Text Watermarking

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Text Watermarking using Sinusoidal Greyscale Variations of Font based on Alphabet Count

Text Watermarking using Sinusoidal Greyscale Variations of Font based on Alphabet Count

In image based approach towards text watermarking, the watermark is embedded in the text image. Brassil, et al. were the first to propose a few text watermarking methods utilizing text image [1]-[2]. Later, the performance of these methods were analysed by Maxemchuk, et al. [3]-[4]. Huang and Yan [5] proposed an algorithm based on an average inter-word distance in each line. Wiyada Yawai and Nualsawat Hiransakolwong showed how to use the intersection position of horizontal line, virtually run across text character skeleton line on a text image under the cross ratio applying, to be the marking point of zero watermarks [15].
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Securing web contents through invisible text watermarking for copyright protection

Securing web contents through invisible text watermarking for copyright protection

The process of embedding and extracting a watermark to and from a digital text document which uniquely defines the original owner of it is known as Digital Text watermarking. A watermark is basically used for identifying either the originator or authorized user. Fig 1 shows the process of watermarking. The Digital Watermarking is the best technique for copyright protection of electronic media [2].

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Text Watermarking Technique For Hindi Language Documents Using Structural Approach

Text Watermarking Technique For Hindi Language Documents Using Structural Approach

NUMEROUS kind of digital information like image, audio, video and text is globally available across the Internet. This electronic form of all kind of information is greatly popular compared to the bulky traditional paperwork. Due to widespread availability, this information is likely to be vulnerable to illegitimate copying, redistribution, authentication, fingerprinting and tampering. Among various existing solutions, digital watermarking has emerged as a prominent solution against several security issues. A general watermarking technique is characterized by properties like robustness, security, capacity and imperceptibility [1, 2]. The digital text watermarking embeds a watermark in the text to uniquely identify the genuine owner of the text. Many researchers have developed text watermarking techniques to enhance security of digital text and to protect intellectual property rights of genuine authors of various natural languages like English, Turkish, Chinese, Arabic and Marathi [3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. For each of these techniques, the authors have appropriately used unique and specific approaches focusing on the features of respective language to make the contents secure from unauthentic access and use. All these techniques can be categorized in one of the following approaches: Image Based, Syntactic, Semantic or Structural. Each of these approaches has uniqueness and shortfalls compared to generic requirement of watermarking technique. But those also have some uniqueness depending upon their application accordingly. Here we focus on Hindi language which is national language of India. Currently no such technique still exists to protect the intellectual property rights of Hindi language text documents. In this paper we propose a new robust watermarking technique for Hindi language. We identify ‗pratyaya‘ (suffix) as a distinguished unique language construct of Hindi text to be used for generation of required watermark. Considering all the facts about Hindi language, we follow the structural approach to develop our proposed text
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A Novel Approach to Angle based Invisible Text Watermarking with EBCDIC Coding

A Novel Approach to Angle based Invisible Text Watermarking with EBCDIC Coding

In this paper a new technique for text watermarking is proposed which will be faster, reliable and more efficient. It will provide more imperceptibility due to uniform spread of the watermark, and due to rotation angle, which is so minute that is not possible to differentiate between the original one and the watermarked one visually. And also, since the watermark is coded using EBCDIC, it will more robust against channel noise. Due to these two levels processing, the watermark will be more secure and strong.100% fidelity can be achieved by the proposed method as the actual data is not embedded into the main text, only the rotation of words is done. Embedding and detection time is less but the response time is too large for attacker to extract or to modify the watermark.
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IMPROVED AES AND DES FOR TEXT WATERMARKING IN DOCUMENTSGagandeep Kaur, Sukhwinderbir Bhagat

IMPROVED AES AND DES FOR TEXT WATERMARKING IN DOCUMENTSGagandeep Kaur, Sukhwinderbir Bhagat

Ever since songs as well as harmony can possibly be copyrighted legitimately, easily by now, audio watermarking has to do furthermore work by way of delivery of the content or for searching of the content. For example, if an online store name is embedded unnoticeably into a music file, FBI, when conducting some major illegal-audio- distribution bust, may be able to trace to the original person the theft started from someone may have bought one song, which he uploaded to an illegal website, which was used to massively distribute.

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Watermarking text document image using pascal triangle approach

Watermarking text document image using pascal triangle approach

The need to have an efficient text watermarking algorithm is imperative especially with respect to testing against attacks. Most of the recent works in the field are based on spatial domain technique (Ail et al.,2003). Spatial domain methods are more popular than the frequency domain methods, the method of spatial domain is more robust and the watermark is more hidden from the general view (Kostopoulos et al.,2003).

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Content Authentication of English Text via Internet using Zero Watermarking Technique and Markov Model

Content Authentication of English Text via Internet using Zero Watermarking Technique and Markov Model

Text watermarking techniques based on format are layout dependent. In [5], proposed three different embedding methods for text documents which are, line shift coding, word shift coding, and feature coding. In line-shift coding technique, each even line is shifted up or down depending on the bit value in the watermark bits. Mostly, the line is shifted up if the bit is one, otherwise, the line is shifted down. The odd lines are considered as control lines and used at decoding. Similarly, in word-shift coding technique, words are shifted and modify the inter-word spaces to embed the watermark bits. Finally, in the feature coding technique, certain text features such as the pixel of characters, the length of the end lines in characters are altered in a specific way to encode the zeros and ones of watermark bits. Watermark detection process is performed by comparing the original and watermarked document.
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Printed document forgery detection using text reordering and mixing of matrices in zero watermarking

Printed document forgery detection using text reordering and mixing of matrices in zero watermarking

This study is divided into five chapters. Chapter 1 briefly describes about the summary of the whole study and background of the problem that motivates the need to study for current methods and alternatives to text watermarking. There are also objectives and scopes that need to be achieved. In Chapter 2, the discussion on the goals of information security and also literature reviews on various existing printed watermarking methods which are divided into image and text watermarking are done. From the literature review, research gap of this study is stated to improve weaknesses found in the current method or algorithm. The methodology that describes on how this study is executed are explained in Chapter 3. The methodology is based on the objectives stated in Chapter 1 that consists of methods and phases which are organized in a systematic way to ensure the objectives are successfully achieved.
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A Robust Method for Integrity Protection of Digital Data in Text Document Watermarking

A Robust Method for Integrity Protection of Digital Data in Text Document Watermarking

Digital watermarking provides authentication, validation and copyright protection for multimedia contents over the internet. Text is the most widely used means of communication in addition to images, audio and video clips. So it may be required to be protected. Text watermarking techniques that have been developed in past protects the text from illegal copying, imitation, and prevents copyright violations. In this paper, we have proposed an algorithm that ensures the integrity and confidentiality of the document. In this technique watermark is created based on the contents of the document and embeds it without changing the contents of the document and also encrypts the text to provide confidentiality. To authenticate and prove the integrity of the document the watermark can be easily extracted and verified for tampering.
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Using Combined Pseudo-Random Number Generator with Digital Text-based Watermarking for Cryptography Application

Using Combined Pseudo-Random Number Generator with Digital Text-based Watermarking for Cryptography Application

ost of the research work that has been done in this field looks at increasing the output speed in computing the cryptographic results in on TRNG platform[1]. As we read other research related work in Research and Implementation of RSA Algorithm in Java[9]and Text Watermarking Using Combined Image- plus-Text Watermark[2,3]. These two papers discuss two separate independent studies on RSA algorithm in Java and text watermarking using combined image based watermarking. So far, the limited research studies of text- based digital watermarking techniques based on Pseudo- Random Number Generator (PRNG) for Cryptography application. Therefore, we need to do research and experimental undertaken within the context of design and implementation of text based watermarking combined with cryptographic techniques.
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WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR SECURITY

WATERMARKING TECHNIQUE FOR SECURITY

Digital watermarking technology started as early as 1282 in Italy, where paper watermarks were used to indicate the paper brand and the mill that produced it. After this invention, the method quickly spread over Italy and then over Europe. Although originally intended for paper brand and mill identification, the technique was later enhanced to include paper format, quality and strength. They were also used to date and authenticate paper.[10]

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ICA for Watermarking Digital Images

ICA for Watermarking Digital Images

Early watermarking schemes operated directly in the covertext domain. However, such methods have been shown to be quite poor in their robustness properties. Many feature spaces have been studied in recent years for improving the efficiency of watermarking systems; most of these choices are for reasons of convenience and traditional use in the specific domain, such as Fourier and Cosine transforms in images. A theoretical approach to find an optimal feature space in a particular case, based on an information theoretical approach, has recently been suggested by Ramkumar (2000). However, it is yet to be seen if this approach can be of practical use. Research has focused more on the design of practical systems using well known feature spaces. The three main spaces are: Cosine Transform Domain: is widely used being a good approximation for the Karhunen Lo `eve
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Watermarking  Cryptographic  Capabilities

Watermarking Cryptographic Capabilities

A natural question is whether there are families of functions that for which there does not exist any water- marking scheme. Barak et al. [BGI + 01] observed that general-purpose indistinguishability obfuscation rules out a notion of watermarking that exactly preserves functionality, but not watermarking schemes that change functionality on even a negligible fraction of the domain (as in section 6). In this section, we demonstrate that some notion of non-black-box learnability implies that a family of functions is unwatermarkable. We demon- strate that there exist PRF families that cannot be watermarked (assuming only the existence of one-way functions), and that any family that is learnable with membership queries [KL93] is not watermarkable. 9.1 Impossibilities for statistical correctness
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Review of Digital Watermarking Techniques

Review of Digital Watermarking Techniques

ABSTRACT: Digital image is the important vector of network information communication as there is rapid development of multimedia technology. In today’s world, Security and reliability of images or information are the most important factors. During the transmission a process image often get destructed and fails to extract the hidden information as well as image authentication. In recent years, one of the widely used and developed techniques is digital watermarking. Digital watermarking is widely used in medical applications. There are several purposes of image watermarking. One of the widely used applications is to protect the patient’s medical history from unauthorized people. It embeds the watermark like patient’s information and doctor’s signature in host’s medical image for telemedicine applications. It can be also used for authentication if patient lost his/her image. This paper focuses on using wavelet transform in medical images watermarking. It discusses the wavelet transform watermarking technique. And it highlights the latest related work done on using wavelet transform watermarking over medical images.
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Steganography, Cryptography and Watermarking: A Review

Steganography, Cryptography and Watermarking: A Review

ABSTRACT: In this digital era, it is simple to produce and create multiple copies of the data which can either be text, audio, image, softwares etc. This creates a problem concerning the protection of the intellectual and production rights. The problem may be solved by information hiding techniques that hides the important data. This paper presents an overview of basics information hiding techniques. The paper concludes with the application areas of information hiding techniques.

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Robust Logo Watermarking

Robust Logo Watermarking

Saravanan et al. [79] proposed to combine DWT, DFT, DCT, and SVD for efficient and robust watermarking of colour images. In this method, the Daubechies family of wavelets is used. The DWT stage uses the horizontal detail coefficients for watermark embedding. Since DWT is not translation invariant, DFT is used to compensate for that. This is followed by DCT, which allows a compact representation of the information. Finally, SVD is used to embed the watermark in the image. The drawbacks of this algorithm are that it is not scale invariant, it is computationally complex, and it has low capacity. DWT, DCT, and SVD were also combined in Fazli & Moeini’s [80] robust image watermarking scheme. In this scheme, the host image is first divided into four non- overlapping rectangular regions called sub-images. A copy of the watermark is embedded into each sub-image. This distribution of the watermark into different parts of the image is expected to protect from cropping of parts of the image. For robustness against geometric attacks, a synchronization scheme is used which detects the image corners of the desired image. This method is robust against a variety of attacks and works for colour images, but it does not take into consideration HVS while embedding the watermark. Hence, its capacity can be further improved.
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Image Retrieval Based On Color and Texture Features Modification in Watermarking TechniqueModification in Watermarking Technique

Image Retrieval Based On Color and Texture Features Modification in Watermarking TechniqueModification in Watermarking Technique

We exhibited a diminished injury calculation for LSB feature watermarking. The key thought of the calculation is watermark bit implanting that causes negligible putting in bending of the host sound. Listening tests incontestable that represented calculation succeeds in increasing the profundity of the putting in layer from4th to 6thLSB layer while not influencing the sensory activity straightforwardness of the watermarked sound sign. The amendment in sincerity in neighborhood of added substance clamor is taken for granted, because the projected calculation gets altogether lower bit slip rates than the quality calculation. The steganalysis of the projected calculation is all the tougher too, on the grounds that there's an interesting cryptography accommodated data security.
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Digital Watermarking: A survey on image watermarking in Frequency Domain using Genetic Algorithm

Digital Watermarking: A survey on image watermarking in Frequency Domain using Genetic Algorithm

Hsu and Wu [10] proposed a DCT based watermarking technique. They embed the watermark with visually recognizable patterns into the image by selectively modifying the middle- frequency bands of the image. Their embedding technique can survive against cropping, image enhancement and the JPEG lossy compression. Shinfeng D. Ling [13] proposed a DCT based technique, where they adjust the DCT low frequency coefficients by the concept of mathematical remainder instead of directly replacing the low-frequency components with watermark. This technique will preserve the acceptable visual quality for watermarking image. A Pavi [11] proposed a DCT based watermarking method operates in the frequency domain embedding a pseudo-random sequence of real numbers ina selected set of DCT algorithm. The watermark is robust to several signal processing techniques and geometric distortions.
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Review on Digital Watermarking Images

Review on Digital Watermarking Images

The methodology for digital water marking of images is proposed in [7]. “Digital watermarking in the work presented was considered particularly on a satellite image by making use of the DCT algorithm after JPEG compression. By anticipating which coefficients will be modified by the succeeding transforms, it is possible to produce a watermarking method with good capacity, moderate robustness, and low visual impact. This method holds particularly true in the case of compression techniques, were the compression algorithms are well known. Additional work can be done as an enhancement of the single watermark to embed more than one watermark in a satellite image. The communication networks allows the widespread distribution of multimedia data in various ways because of its rapid growth. Since digital productions can be easily duplicated, encouraging illegal distribution of electronic documents and unauthorized cloning are issues that have to be resolved. This paper demonstrates a technique for digital watermarking using the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) Domain and for the purpose of authentication it introduces the use of pseudo random noise in watermarking to hide information. The underlying system is based on Code Division multiple Access (CDMA) is a form of spread spectrum communication. The main objectives are development of a watermark embedding strategy and the analysis of the results. A compression technique was considered as an image attack to perform the implemented approach. The proposed technique provided a robust watermark extraction and has been successfully tested on a simple satellite image”. In this methodology of digital water marking of images is proposed in [8]. “This technique deals with medical image watermarking, we aimed at using the Error Correcting Code and the DCT space. On other side, to improve the message integrity and the ECC to increase the security
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INVISIBLE WATERMARKING for TEXT FILES

INVISIBLE WATERMARKING for TEXT FILES

In the current state of Internet’s global network, we often like to save our digital data. In recent years, due to the sudden rise of Internet, all forms of media are available significantly. This can be seen in case of song recordings, in which, computer-based systems have created unbelievable sound of song content which are widely available and that too without the permission of the song's creators. The case is not special to the song industry because all content-originators like photographers, filmmakers etc have the same problem to different degrees. The solution to this problem of piracy is a current problem, some technology are created for help. For this reason we need a security system. Digital watermarking is a solution for protecting content copyright in the global network. It imposes extra robustness on embedded information Digital watermarks are hard to abolish without affecting badly the original content in cases where cryptography is unable to provide robustness. The content watermarking is done by converting copyright information into some random digital noise through special algorithm that is noticed only by the creator. Watermarks are robust against filtering and remain with the content till the original has not been purposely destroyed. Digital watermarking is the method of obscuring a message that is associated with a digital signal (i.e. an image, song, video) within the signal itself. It is a concept which is closely related with steganography, in that they both obscure a message inside a digital signal. However, what separates them is their goal. Watermarking attempt to obscure any message related to the original data of the digital signal, while in steganography the digital signal has no association with the message, and it is just used in the form of cover to obscure its existence.
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