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Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation

Fishes of a Conserved Peat Swamp Forest in an Oil Palm Plantation

A total of 13 fish species comprising seven families were recorded from Sungai Kulak inside TCA during the study period (Table 1). Cyprinidae was the dominant fish family constituting 78.30% of the total fishes recorded (Figure 3). Other families represented less than 30% of the total fishes sampled, and these included Siluridae (8.49%), Channidae (4.72%), Osphronemidae (3.77%), Anabantidae (1.89%), Bagridae (1.89%) and Helostomatidae (0.94%). The dominance of Cyprinidae was similar to that recorded in other peat swamp habitats, such as Maludam River in Sarawak (Nyanti and Bali, 2004), Paya Beriah Peat Swamp Forest in North Perak (Shah et al., 2006), both in Malaysia, and in Tripa Peat Swamp Forest in Indonesia (Muchlisin et al., 2015). Osphronemidae and Anabantidae are able to adapt to the low oxygen conditions of peat water by getting oxygen from the air through their labyrinth-like respiratory organ (Kottelat et al., 1993).
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Water use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

Water use dynamics of a peat swamp forest and a dune forest in Maputaland, South Africa

Abstract. Peat swamp forests are the second rarest forest type found in South Africa while dune forests have been un- der severe threat through mining and agriculture. Both forest types exist in the conservation area, and World Heritage site, known as the iSimangaliso Wetland Park on the East coast of South Africa. The area is prone to severe droughts (Taylor et al., 2006) and recent attempts to understand the local wa- ter balance revealed that there was insufficient information on the water use of the indigenous forests of the area. The peat swamp forest and dune forest sites studied in this re- search were located within close proximity to each other, yet, are characterised by different landscape positions in terms of water availability. The coastal dune forest soil profile was generally dry and sandy and the tree roots did not have ac- cess to the water table. In contrast the peat swamp forest is located in an interdunal wetland where the trees have perma- nent access to water. The climate at both sites is subtropical with a mean annual precipitation of 1200 mm yr −1 . However, over 20 months of measurement, the first summer (October 2009 to March 2010) was drier (424 versus 735 mm) than the second summer (October 2010 to March 2011) emphasising the variability of the rainfall in the area and providing a wide range of conditions measured.
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Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

Biomass and Carbon Stock Assessment of Peat Swamp Forest Ecosystem; A Case Study in Permanent Forest Reserve Pekan Pahang, Malaysia

© 2019, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 26 In early 60s, a comprehensive study on the ecology of the lowland peat swamp forest in Sarawak and Brunei has inventoried 253 tree species that are mostly confined to the seaward or periphery of the swamp forest [3,27,29]. Most of the plant species that grow in the forests at the centre of the peat domes are usually found on nutrient poorer soils in the heath forest [27]. Table 5 show floristic inventory in Compartment 75 of peat swamp forest in Pekan Pahang.
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A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

A comparison of satellite remote sensing data fusion methods to map peat swamp forest loss in Sumatra, Indonesia

The comparison of the three classification approaches highlights the strength of the object-based approach for our study area, even if only optical data are used. For those considering implementing it elsewhere, it is worth noting that in our study area the acacia plantations and peat swamp forest areas have large, clearly defined geo- metrical shapes, which might have made the landscape particularly well suited to an object-based classification. This approach is likely to be less suitable in areas where patterns are more subtle, and changes between land cover more gradual. In addition, the computational time was greater for the object-based classification than for the other two approaches. The tools implemented in GRASS GIS were comparatively slow and hampered by some problems with the GIS interface. The creation of segments and associated statistics for the study area took about
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Evaluation of Four Methods for Restoring a Degraded Swamp Forest

Evaluation of Four Methods for Restoring a Degraded Swamp Forest

The acclimation in seedlings in the nursery proved to be very favorable for the beginning of the restoration of a Swamp Forest. Resistance and tolerance of a species in water saturated areas is not only conditioned by its survival, but also for its development and growth in anoxic conditions (Kozlowski, 1984). The soil saturation produces ecophysiological answers, morphological and anatomical changes, such as hypertrophy of lenticels, adventitious rooting and development of parenchyma at the base of stems and rhizomes. These changes were observed during the acclimation in seedlings and are generally associated with an increase in diffusion capacity of O 2 from aerial parts to roots. The O 2 deficiency occurs at the level of rhizosphere due to the water soil satura-
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Effects of stream channelization on bottomland and swamp forest ecosystems

Effects of stream channelization on bottomland and swamp forest ecosystems

In order to determine the effect of channelization on lesser vegeta- tion, tree growth and vigor, stand regeneration, wildlife habitat and other swamp forest values, the differences in[r]

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Identification and antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai peat swamp forest soils

Identification and antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai peat swamp forest soils

The identification and antimicrobial activity of thirteen actinomycete strains isolated from peat swamp forest soils collected from Narathiwat, Patthaloong and Yala provinces, the southern part of Thailand were carried out. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, all isolates were belonged to genus Micromonospora. They were separated into six groups based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis and were identified as M. narathiwatensis (Group 1, 5 isolates), M. humi (Group 4, 3 isolates), M. aurantiaca (Group 5, 2 isolates), one of each isolate as M. chalcea (Group 2) and M. maritima (Group 6). The isolate LK6-12 (Group 3) showed low similarity (99.16%) with the type strains of Micromonospora siamensis that will be the novel species of the genus Micromonospora. Meso-diaminopimelic acid (cell wall type II), xylose and arabinose (pattern D) were detected in their whole-cell hydrolysates. The major polar lipid was phosphatidylethanolamine (type II). The predominant cellular fatty acids were C 17:0 , C 17:1 ω8c, iso-C 16:0 , iso-C 15:0 , iso-C 17:0 , anteiso-C 15:0 , and anteiso-C 17:0 . The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H 4 ), MK-9(H 6 ), or MK-10(H 4 ). The DNA G+C contents of the isolates ranged from 71.6- 72.6 mol%. On the primary screening, 2 isolates exhibited the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341.
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Phytodiversity, Abundance and Importance of Some Useful Plants at Mangrove Swamp Forest of Sobekiri Rivers State Nigeria

Phytodiversity, Abundance and Importance of Some Useful Plants at Mangrove Swamp Forest of Sobekiri Rivers State Nigeria

Abstract- The mangrove swamp forest of Sobekiri I, II and III area of Rivers state Nigeria, was investigated to determine the phytodiversity, flora density, bundance, and importance of some useful plants including endangered species. three 250 x 40 transects containing (10 x 10) randomly laid quadrants for trees, 5 x 5 for shrubs and 1 x 1 for herbs was used in 1hectare plot to increase the chances of encountering and inventorying all species. Phytosociological data were collected and used to determine diversity of the forest. Nineteen (19) plant species belonging to 12 families (8 trees, 4 shrubs and 6 herbs) were encountered which represent 78.20% trees, 14.3% shrubs and 7.5% herbs in the forest.The three most abundant families in descending order were Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Nypa palm, (mangrove palm),Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) for trees while Chrysobalanus orbicularis, Chromophaene odorantum, are for shrubs. Crotalaria retusa and Aspilia Africana herbs.Species density ranged from 30 species ha 1 in Terminalia catapa to 5,540 ha 1 in Rhizophora mangle. The least abundant plant species for trees are Elaeis guineensis, Terminalia catapa and Dalbergia ecostaphyllum while for shrubs are Urena lobata, and Manotes spp. Crograstic tremula and Musa spp is for herbs respectively.The Shannon index measured in a scale of 10 was 5.54 and evenness index measured in a scale of 1 is 1.62 for the habitat indicating moderate species diversity.
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Peat Swamp Forest; Management and Development of Indigenous Species to Support Economic Local People at Periphery Forest (Case Study in Central Borneo, Indonesia)

Peat Swamp Forest; Management and Development of Indigenous Species to Support Economic Local People at Periphery Forest (Case Study in Central Borneo, Indonesia)

average value. The stand structure of Sanaman jelutung Kapur and Jelutung according to what was stated by Daniel et al. (1987) is as follows: both types are domintated by the diameter class 16–21. 9 cm, the average value is similar, i.e. 22.2 cm, then the tree diameter s higher and the dominant diameter class is smaller. This is pre- sumed because the peat swamp forest is a second- ary forest that has become a conservation area. There are no activities to clear the forest floor so that low-level plants are difficult to develop, be- cause of the lack of light. The differences in the number of trees in each diameter class, is simulta- neously influenced by some factors, i.e light and nutriens. Simbolon (2002) research conducted
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Technical note: Application of artificial neural networks in groundwater  table forecasting – a case study in a Singapore swamp forest

Technical note: Application of artificial neural networks in groundwater table forecasting – a case study in a Singapore swamp forest

This study, for the first time, applies artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the groundwater table variations in a trop- ical wetland – the Nee Soon Swamp Forest (NSSF) in Sin- gapore. The ANN model solely utilizes the easily accessi- ble surrounding reservoir levels and rainfall as inputs to fore- cast the groundwater tables, without requiring any other prior knowledge of the system’s physical properties. The ANN forecast shows generally promising accuracy, while its per- formance decreases when the leading time progresses due to the fading correlation between the network inputs and out- puts.
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Habitat and Phytochemical Analysis of Gemor (Nothaphoebe sp ) on Peat swamp Forest Areas, Central Kalimantan

Habitat and Phytochemical Analysis of Gemor (Nothaphoebe sp ) on Peat swamp Forest Areas, Central Kalimantan

The depiction of the active chemical compound of forest plants whose bark is used as an anti-mosquito, then the test result and data content of the active chemical compound was diagramed by scoring technique (+/-). For the results active chemical compounds observed yes then was marked with (+) and if the active chemical compounds observed no then was marked with (-). According to the standard laboratory test of biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Lambung Mangkurat University for determining the level, positive on the active compound of secondary metabolites can be looked at the color density from color test results. Determination of the sign by the Biochemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine ULM (Table 1), and based Cahyana and Rachmadi (2011) [9] can be seen in Table 2.
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Swamp Forest Use and Loss in the Niger Delta: Contextual and Underlying Issues

Swamp Forest Use and Loss in the Niger Delta: Contextual and Underlying Issues

The Niger Delta region is home to vast stores of hydrocarbons of reputable quality and the main source of Nigeria’s wealth. With about 1182 exploration wells and about 400 oil and gas fields of varying capacities documented since the past fifty years (Obaje, 2009) and revenue generation of over $600 billion since the 1960’s (Wurthmann, 2006), it has remained the main source of Nigeria’s foreign exchange and government reve- nue. However, since its first commercial oil discovery in 1956, the region has steadily declined in its biodiversity potentials and suffered from “administrative neglect, crum- bling social infrastructure and services, high unemployment, social deprivation, abject poverty, filth and squalor and endemic conflict” (UNDP, 2006). With about 36.4% of the inhabitants living below the poverty line (World Bank, 2003), only about 27% with access to safe drinking water, only 30% accessing electricity as at early 2000 (Ibeanu, 2002), an illiterate majority, a general lack of basic health care and employment, the re- gion has not only been impoverished, but are a pathetic example of “resource curse”. The region has been rife with aggression and violence following prolonged denials and poor human capital and regional impoverishment. Conflicts and insurgency have esca- lated across the region over the years, have affected the oil production adversely, shut down productions in some communities, led to the destruction of lives and property and created an endemic terror and insecurity across the region. While these have led to a drop in the oil production and consequent loss on the Nigerian economy in terms of oil revenue (Idemudia, 2009; Obi, 2011), it has not in reality improved the livelihood of the people who still depend on the forest ecosystem to meet their daily needs.
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Forest gaps, edge, and interior support different ant communities in a tropical peat-swamp forest in Borneo

Forest gaps, edge, and interior support different ant communities in a tropical peat-swamp forest in Borneo

Despite seasonal variation in ant capture rates and in individual responses of a number of indicator taxa, disturbance categories differed significantly in ant community composition regardless of sea- son. Overall ant communities did not differ sig- nificantly between seasons. Although sampling in either season seems appropriate for monitoring forest disturbance, sampling appears more effec- tive in the dry season, which exhibited higher ant capture rates and more indicator taxa. The higher capture rates may have resulted in the identifi- cation of more indicator taxa in the dry season, meaning that the same taxa may still be charac- teristic of a disturbance category in the wet sea- son, but because of lower abundance the indicator value is low and not significant. Seasonal differ- ences may also be caused by temporal variation in bait attraction, caused by fluctuations in food availability or changing food preferences related to brood production cycles (Stein et al. 1990). However, since the forest floor in Sabangau is an- nually flooded during the wet season (Wösten et al. 2008), the observed patterns likely represent real seasonal variation in forager density and ac- tivity on the forest floor and in the lower forest strata. A possible mechanism underlying the re- lation between wet-season flooding and low ant abundance could be that forest inundation during the wet season may reduce nesting site availabil- ity for leaf-litter ants (Mertl et al. 2009), while at the same time arboreal ants avoid foraging on the inundated forest floor (Adis & Schubart 1984). Despite the plausibility of such a mechanism, the seasonal differences in our study only cover one year, and ant communities can be in a long-term equilibrium but vary from year to year (Donoso 2017). Since the bat gaps had been abandoned only 5 years prior to our survey and forest regen- eration is still in process, it is likely that local ant communities have not reached such a long-term equilibrium yet.
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ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL CHANGES IN CLEARCUTTING AREA OF CHOSEN FOREST HABITATS

ANALYSIS OF GROUNDWATER LEVEL CHANGES IN CLEARCUTTING AREA OF CHOSEN FOREST HABITATS

Changes of the groundwater levels in the area of clearcutting in a swampy habitat and moist mixed broadleaved forest are analysed in the paper. The aim of the research is to evaluate the influence of clearcutting on the amount of changes in groundwa- ter levels. The research was carried out in two forestries located on the southern tip of Greater Poland, belonging to Siemianice Experimental Forest Farm. The analysis is based on data from wells located in ash-alder swamp forest in Marianka forestry and moist broadleaved forest in Laski forestry. The research is based on the rela- tion of groundwater levels in wells located in clearcutting and observation wells. The received relationship of groundwater levels helps estimate changes in groundwater table, depending on its depth before clearcutting. The research shows increases of groundwater levels in the area of clearcutting. Increments are significantly higher in moist broadleaved forest than in ash-alder swamp forest.
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Water Storage Changes in Upper Soil Layers in Different Forest Habitats

Water Storage Changes in Upper Soil Layers in Different Forest Habitats

Trends in changes of water storage in upper soil layers were analyzed. The observa- tions were carried out from 2002 to 2016 hydrological year in a small forest catch- ment in the district of Siemianice Forest Experimental Farm (LZD). The samples were taken from the upper soil layer of profiles located in different forest habitats, both at the beginning and at the end of hydrological half-years. Water storage was evaluated separately for two layers at the depths of 0–15 cm and 15–100 cm. Changes in water storage determined using the Mann-Kendall test were found to indicate multi-year trends. Results of the study are inconclusive. There were no statistically significant long-term trends in water storage changes in soil profiles in moist mixed broadleaved and coniferous forest and also in the soil profiles of fresh habitats. However, it is worth noting that statistically significant downward trends of water storage in two soil pro- files located in ash alder swamp forest and moist broadleaved forest were observed. To some degree, they can be accounted for by long-term downward trends of ground- water levels in the area.
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NGS barcoding reveals high resistance of a hyperdiverse chironomid (Diptera) swamp fauna against invasion from adjacent freshwater reservoirs

NGS barcoding reveals high resistance of a hyperdiverse chironomid (Diptera) swamp fauna against invasion from adjacent freshwater reservoirs

Our results suggest that the chironomid communities of both reservoirs and swamp forest are very resistant to each other, i.e., their chironomid species richness and community composition are very different. Of the 215 species collected during the study from the larval com- munities, only eight species were found in the forest streams and reservoir habitats, signaling nearly complete community turnover within < 1 km. One could surmise that the resistance may be related to water pH differ- ences between swamp forest and the reservoirs (see Additional file 2: Table S2). However, some nuisance midges are known to tolerate wide ranges of pH. For ex- ample, one of the species found in both habitats ( Tany- tarsus formosanus ) is known from acidic rice fields in Malaysia (pH: 5.15–7.7 [91]: abundance positively corre- lated with pH). Polypedilum leei , another species that is found in both habitats has previously been reported to be present in acidic aquatic environments (pH: 4–7 [92], pH: 4–7.1 [93]). However, both P. leei and P. quasinubi- fer are widely distributed in Singapore’s reservoirs with neutral to alkaline water ([38], Balo ğ lu et al., unpub- lished). This means that pH alone is unlikely the only reason why few species are shared between the habitats.
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Implementation of land cover change 
		detection based on supervised classifications of multispectral satellite 
		data for leveraging internet of things

Implementation of land cover change detection based on supervised classifications of multispectral satellite data for leveraging internet of things

The study area was Klang, located in Selangor, Malaysia. It covers approximately 540 km 2 within longitude 101° 10’ E to 101°30’ E and latitude 2°99’ N to 3°15’ N. The area has 11 primary land covers i.e. coastal swamp forest, dryland forest, oil palm, rubber, industry, cleared land, urban, coconut, bare land, sediment plumes and water [10]. This study involves three main phases i.e. data pre-processing, data processing and land cover change detection analysis. Landsat satellite data were obtained from Agensi Remote Sensing Negara (ARSM) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) involving data from 1998, 2000 and 2005 [11]. In data preparation, the data were initially calibrated where pixel raw digital number was converted into radiance [2]. Geometric correction was performed to correct the data for geometric distortion due to non-systematic error occurred. This was done by initially applying geometric correction on a base- data selected from one of the Landsat data and then registering all other data onto the base-data. Subset was carried out for the selected area within the image, since satellite data usually covers a very large area.
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ECOLOGY OF THE COASTAL HEATH FOREST FLORA - A CASE STUDY FROM TERENGGANU, MALAYSIA

ECOLOGY OF THE COASTAL HEATH FOREST FLORA - A CASE STUDY FROM TERENGGANU, MALAYSIA

The tropical forests are undoubtedly world's richest ecosystem and one of the most valuable natural resource in developing countries (Darus, 1982). In Malaysia these forests form a highly complex ecosystem with a rich and varied biodiversity. There are many forest types distributed in the country such as the lowland forest, mixed dipterocarp forest (MDF), peat swamp forest, mangrove forest, hill forest and heath forest. The heath forest locally known as “Hutan Kerangas”includes dry land sites in the lowlands and submontane zone with low stature. This special type of tropical rain forest is typically found on the Borneo Island (divided between Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia), as well as on Belitung and Bangka (the Indonesian islands), which lies to the west of Borneo. The habitants of this special and rare type of forest are
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V Evolution of the paleoenvironment

V Evolution of the paleoenvironment

In the study areas fluviatile clastic beds (clay- and sand deposits) alternate with organic beds {Phragmiles peat and wood peat, partially also detritus gyttja). The loamy top of the braided-river deposits at the base of this clay/peat alternation may have originated as a partly fluvial, partly eolian deposit and thus may be ünked genetically with the river dunes that also occur abundantly at the base of the clay/peat alternation and at several places pierce through it (as so-called donken). Both the loam and the river dunes may be dated probably as Late-Weichseüan cum early-Holocene. From c. 7400 BP the Holocene (ground-)water-level rise brought constantly moist conditions of a strongly varying nature to the region. After slow initial organic lacustrine deposition, Phragmiles-peat accumulation, and precursory fluvial clay deposition, extensive fluvial deposi- tion of clay and sand took place in the middle-Atlantic in the whole region, in a so-called fluvio-lagoonal environment: per- manent open-water surfaces covered the area outside the outcropping river dunes and the wooded natural levees of the many small river branches. An important relative, perhaps partly also absolute water-level fall at c. 6100 BP caused the region to become covered by swamp forest (mainly Alnus swamp) and to a lesser degree Phragmites marsh. These swamp forests per- sisted at many places notwithstanding the continuation of the Holocene water-level rise, probably because of its gradual slow- ing down in the course of the Holocene. In the more seaward of the two study areas, wetter conditions created many lakes amidst the swamp forests. In these lakes organic (gyttja) accumulation took place, and from c. 5300 BP also clay deposition, in very quiet conditions (the so-called fluvio-Iacustrine paleoenvironment). This late-Atlantic/early-Subboreal depositional phase (ending c. 4600 BP m the downstream study area) was foliowed during several centuries by an environment of closed
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Peatland forests are the least diverse tree communities documented in Amazonia, but contribute to high regional beta diversity

Peatland forests are the least diverse tree communities documented in Amazonia, but contribute to high regional beta diversity

One possible explanation for this apparent low endemism is that peatlands are a relatively transient 281 feature on the landscape in this region, and as a result there has been insufficient time for speciation to 282 occur. Wetland swamp habitats have occurred at least intermittently in Western Amazonia since the 283 early Miocene, although their permanence on the landscape remains unclear (Hoorn et al. 1994, 2010 284 a, b). However, unlike in SE Asia, no peats dating to Quaternary glacial periods have yet been 285 identified in the Pastaza-Marañón Foreland Basin (Lähteenoja 2009b, Lähteenoja et al. 2012, 286 Roucoux, et al. 2013, Swindles, et al. 2015, Watson, et al. 2015). Peatlands can be exceptionally 287 sensitive to climate dynamics, such as changes to precipitation and the flood regime (Fenner and 288 Freeman 2011, Kelly et al. 2017). Although Western Amazonia probably only experienced modest 289 drying during glacial periods (Cheng et al. 2013), even slightly reduced rainfall may have been 290 sufficient to cause peatlands, particularly domed ombrotrophic peatlands where pole forests are found, 291 to disappear from the landscape for long periods (Dommain et al. 2014). 292
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