Part of what I loved about making this work was the first hand account from the collectors about their possessions. As my work progressed, I realized that a reference to my personal experience with each person was not conveyed in the work and was an important part of my process. So I began experimenting with the inclusion of text with the imagery. I settled on short statements or sentences that spoke to my experience. My intention was to give obscure information that might ask the viewer to question what was outside the frame of the image itself, giving the photograph another dimension for consideration. Phrases like “There was a dress for every pair,” or “She used to hide them,” force the viewer, I believe, to reexamine the image to reveal the meaning of the statement or how it orients reception of the portrait. The secondary function of the text was to reinforce my attempt to express the personality of the collector. While some statements are humorous when paired with the image, others are very serious or even sad.
Zhou, et al  carried out theoretical analysis on the effect of the chimney height on the performance of the SCPP. The theoretical investigation was based on the data of Manzanares solar chimney prototype. The results show that as standard lapse rate of atmospheric temperature is used, the maximum power output of 102.2 kW is obtained for the optimal chimney height of 615 m, which is lower than the maximum chimney height with a power output of 92.3 kW. They concluded that with respect to a special collector, negative buoyancy at the latter chimney will occur if chimney height is more than the maximum height. The power plant would obtain the maximum energy conversion efficiency if chimney height is equal to the optimal height. Al-Kayiem  investigated the performance of solar chimney power plant experimental, analytically and numerically for a model with collector diameter of the collector was 2.1 m and absorbing medium of black painted pebbles while the canopy was made of Perspex. The model has variables chimney and canopy height. The analytical results were validated with the experimental data. The performance indicators selected for the validation and comparison were collector buoyant air temperature and air mass flow rate generated in the system. The results showed that the lowest canopy height performed better than the higher ones and the system performed betters as the chimney height increased.
The operation of the collector with TIM at a small flow rate has more advantage. Ralph Eismann. proposed for the expense and productivity improvement of level plate gatherers a precise diagnostic model and the transmission coefficient, spread plate, the absorptance, ingestion plate, of the safeguard covering and the transformation factor, g0, of the exact model. In this manner the vulnerability of the steady, C, was impressively diminished. The gatherer model was approved against exact information of 22 level plate authorities which were tried by the European standard EN 12975-2 (CEN, 2006). The vulnerability of the upgraded authority model lies well inside the vulnerability of experimental test outcomes. F. Giovannetti et al.  recommended a gatherer with New glass coatings with high sun powered transmittance and low emissivity dependent on straightforward conductive oxides (TCO) empower imaginative authority plans. His examines the aftereffects of our examinations on revealed, single-, and twofold coated level plate authorities. Based on the optical information of recently created covered glass, we examine its potential in contrast with ordinary spreads. The outcomes show that a huge increment in effectiveness is available both in single-coated gatherers with low or non-particular safeguards and in twofold coated authorities with profoundly specific safeguards. M.E. Zayed et al.  survey on the utilization of nanofluids for improving the fiery presentation of sun oriented Upstarting the FPSC with carbon nanostructure, copper oxide and aluminum oxide nanofluids, on similar conditions with point by point monetary investigation, along these lines, a significant examination might be acquired. Contemplating the presentation of the FPSC with half breed nanofluids for example a mix of at least two different nanoparticles scattered in the basic liquid as it is viewed as a promising HTF inside the sun powered FPCs. Xianli Lia et al.  examined the impact of changes in emissivity of safeguard plate on the authority execution and An extensive stretch presentation of safeguard plate to outside condition shows that the exhibition corrupts generally with dust collection except if the surface is cleaned by human activity. In any case, the outlet temperature and the proficiency don't diminish carefully, mostly because of that the uncovered sunlight based radiation force isn't indistinguishable which importantly affects the presentation corruption. Mirza Muneer Baig et al.  built up a sun powered FPC by utilizing mellow steel as a safeguard plate rather than aluminum we are getting effectiveness as ______________________
The polymer collector was mounted on the experiment rig by ensuring the top header is upward to allow water fill up the tube. The inlet temperature of the transfer fluid need to be close as possible of ambient temperature. It recommended within ± 1°C. The control of the inlet temperature used a heat exchanger to cool the transfer fluid during the closed loop circulation. To set the increment of the temperature for inlet water, the adjustable in line electric resistance heater was conducted while circulating the transfer fluid through the collector. The flow rate of the collector was 0.02 kg/sm² specified in the standard. In this case the mass flow rate apply was 0.06 kg/s. At the same time, the minimum incident solar energy is 800 W/m² at all time during the experiment. In Malaysia, the high irradiance particularly can be obtain in the range of 11.30 am until 2.30 pm. The collector was shaded by opaque cover appropriately. When all the condition was satisfy (irradiance greater then 800 W/m² and water temperature inlet almost same as temperature ambient), the opaque cover was shaded on the top surface of polymer collector abruptly. The opaque cover must be suspended or hanging from the collector to allow the ambient air to pass over the collector as prior of the beginning of the test. The temperature of inlet water temperature (Tᵢ) and outlet water temperature (Tₒ) were continuously monitor as function of time until a steady state condition is achieved, when
The collector has been placed facing due south with a tilt angle of 11° to the horizontal. The elliptical heat pipes have been brazed to the absorber sheet in such a way that the evaporator section of the heat pipe is in the collector and condenser section is protruding outside the collector. The water circulated through the condenser section at inlet and outlet temperatures were measured by K-type thermocouple. Solar intensity at the test site was measured using EPPLY pyranometer. The heat pipe surface temperature, absorber plate temperatures and glass plate temperatures were
SAH, the cross sectional area of the absorber plate has been taken constant. However, the collector receives energy from the sun that is absorbed by the plate and is then transferred to the fluid. For energy is transferred to increase in the direction of flow of energy in a plate. It is fact that for effective design, the profile shape of the absorber plate should be divergent in nature in the direction of heat transfer. Among different profile shapes is more efficient for transfer of energy. On the other hand, fabrication of such profile is needs some manufacturing technique and is bound to very expensive.
If a data collector wants to collect data from data providers who place high value on their confidential data, the collector may need to negotiate with the providers about the ``price'' of the sensitive data and the level of privacy protection. In , Adl et al. build a sequential probability model to analyze the confidential data collection process. In the proposed model, a data user, who wants to buy a data set from the data collector, makes a price offer to the collector at the beginning of the game. If the data collector accepts the offer, he then announces some incentives to data providers in order to collect confidential data from them. Before selling the collected data to the data user, the data collector applies anonymization technique to the data, in order to protect the privacy of data providers at certain level. Knowing that data will be anonymized, the data user asks for a privacy protection level that facilitates his most preferable balance between data quality and quantity when making his offer. The data collector also announces a specific privacy protection level to data providers. Based on the protection level and incentives offered by data collector, a data provider decides whether to provide his data.
analysis is needed to decide, if or under which conditions, the double-glass would increase the overall efficiency of the air collector. The air cavities in the solar collectors were divided into 5 separate zones. Figure 2 shows the model of the collector with the individual air-zones.
As indicated in the previous section, Figure 2A shows the typical voltage and current waveforms across the device under test during the operation of the proposed test circuit. In this case the gate voltage has been set to 6.8V and the collector supply voltage to 300V. The gate static polarization determines a collector current of about 100A, as given by IGBT output characteristics reported in the datasheet. The Vrf input high frequency voltage has been set in order to have 25mV peak to peak amplitude on IGBT gate. The corresponding frequency has been set to 1MHz. The resulting output radio frequency signal can be recognised as an overlap on the IGBT current and voltage waveforms (see Figure. 2A). The output voltage, V out , is reported in Figure.
sulfide in the pulp to absorb the collector and also the property of soluble sulfur ions as the depressant. In Figure 8 (a), pH has a positive effect using 507, and a negative effect using PAX. In Figure 8 (b), when PAX is used, changing the dosage of sodium sulfide does not affect the final recovery, but when 507 is used, as the sodium sulfide content increases, the final recovery reduces, as shown in Figure 8 (b).
Solar collectors are special kind of a device that transform solar irradiance into internal energy of the transport medium, and hence increases their thermal effects. They absorb and capture the incoming solar radiation, convert it into heat and transfers the heat to a fluid flowing through the collector . Previousely demand of domestic hot water has been satisfying with other energy source than solar. However, solar water heating alone can reduce domestic water heating costs by as much as 70% . Flat- plate solar collector is the most common for residential water and space heating as well as for industrial application. Most of the ﬂat plate collectors currently available on the market are of the parallel tube type known as conventional flat plate solar collector . They are relevants for high flow rate that requires high operational costs. Moreover,
On the other hand, Figure 7 shows variations of temperatures in collectors without baffles and with 3, 4 and 8 baffles. Collector model with 8 baffles showed superiority in outlet temperature compared to other models. The average tem- perature for the collector with 8 baffles was 41.3˚C while that of 3, 4 and without baffles were 39˚C, 40˚C, and 38˚C respectively. The figure showed the high fluc- tuation of temperature which was caused by instability of solar intensity. In this regards, it can be seen that the collector temperature cannot be used as a com- parative parameter in a solar collector with and without baffles due to the varia- tion of solar intensity and air flow due to change in fan efficiency.
Solar energy is one of alternative energy sources in Indonesia. It can be converted to electrical energy by solar panel. There is a collector in the solar panel for collecting solar energy. The collector can collect solar energy maximally if the position is vertical to the sun. For keeping the collector position is always vertical to the sun, we choose to construct T2FSMC controller because it can control the angular velocity of collector and improve the ability of overcoming the disturbance and uncertainty of solar panel prototype. The controller can be implemented to the solar panel prototype. By using the most representative parameters, we obtain that T2FSMC controller is suitable for the solar panel prototype.
In the design , the primary function of the absorber plate and tubes in the collector is to absorb as much as possible the radiation reaching their surfaces through the glazing, to lose as little heat as possible upward to the atmosphere and downward through the back of the container, and to transfer the retained heat to the circulating fluid. Aluminum sheet was selected as the absorber plate for this design because it has the properties mentioned above. Its durability, ease of handling, its availability and relatively low cost are other major factors considered in its selection. Copper tube was selected and preferred over any other metal for water passages because of its high conductivity and compatibility with water. Absorber plates are usually given a surface coating (black is commonly paint was used) that increases the fraction of available solar radiation absorbed by the plate (absorptance a). The matte black paints, for which a = 0.92 to 0.98 were selected as in (Duffie and Beckman, 2013). Finally Fiber glass-wool and hard foam material were selected for the thermal insulation of the flat plate, storage tank and connecting pipes. These insulation materials are known to be dimensionally and chemically stable at high temperatures, and resistant to weathering and dampness from condensation as stated by (Rhushi et al. 2011).
rator. Solar insolation values and ambient temperatures for Ngaoundere city, Cameroonare are shown in Table 1. These values are taken from Ngaoundere Meteorological Service. Ambient temperature during cool season is maximum at 33.62˚C, and minimum at 25.41˚C. The angle of incidence of the collector is taken as 60˚C. Cool water, Chilled water and hot water flow rates are taken as 0.00474, 0.00474 and 0.05691 kg/s respectively in the absorber, the condenser and the evaporator.
According to the manual toll collection methodology, a driver has to stop at a charging booth and pay the required fees directly to a collector. The amount to be paid by each vehicle is determined by its characteristics or classification. It requires a toll collector or attendant for collecting toll tax, the toll collector himself classifies the vehicle and according to the type of vehicle as light or heavy collects the toll from them, dispense the change and then provide receipt to the vehicle holder.Sometimes, when vehicle comes to booth, toll is charged manually by the vehicle owner and just provide a receipt in which no description about vehicle is given, only toll tax amount is present.In such a situation, if a heavy vehicle comes to toll booth, the collector at the toll booth charges some amount greater than toll amount of light vehicle but provides a receipt of light vehicle, because of which the owner of the vehicle will be in lost. Some of the disadvantages of this type of toll collection system is: Less Accuracy, Manual Testing requires more time or more resources (Human resources and Environmental Resources), sometimes both, executing same tests again and again is time taking process.
The plot of this relation is shown as a dashed line in Figure 2-a and Figure 2-b. Once the bed length is selected, this plot can determine the mass velocity, G. The solid lines then determine the average daily energy retrieval for each month. The heating load and the retrieval rates are compared and the surface area of the collector is selected so best meets the heating load. The frontal area of the bed is:
After the perfect installation of the air collector and giving supply to the case cooler fans they rotate and tend to trap the atmospheric air into the collector box. As mentioned earlier the fans both at the inlet and exit are fixed in such a way that air is forced in the same direction from the inlet till the exhaust. After the air is trapped inside it starts passing through the air flow duct made by combining a number of Aluminium cans. At the same time since our collector is exposed to sunlight the sun’s energy (light or radiation) is being absorbed by the Glazing made of acrylic sheet which is the top for the collector box. And then this radiation energy is being absorbed by the collector duct surface as it is coated with black (matt finish) paint. So it is very clear that a very important radiation phenomenon BLACK BODY ABSORPTION is taking place in here. Now it is essential to discuss about the black body absorption. E. Black Body Absorption
Abstract A Mathematical modeling of indirect natural convection solar dryer was designed for drying one of the famous dairy product in Jordan called Jameed. The intended solar dryer system is environmentally friendly and consumes zero electricity. The dryer consists of a flat plate solar collector having dimensions of 0.1 m height, 0.8 m width and 1.2 m length. A drying chamber consisting of four trays separated equally from each others at a distance of 0.2 m. The chamber is 1 m long made of wood. Each tray has a cross section of 0.8 m x 0.4 m. The solar collector is studied separately to establish the effect of changing its width or length on the air outlet temperature and mass flow rate. The drying chamber is used to dry 4 kilograms of jameed, each 1 kilogram is distributed on each tray. The total solar irradiation on the collector surface and chamber walls at each hour of the day was also calculated at the 21 st of May in