The methods of teaching quantitative subjects have certainly been influenced by modern computing (multimedia and online). They will change even more dramatically in the years to come. One thing however remains the same; and that is the ability of the teacher to convey the underlying concepts to the learner. This can be enhanced by using the latest technology. The main purpose is to make it possible for the learner to build new meanings without simply memorizing pieces of information received from the teacher. Hence, the student will be able to adopt or customize methods to suit the real problems in the real world. It is interesting to note that about 2400 years ago, Plato suggested that knowledge should be acquired via a process of criticism and questioning without compulsion. In modern times, we refer to this method as reflective learning.
144 context of a larger unit, and explained how or why they were doing things to the viewer. It is more feasible to consider the screencast investigation assignment as a mastery teaching statistics experience for those participants who did these things. If participants viewed the screencast investigation assignment as an experience in teaching statistics, it has more of a chance of impacting their PTE because mastery experiences should involve the actual activity being mastered, which in this case is teaching, not doing, statistics. Those who did not take on the teacher role very much took the role of an investigator doing a statistical exploration themselves. It was treated more of a documentation of their own investigation, with little or no reference or acknowledgement of the viewer; in that case, mathematics PSTs still had the opportunity to display pedagogical knowledge of how students should engage in a statistical investigation, by modeling it themselves. None of the participants from Institution B showed evidence of rehearsal or took on the teacher role. Contrast that to Institution A, where half of the participants did both of those things. The difference in results among the two institutions can be attributed to the way the task was presented to participants. At Institution A, there were specific written instructions given that indicated participants should rehearse their screencast investigation, include advanced features of the technology, use appropriate statistical language, and incorporate statistical habits of mind. In addition, there were informal oral instructions given to encourage participants to treat the screencast investigation as if they had a student who was absent and this was their way of filling in that student. At Institution B, participants had completed a written statistical
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While examining knowledge needed to teach is important, researchers should also consider the non-cognitive aspects that teachers draw upon and how these are related to a teacher’s preparedness to teach statistics (Ball et al., 2008; Fennema & Franke, 1992). Teachers’ affect plays a crucial role in the pedagogical approaches they use and the time spent on a subject and thus can impact students’ learning (e.g., Love & Kruger, 2005; Pajares, 1992; Wilkins, 2008). Affect includes a teacher’s beliefs, attitudes, and emotions towards statistics. However there is a lack of research on secondary teachers’ affect in regards to teaching statistics (Batanero et al., 2011). Again the limited research that has been conducted has been with elementary teachers. Researchers have found that a teacher’s beliefs and attitudes towards statistics were related to their prior experiences with statistics and impact the choice of instructional tasks and students’ attitudes and beliefs towards statistics (Begg & Edwards, 1999; Eichler, 2008; Lancaster, 2008). Since a teacher’s beliefs and attitudes play a large role, it is crucial when considering PSMTs’ preparedness to teach statistics that PSMTs’ affect as well as statistical knowledge is examined.
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A questionnaire was designed to investigate doctors ’ use of, and attitude, to statistics and probability (full ques- tionnaire available from corresponding author). The spe- cific questions included aimed to gather information about the doctors’ experiences with probability and sta- tistics teaching during their undergraduate training, their use of probability and statistics in their daily work- ing life, and their views (based on both of these sets of experiences) on what and how statistics and probability should be taught to current undergraduate medical stu- dents. The questionnaire comprised 5 sections. In Part A participants were asked to indicate their current posi- tion, provide the year they achieved their undergraduate medical qualification, details of any other post-graduate qualifications achieved, and indicate the level of any involvement in health research. Part B concerned doc- tors’ use of probability and statistics in their current practice and their attitudes towards probability and sta- tistics, and towards maths at school, The results of Parts A & B are reported separately . In this article we focus on the questions which asked doctors about their own undergraduate teaching (Part C) and what under- graduate teaching they thought current undergraduates should receive (Part D) (Table 1). Part E was an optional test of statistical knowledge, on which the participants could receive feedback if they wished by providing their email address; the results of Part E have not been reported. Development of the questionnaire included all five authors (which includes three statisticians with experience of teaching, including teaching statistics to undergraduate medical students, one expert in medical education and one attitude researcher) and a colleague (with expertise in research methods and systematic reviewing). The questionnaire was piloted with clinical colleagues at the University of East Anglia (UEA) Medi- cal School and outside the university setting. Volunteers were asked to provide any comments they had about the questionnaire, including clarity of questions, length
In the last decades, there has been a trend among busi- ness schools in the U.S. to shift the focus of an Introduc- tory Business Statistics course from the traditional ap- proach of teaching statistics via formulae to an interpre- tive approach which emphasizes interpretations of statis- tical output obtained with the help of some statistical software. For example, see [1-3]. This encourages and enables students to concentrate on making more sense out of the statistical results instead of exerting most of their energy on the mechanics of calculating the various statistics. A survey of existing textbooks in the market reveals that a majority of them incorporate detailed in- structions on Excel and its add-ins. Only a small portion of the remaining textbooks utilize other statistical soft- ware such as Minitab, SPSS or SAS to perform the sta- tistical computations.
In the spring of 2005, the University of Lancaster was successful in winning a £4.85 million bid to fund a Centre of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CETL). In common with other CETLs, the Lancaster CETL has the core aim of achieving excellence in teaching, however our specific focus on the development of postgraduate statistics taught both within the discipline of statistics and more broadly in other disciplines is more unique. The award is partially funding a £3.3 million building, the Postgraduate Statistics Centre (PSC), to expand the postgraduate activities of the department and will provide state of the art new teaching spaces for teaching statistics courses. In addition to this, funding has provided the department with several new members of staff and will allow a range of new resources to be developed within the centre. This article will give a general overview of the PSC and will discuss the main aims and objectives of the project followed by a brief summary of our achievements to date.
Jiang Zeming once put forward thatinnovation sustains the progress of a nation, and an inexhaustible motive force for the prosperity of a country. The key of innovation is the talent whose growth depenging on education  . In addition, the work outling of the Ministry of Education in 2007 was to further deepen teaching reform, focus on the abilities of innovation and practice. The ability of innovation is the ability to apply knowldege and theory to put forward new thought, theory, method and creation with economic, social and ecological value in terms of the areas of science, art, technique and various practice activities. Innovation is the soul of the prograss of a nation and the core of economic competition. Current society competition is the competition of the ability of creation rather than the talents  . As the essential counterpart, the physical education has special effect on cultivating the ability of innovation  . The entertainment teaching of track and field, as one program of physical education, require to master the skills besides learning general knowledge which is a kind of teaching method to arouse the students’ interests in track and field and bring the potential of sports ability and innovation.
The government introduced the education policy in 2014 with the aim to improve teaching and learning facilities, including the availability of textbooks, laboratories and technological devices such as computers . In achieving this objective, the Tanzanian government has ensured that one third of the required books are available in primary schools . There has been an increase in enrolment since the declaration of fee free basic education without a clear correspondence to the availability of the textbooks. In the most recent statistics, primary school enrolment of pupils in Standard I-VII has increased by 8.5% from 9,317,791 pupils in the year 2017 to pupils 10,111,671 in the year 2018. In 2017 the average Pupils Book Ratio (PBR) ranged from 1: 5 and 1:6 while in 2018 there was a critical shortage of textbooks for history 1:6, ‘Najifunza Afya na mazingira’ 1:5 and ‘Najifunza Kuendeleza Sanaa na Michezo’ 1:5, . It is possible to conclude that the prevalence of high PBR is attributed to the introduction of the fee free education policy. On the other hand, it is possible to agree that the PBR is affected by an increase of pupils’ enrolment but there has been a concern from educational stakeholders on the quality of the text-books. The major concern is on the textbooks whose content lack proper connection with the curriculum . It is noted with concerns that the language used in English primary school textbooks is complex, in the sense that the majority of pupils could not read . One would say, although there must be a significant PBR, still the need to maintain quality is inevitable. Reflecting on the SDG number four, it states that by 2030, member states should build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non
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procedures . In 1997, the Technical Education Department under the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, introduced the contextual concept in the teaching and learning mathematics and science subjects in all the Malaysian technical secondary schools. The Ministry got the idea from the Center for Occupational Research and Development in Waco, Texas, USA when the Malaysian education officers, technical lecturers and teachers attended courses at the centre . Through the contextual concept, the students were able to understand abstract concepts through concrete experiences. Students prefer this method because usually they learn mathematics very mechanistic, which is, memorizing the formula and solving problems using the formula . Not only the students are able to learn faster but the workplace and lab activities help students to develop critical thinking skills .
This is a retrospective study involving histological diagnosed vulva malignancy in Calabar over a period of 10years (1996-2005). The histological register of department of pathology, university of Calabar teaching Hospital was accessed to collate the age, nature of specimen and histologic diagnosis of the Vulva lesion.
The data compiled would provide to all users and public at large information on statistics of each secondary school. The data is compiled using tables and graphical illustrations and analysed to ensure easy access to users. Intentionally, this report is produced to meet short and long term demands of all users particularly planners of government and non-governmental organizations, and specifically the Ministry of Education and students to name a few.
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Small class sizes means that teachers are teaching less than the required number of students in a classrom. The standard pupil to teacher ratio in Early Childhood Education is at 1:15, in Primary Schools is 1:30 and in Secondary Schools is at 1:25 meaning for example in ECE a standard number of pupils to best handle by one teacher is 15. The standard ratios outlined are those used by MOE for teacher posting to each school. The following tables and charts show Pupil Teacher Ratios in various configurations for each level of schooling.
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In Secondary education, 73% of teachers teach on a permanent basis as for others, they teach on probation, temporary and voluntary basis. The government is the principal investor on teacher’s salaries for teachers who actually teach in the government and assisted secondary schools. It is likely that these data do not coherent with the information, which already exists in the Finance system. It is there a source of supports for the section of the personnel for verifier the reliability of the statistical data and the data of the teaching personnel, which exist in the system wage of the Department of finance.
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The total number of teachers in secondary education this year is 675. This figure included teachers in the government schools, government assisted and private schools. The total number of teachers has increased by 14% as compared to last year. By looking closely on the number of teachers in government and assisted secondary schools, there is an increase of 29% as compare to last year. The distribution of teachers by sex indicates that there are 62% of male and 38% of female. The Secondary Education as well as the Teacher’s College must encourage more girls to enter the teaching service. At the moment, there is no balance in the recruitment of teachers by gender currently within the teaching services.
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According to the analysis, the Primary Education needs to increase the number of Primary schools in the Country due to the regular increase on the number of new intakes in grade 1. This year 23% of the voluntary teachers is not trained. The Ministry has to organise training to enhance their teaching skills. Similarly, top-up teachers have to be given proper training to teach the modified secondary syllabus. The Analysis also indicates that the total number of primary school student’s enrolment is randomly increasing by 3 percent annually. This resolve that the
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directing much of the conversation in the discussion forums. In this initial experiment in collaboration, Catherine invited Todd into this digital classroom space to offer guidance on statistics and the role of quantitative data collection and analysis methods in research. During the week of Todd’s visit, Catherine created a “bonus discussion forum” where the students could ask him questions directly. The forum was set up for asynchronous conversation (i.e. more like e- mail; not real-time communication, such as chat rooms), which meant that Todd could respond to questions and engage in ongoing discussion as his time permitted. Catherine opened the forum with a brief introduction and photo of Todd, and posted a few questions to get the conversation started. Todd then accessed the Moodle Site a few times during the week-long unit to respond to Catherine’s initial questions and to those of the students. During his virtual visit, he shared resources, examples, and philosophical musings and students commented that his presence was most useful.
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Another important indicator which is relevant to measure progress against the quality of learning and teaching in our schools is the percentage of trained teachers. VEMIS shows that there are 3,738 teachers in the existing kindergarten, primary and secondary schools in the country. However, 57.6% of these teachers are certified to teach. There are 2,404 qualified teachers in Vanuatu in 2013, however the term “qualified” is defined as teachers that are not trained at VITE but has some other academic qualifications. Certified teachers are those with either an academic qualification and have been trained at VITE. The 2013 VEMIS data showed that there are 1,334unqualified teachers that are currently teaching on temporary and contract basis.
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This document contains relevant education statistics to measure progress towards the three policy goals of the MoET Corporate Plan 2017-2019 “ACCESS, QUALITY AND MANAGEMENT”. As with many such data collections, there may be limitations in terms of missing or complete data in some areas of educations sectors, however MoET through its business plan 2017-2018 continue to strengthen the quality of data in the Open VEMIS system to ensure all education data are captured. This system is able to import data from other sources; as such MoET through the Policy and Planning Division keeps encouraging other divisions such as the Post School Education and Training to start making use of the Open VEMIS.
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Standard textbooks in core Statistics and Management Science classes present various examples to introduce basic probability concepts to undergraduate business students. These include tossing of a coin, throwing a die, and examples of that nature. While these are good examples to introduce basic probability, we use improvised versions of Russian Roulette and found these to be very effective in communicating important concepts in probability to our business school students. We use these modified versions of Russian Roulette to communicate concepts such as dependent event, joint probabilities and the value of information using Bayes’ law. The students understand and enjoy these examples and the class participation has been higher than usual.
The HDI’s health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth and is calculated by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The education dimension has two components: years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age. These indicators are produced by UNESCO Institute for Statistics. The two indices are combined into an education index using arithmetic mean. The standard of living dimension is measured by the GNIpc, respecting the purchasing power parity (PPP) methodology, calculated by World Bank (up to 2012) and IMF (2013).