Mecce, 1991). Students in this subgroup of the instructional practices might have had no interest in social studies hence, their low performance mean score in the summativeevaluation of the subject.
Initial training in family learning of – in most cases – two staff members from the prisons was provided in March 2007 by ‘Read On Write Away!’ , a family learning organisation based in Derbyshire which had previously taken KNEX into prisons as a ‘fun’ way of learning. Each prison was then provided with 12 sets of KNEX Construction Kits, a mixture of Discovery Sets for people aged 7 and upwards, and Transportation Sets for those under 7. Three different evaluation sheets were compiled –for staff, for prisoners/family members, for children – and prisons asked to use these at each family visit using KNEX. Support was also given by the APF Development Officer, both by telephone and in person at visits, which enabled observation, monitoring and evaluation to be carried out. At the end of the project each prison was asked to complete a summativeevaluation form and submit copies of evaluation sheets. Thus both quantitative and qualitative evaluation has been carried out.
The process evaluation is based on primary research using qualitative methods The design of the process evaluation was informed by the scoping phase that was conducted between December and March Following the scoping consultation the evaluation identified nine sites which were ready and willing to take part in the depth case studies These included five Demonstrator sites and four Early Adopter sites An evaluation information sheet was circulated amongst stakeholders in all nine sites ahead of the site visits The information sheet provided an overview of the summativeevaluation of IPC It covered the background to the evaluationevaluation partners activities to be undertaken and timeframes
This definition of the domain for summativeevaluation describes and classifies the essential and representative elements of the Microcomputing program, and, more specifically, for the course entitled Integrating Different Microcomputing Applications. As such, it gives an overview of the program, but should by no means replace the program itself. The purpose of defining the domain is to ensure that all summativeevaluation instruments are consistent with the overall program. The organization of this definition of the domain is the same as that of those of other courses. The content of each section is, however, specific to this course.
This study analyses undergraduate students’ errors in their summativeevaluation with special emphasis on a literary subject that is taught in English. The study is an analysis of students’ corpora and uses qualitative analysis. Three questions spearheaded the discussion namely (1) what are errors that students make in their final evaluation? (2) What are the effects of these errors? (3) What can be done to help students reduce these errors? The study has a threefold significance namely showing teachers in charge of language teaching the areas that should be more emphasized; reveal students how important they should cope with these challenges to better their language use and become more proficient in a second language, if they are willing and committed to correct these errors. It was found that most of learners make similar errors related with spelling, subject verb agreements, pluralization, capitalization and misuse of prepositions.
A C ASE S TUDY OF AN U NSUCCESSFUL P ARTICIPANT IN C OHORT T HREE (3). The not as successful participant was 15 years old at enrollment and younger than all the successful youth. The participant received treatment services at Odyssey, which were partially successful do to the lack of contact since the individual was detained for some time. Alliance provided counseling services to the participant while detained. The participant’s unproductive and unmotivated character contributed to his unsuccessfulness in life and in the program, and he was eventually committed to DJJ. The participant became non-compliant with the program, as well as the mother having resentment and lack of faith in the program stating the program has increased the participant’s negative behavior. Before entering the program the participant had nineteen school suspensions and eleven after being enrolled in the program. The participant was not in school and had to repeat the ninth grade due to being expelled for truancy and marijuana possession at the school. This participant had 3 prior drug charges before enrolling into the program. The participant came to the program with problems complying with rules and regulations at home and school and the usage of marijuana three to four times a week. The program sought to get the participant enrolled in a GED/Vocational Rehabilitation program, or Warren Tech. The team also had the youth reside in a group home for thirty days to help facilitate treatment and reduce the constant detainments by changing the participant's environment. With the help of the Rebound Program the participant has attended school more regularly and even though the program provided a tutor, the participant still did not complete homework. It was discovered from the participant's psychological evaluation that the participant had unresolved and unaddressed issues in life , such as difficulties relating to the mother’s boyfriend, stress due to father’s recently being hospitalized for medical issue, the parents separating two years prior causing withdrawal from parents and isolation, and the tendency to ruminate over past events.
When looking at the other dimensions from Yusof et al. the least amount of information is available about the organizational part of an eHt, both organizational structure and organizational environment. In the interviews nothing was mentioned regarding these dimension. The organization that is responsible for the eHt and other organizations that have an impact on the eHt are however important. As can be seen in table 13 Boonstra & van Offenbeek mention this importance by developing a framework that consists of these dimensions as well. In their opinion, organizations and its stakeholders can be essential: ‘The specific structurational concepts applied – technology appropriation and social multidimensionality – help in understanding how the implementation mode that emerged from the interaction among actors, technology and institutional contexts resulted in limited appropriation’(Boonstra & van Offenbeek, 2010). In table 13 it can also be seen that Khoja et al. described this phenomenon as well and developed their own framework. This framework also focusses on the relation between organizations: ‘Evaluation of any e-health program should not be limited to health outcomes or economic analysis, but should cover all themes identified in the KDS Framework’ (Khoja et al., 2013). This implies the need to not only focus on a small aspect of the eHt but include anyone who has a link with the eHt. Future research should focus on these organizational aspects to study the effects organizations have regarding eHt. This would enhance the eHt of MedManager since they didn’t include this in their original efforts.
The purpose of the second stage of analysis was to verify whether the empirical studies could have been based on at least one of several of conceptual summative eHealth evaluation frameworks. That is, whether the reported evaluation themes in the empirical studies were among the recommended evaluation themes by a conceptual framework. The conceptual summativeevaluation frameworks were selected from two recent literature reviews on eHealth evaluation frameworks (Van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011; Andargoli et al., 2017). The selected conceptual evaluation frameworks were the Health Information Technology Reference-based Evaluation Framework, HITREF (Sockolow et al., 2012); evaluation criteria for eHealth services (Hamid and Sarmad, 2008); framework for health technology decisions (Kazanjian and Green, 2002); and Telehealth Evaluation Framework (Hebert, 2001). Two extra conceptual summativeevaluation frameworks that did not appear in these literature reviews were added: the Health Technology Assessment Core model (Lampe et al., 2009) and a Model for Assessment of Telemedicine Applications, MAST (Kidholm et al., 2012). These frameworks offered a comprehensive and advanced structure of evaluation themes to consider when planning an eHealth evaluation (Nykänen et al., 2011; Kidholm et al., 2012). During analysis, the reported evaluation themes in the empirical studies were compared with the recommended ones by the conceptual frameworks. A good match between the empirical and conceptual frameworks was assumed if the conceptual framework includes all the evaluation themes that have been targeted by the empirical paper; a partial match, if the conceptual framework includes at least one evaluation theme (but not all) that were targeted by the empirical paper; a no match, if the conceptual framework does not include any of the evaluation themes that were targeted by the empirical paper; and a not applicable match, if the conceptual framework is developed at a later date than that of the empirical paper.
Recent research suggests that assessment feedback in higher education is a problematic area, while audio technology may offer the potential to enhance student learning. This paper reports on a project which was developed to explore the implications of using audio feedback for summative purposes with participants on a work-based learning course at Staffordshire University during 2009. A combination of formative and summativeevaluation was conducted; generally the response was positive and aligned to the findings of other researchers, with some significant issues arising in relation to the practicalities involved in producing and accessing the feedback, and the emotional response provoked.
Student experience was investigated during a trial implementation of an invigilated, online examination facilitated by a proctoring company. Although the study site is primarily a distance education institution with a substantial contingent of off-campus students, it also has a lesser number of on-campus students who undertake either blended or online learning to complete their courses. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the suitability and usability of online secured testing technology for students, administrative and academic staff from the perspective of the user experience via a survey of their thoughts and observations regarding the testing set-up process, the testing process and the test environment. The evaluation method was essentially pre- determined by the request to tender. The evaluation was to be conducted using an opt-in/ out survey, a post-exam survey and an invigilated online exam, with qualitative and quanti- tative data collected for analysis.
Image compression targets at reducing the amount of bits required for image representation to save storage space and speed up the transmission over network. The reduction of size helps to store more images in the disk and take less transfer time in the data network. Stereoscopic image refers to a three- dimensional (3D) image that is perceived by the human brain as the transformation of two images that are being sent to the left and right human eyes with distinct phases. However, storing of these images takes space twice than a single image and hence the motivation for this novel approach called Summative Stereoscopic Image Compression using Arithmetic Coding (S2ICAC) where the difference and average of these stereo pair images are calculated, quantized in the case of lossy approach and unquantized in the case of lossless approach, and arithmetic coding is applied. The experimental result analysis indicates that the proposed method achieves high compression ratio and high PSNR value. The proposed method is also compared with JPEG 2000 Position Based Coding Scheme (JPEG 2000 PBCS) and Stereoscopic Image Compression using Huffman Coding (SICHC). From the experimental analysis, it is observed that S2ICAC outperforms JPEG 2000 PBCS as well as SICHC.
Student performance data (i.e. percentage marks) for each of three consecutive formative examinations and the summative examinations of batches, 2006-07 & 2007-08 were acquired from central student records and analyzed.. The performances of students scoring 60% and above and students scoring less than 60% in the summative exams were correlated with their performances in the formative exams. To avoid bias, only the theory marks comprising of multiple choice questions and short essay questions and the marks scored in Viva Voce were taken into consideration because in the practical examination, the exercises will not be the same for all the students.
The study took place at Keele University School of Medicine, which has approximately 130 students per year. It is one of the newest British medical schools, graduating its first cohort of doctors in 2012. Progres- sion through, and exit from, the course relied on a series of summative assessments. There is a focus on the provision of feedback to all students following high- stakes assessments, although there is no obligation for students to make use of the feedback. The school has a tradition of respecting the student voice in a number of ways. Student representatives serve on all the major school committees (including for assessments). They also provide feedback about the course on a regular basis, via online surveys and face-to-face interactive group meet- ings with faculty members. At these meetings, students learn what has changed in the course as a result of their feedback. They also make suggestions for further changes.
In order to construct a digital testing acceptance construct amongst students, the evaluation questions were inspected. Question 8 asks if digital testing is a good way of testing and question 9 asking if digital testing would be a fair way of testing. It was decided that these two questions were indicative of acceptance of digital testing. An explorative factor analysis was used to discover other variables that aligned with these. A factor loading higher than .40 would be considered for a factor. Questions 4, 5, 8 and 9 were considered for the factor “Digital Acceptance” as they had a factor loading of .49 .91 .45 and .48 respectively for a single factor. Question 4 asks students if it would be fair to have their digital answers as their final mark, and not their written answers, and Question 5 asks if the student would find it advantageous if only their final answers were assessed, and not their calculations. A Pearson Correlation was conducted on questions 4, 5, 8 and 9 to confirm that these questions make one factor, as in the factor analysis three of these were above the .40 cut-off mark, but still below .50. Question 4 and 5 correlated with .44 with a significance of 0.01, and question 8 and 9 correlated with .62 with a significance of 0.01. All correlations between the four questions were at least significant at the 0.05 level with the lowest correlation of .31. The table can be seen in appendix 10. The Cronbach’s Alpha of the four questions was .72, which is highly acceptable, which is good. However, it was decided to rather remove Question 5, shortened to “DigiOnlyAdvantage”, from the construct as the question might correlate well, however neither a high or low score objectively tells much about digital acceptance of a student. For the other three questions making the construct, a high value means a high acceptance towards digital testing
Background: The Canadian-accredited post-baccalaureate Doctor of Pharmacy program at Qatar University trains pharmacists to deliver advanced patient care. Emphasis on acquisition and development of the necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes lies in the curriculum’s extensive experiential component. A campus-based oral comprehensive examination (OCE) was devised to emulate a clinical viva voce and complement the extensive formative assessments conducted at experiential practice sites throughout the curriculum. We describe an evaluation of the final exit summative assessment for this graduate program.
Both authors have used MCQs over the last three years as components (cf totality) of summative assessment in first year core law courses. Considerations regarding the structuring and writing of good MCQs to address different levels of learning is already the subject of extensive research, particularly in a generic sense and again focussed on other disciplines. 2 This article presupposes that MCQs used are drafted in line with the literature to achieve course objectives and acknowledges that the key to the effective use of MCQs is proper construction, as is the case with other forms of assessment; ‘the particular question format or combination of formats is not as important as the skill and sophistication with which the questions are crafted and the exam as a whole is assembled and graded’ (Case & Donahue 2008, p. 373).