Bilateral WT. A, Axial short TI inversion recovery (STIR) MRI sequence through the upper abdomen demonstrates large heterogeneous masses (black arrows) arising from both kidneys. Note the compressed renal parenchyma (white arrows). B, Axial and (C) coronal STIR MRI sequences of the abdomen demonstrate the size of the large heterogeneous bilateral renal masses, which essentially ﬁ ll the abdomen, and half-Fourier acquisition single-shot turbo spin-echo MRI sequence clearly reveals the small cystic areas within the masses.
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As the charm quark is considerably heavier than the up, down and strange quarks an SU(4) ﬂavour breaking expansion is poorly convergent (in distinction to the SU(3) ﬂavour breaking expansion). Another possibility is to make independent SU(3) ﬂavour breaking expansions in each charm sector (but this not a very uniﬁed approach). We adopt an intermediate aproach here, ﬁrst noting that as the charm quark mass is much heavier than the u, d and s quark masses, it contributes little to the dynamics of the sea of the hadron. Thus we can regard the charm quark as a ‘Partially Quenched’ or PQ quark. By this we mean that the quark masses making up the meson or baryon have not necessarily the same mass as the sea quarks. Also the SU(3) ﬂavour breaking expansion can also be extended to valence quark masses. As the expansion coe ffi cients are just functions of m, provided this is kept constant then the coe ffi cients are unchanged. We shall say the ‘Unitary Limit’ when the masses of the valence quarks coincide with the sea quarks. PQ determinations have the advantage of not being expensive compared to dynamical simulations of the quarks. This can also help in the determination of the expansion coe ffi cients as a wider range of quark masses than just the unitary masses can be used.
dµ γ t c , (11) and so on. It is easy to write down the analogous expressions for the other generations. We have included in Eqs. (9),(10) the standard D-term contributions to the masses resulting from the Higgs vevs, together with a contribution S from the (unknown) vevs of the singlets S i . Note that the dependence on the singlet sector is subsumed into ζ 2 , and therefore much
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All the material properties of the beam and the dimensions are measured in the lab. Fig 2.4.1 shows the experimental set up of a complete UTM machine in which the young modulus of the material is measured experimentally. Two slender, elastic beams of aluminum and iron are considered for frequency analysis. The lengths of beams are measured by ruler scale; whereas width and height are measured by electronic gauge. The masses of beams and mass of accelerometer are measured by the weighing machine
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This paper is basically concentrated to develop a technique to identify the abnormal growth of masses in breast using very simple algorithms. The tool will only identify the masses with some distinguishing features to ease further investigation. In this process we have selected the digital mammogram, which has become the most effective technique for early breast cancer detection. The mammogram images used in this experiment are taken from the mini mammography database of MIAS . The original MIAS Database (digitized at 50 micron pixel edge) has been reduced to 200-micron pixel edge and clipped/padded so that every image is 1024 pixels x 1024 pixels. All images are held as 8-bit gray level scale images with 256 different gray levels (0-255) and physically in portable gray map (.pgm) format. The list is arranged in pairs of mammograms, where each pair represents the left and right breast of a single patient. In our experiment we have consider all types of breast tissues i.e. Fatty, Fatty-glandular, Dense-glandular and the abnormalities like calcification, well-defined or circumscribed masses, speculated masses and other ill-defined masses. We have considered more than hundred samples as a test case. The identification technique is divided into two parts after preprocessing of digital mammogram.
Within the Standard Model of particle physics, mesons and baryons are colourless objects composed of quarks and gluons. These systems are bound through the strong interaction, described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A basic property of hadrons that can be compared to theoretical predictions is their masses. The most recent theoretical predictions based on lattice QCD cal- culations can be found in Refs. [1,2]. The current experimental knowledge of the b-hadron masses as summarized in Ref.  is dominated by results from the CDF Collaboration . In this Let- ter precision measurements of the masses of the B + , B 0 , B 0 s and Λ 0 b are presented as well as the mass splittings with respect to the B + . The results are based on a data sample of proton–proton collisions at √ s = 7 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider collected by the LHCb experiment, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35 pb − 1 .
But up to now, all computations have been made using the masses of the spacecrafts as effectively measured before launch at Earth-ground level and without taking the time of year into consideration, since one of the fundamental premises of contemporary physics is that the rest mass of bodies is universally invariant, an assumption that our analysis reveals as being a physical impossibility for all complex bodies including nucleons. So, an appropriate correction taking into account the individual increase in effective rest mass of all constituent atoms of the spacecrafts on account of their being located in space far from large planetary masses should therefore nicely iron out the problem.
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Thus Shahu was the foundation head of inspiration behind the educational activities not only in the state but outside the state, all over Maharashtra. The higher proportion of literacy in Maharashtra has its origin in this movement of Rajarshi Shahu. Shahu‟s exemplary endeavour to spared education among the common masses gave inspiration to a number of social workers in Maharashtra to establish educational institutions for the masses. Some of these are: a) Dr. Karmaveer Bhaaurao Patil-Rayat Shikshan Sanstha, Satara. b) Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh-Shivaji Education Society, Amravati. c) Karmaveer Bhaausaheb Hire- Maratha Shikshan Sanstha, Malegaon. d) Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar- People‟s Education Society, Bombay. e)Shikshan Maharshi Bapuji salunkhe-Swami Vivekanand Shikshan Sanstha, Kolhapur. f) Karmaveer Mamasaheb Jagdale- Shivaji Shikshan Sanstha Barsi, and others.
The purpose of this paper is to develop a method for determining the moment of inertia of rotating masses of an electric motor and evaluation of its mechanical losses, as well as its theoretical and experimental study. The idea of the method is based on the known method of the retardation test of an electric motor with different values of the moment of inertia of its rotating masses. However, unlike existing methods, the proposed one gives more accurate results due to the use of additional bodies of different moments of inertia but of the same weight. This creates approximately the same conditions of friction in bearings during the entire measurement process. Experimental results were obtained on the basis of an induction motor and showed a higher accuracy compared with existing methods. The developed method can be used in companies producing electric motors to improve the accuracy of determining the moment of inertia of their rotating masses and to evaluate their mechanical efficiency with fewer financial expenses than using existing experimental methods.
Abstract- Masses in the breast can be located in digital mammogram images by computationally analysing various feature statistics from the image. Any algorithm used to analyse digital mammogram images can be both time-consuming and error- prone because many areas of these images appear to have features that are mass-like but not masses. Thus false positives are produced which detract from the effectiveness of the algorithm. In this paper an efficient-straightforward algorithm to locate and record suspicious areas in a mammogram image is presented. Mammography is at present one of the available method for early detection of masses or abnormalities which is related to breast cancer. The most common said abnormalities that may indicate breast cancer are masses and calcifications. The challenge is to early and accurately detect to overcome the development of breast cancer, which affects more and more women throughout the world. Masses appear in a mammogram as fine, granular clusters, which are often difficult to identify in a raw mammogram. Digital mammogram is one of the best technologies currently being used for diagnosing breast cancer. Breast cancer is diagnosed at advanced stages with the help of the digital mammogram image. In the paper a method is proposed to make a supporting tool to easy and less time consuming of identification of abnormal masses in digital mammography images. The technique uses a form of template matching at multiple scales to locate pixels in the image, which may be part of a mass. The resulting image is adaptively thresholded to a predetermined level of accuracy and then the remaining pixels are grouped together and extracted. The type of masses, orientation of masses, shape and distribution of masses, size of masses, position of masses, density of masses, and symmetry between two pair are clearly sited after proposed method is executed on raw mammogram for easy and early detection abnormality.
denotes the lattice spacing. For the lattice numbers to be useful for phenomenology, it is necessary to convert the bare quark masses to renormalized masses in some standard renormalization scheme. Because lattice perturbation theory converges badly, and the expansion coefficients are generally known to one loop order only, this ought to be done nonperturbatively. In full QCD a one-loop perturbative renormalization of the mass operator is totally inadequate even, as it does not account for the disconnected (flavor singlet) contribution shown in Fig. 1, which turns out to be comparable with the connected contribution at present lattice spacings.
In the usual relativistic mechanics and field theory the mass of a particle is constant, and for particles with zero masses and nonzero rest masses different methods of description are used. The particles with nonzero rest masses are characterized by their mass m and speed v . The particles with zero mass (photons) are characterized by frequency ω and wavelength λ . These ω and λ are connected with energy E and momentum p sa follows
Institutional review board approval and a waiver of informed con- sent were obtained for this retrospective study. A database of or- bital and ocular lesions, created by consecutive review of imaging studies from 2000 to 2009, was queried. Patients with enhancing intraocular masses who had not yet received treatment were iden- tified. Twenty-six ocular masses were identified in 22 patients, each of whom underwent MR imaging with EPI DWI by using parallel acquisition. Diagnoses were verified through a review of the electronic medical record, including surgical pathology reports and clinical notes, by an ophthalmologist (V.K.A.), and the images were reviewed by a senior neuroradiologist experienced in head and neck imaging (M.F.M.). The patient cohort was composed of 12 females and 10 males, with an average age of 26 years (range, 4 months to 84 years). The group was bimodal, comprising 12 in- fants (4 months to 2 years of age) with 16 retinoblastomas, one 16-year-old boy with a highly undifferentiated carcinoma (pre- sumptively a dedifferentiated medulloepithelioma), and 9 adults (41– 84 years of age) with 7 ocular melanomas, 1 ocular metastasis from colon cancer, and 1 unknown lesion in a patient who was lost to follow-up.
The extension of the SM with a light dilaton in the 5D warped model leads to dilaton masses that can naturally be of the order of magnitude of the Higgs mass, and KK vector masses of the order of TeV, all of them compatible with Electroweak Precision Tests. However a ﬁrst study of the coupling to massive gauge ﬁelds suggests that the dilaton couplings to SM particles (aﬀecting e.g. the unitarization of the V L V L elastic and inelastic scattering as well as the strength of production of gauge
The following hormonal determinations were per- formed in patients with adrenal masses in order to diag- nose the presence of functional adenomas: levels of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and serum cortisol, aldosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sul- fate (DHEA-S) and catecholamines, and plasma renin activity (PRA). Serum cortisol levels were evaluated after an overnight 1 or 8 mg dexamethasone suppression test for the diagnosis of subclinical Cushing’s syndrome (SCS). When serum cortisol remained above 3.0 μg/dL using 1 mg dexamethasone or 1 μg/dL using 8 mg dexa- methasone, this indicated insufficient suppression. This criterion is recommended by the ‘Disorders of Adrenal Hormones’ Research Committee of the Japanese Minis- try of Health and Welfare . The diagnosis of SCS was made according to the criteria established in the same report . Primary aldosteronism (PA) was diagnosed using the 40 mg furosemide-upright test and the 50 mg captopril-loading test in patients with an aldosterone- renin ratio (ARR) of more than 200. Patients with a PRA level below 1.0 ng/mL/hr 120 minutes after furose- mide injection and ARR of more than 300 at 90 minutes after captopril administration were diagnosed as having PA [10-12].
Under the particle mass m, we will understand its rest mass, which is a Lorentz scalar. No other masses will not appear in this work. Here we follow the recommenda- tions of . Similarly, we can consider the process of changing the mass of other particles, such as electrons, assuming that it depends on external conditions and in- fluences.
The next challenge was to develop a learning framework for heterogeneous medical retrieval. In , authors proposed an evolutionary strategy for constructing a decision system and to asses and compare the results of medical databases with existing techniques. A unified learning frame of reference for heterogeneous medial image retrieval based on a Full Range Autoregressive Model with the Bayesian approach was developed in . Using the unified approach, the color autocorrelogram, edge orientation autocorrelogram and micro-texture information was extracted. Adaptive binary tree based SVM for effective as well as fast categorization of medical images in feature vector space was used. The performance was analyzed by Precision and Recall graph and results showed that the recommended system for heterogeneous medical image database is fitter than the existing systems at low computational and storage cost. In , researcher classified areas extracted from breast images as non-masses or masses by means of taxonomic distinctness and taxonomic diversity index as texture features for the areas of interest. Depending upon phylogenetic trees the indexes were computed, that are applied to depict the pattern in the areas of mammograms. The results demonstrated promising performance of texture extraction technique with the support vector machine. In , a CAD system was presented using Wavelet Co-occurrence Feature set and maximized classification accuracy using Genetic Fuzzy System. After converting mammogram images into corresponding wavelet coefficient using db8 wavelet function, Wavelet Co-occurrence feature were computed from wavelet coefficients of detail sub-bands from mammogram decomposition. The highest classification accuracy was achieved with sixteen discriminative features from four level of mammogram decomposition.
The Mace Head atmospheric research station (53 ◦ 20 0 N, 9 ◦ 54 0 W) is situated on the west coast of Ireland (Fig. 1). At the station, numerous ambient air measurements are made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) (Cunnold et al., 1997; Prinn et al., 2000) and the Global Atmospheric Watch network (GAW). It is one of only a few clean background western European stations, thus pro- viding an essential baseline input for inter-comparisons with continental Europe, whilst also acting as a baseline site rep- resentative of Northern Hemispheric air. Prevailing winds from the west to southwest sector bring clean background air to the site. Polluted European air masses as well as tropical maritime air masses cross the site periodically. Mace Head is therefore uniquely positioned for resolving these air masses and for comparative studies of their constitution. Galway is the closest city, with a population of 72 000, sitting 50 km to the east whilst the area immediately surrounding Mace Head is very sparsely populated providing very low local anthro- pogenic emissions. The sample inlet is located 10 m inland from the shoreline, sampling at 10 m above sea level, through
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Abstract. The up to 150 day uninterrupted high-precision photometry of about 100000 stars – provided so far by the exoplanet channel of the CoRoT space telescope – gave a new perspective on the planet population of our galactic neighbourhood. The seven planets with very accurate parameters widen the range of known planet properties in almost any respect. Giant planets have been detected at low metallicity, rapidly rotating and active, spotted stars. CoRoT-3 populated the brown dwarf desert and closed the gap of measured physical properties between standard giant planets and very low mass stars. CoRoT extended the known range of planet masses down-to 5 Earth masses and up to 21 Jupiter masses, the radii to less than 2 Earth radii and up to the most inflated hot Jupiter found so far, and the periods of planets discovered by transits to 9 days. Two CoRoT planets have host stars with the lowest content of heavy elements known to show a transit hinting towards a different planet-host-star-metallicity relation then the one found by radial- velocity search programs. Finally the properties of the CoRoT-7b prove that terrestrial planets with a density close to Earth exist outside the Solar System. The detection of the secondary transit of CoRoT-1 at the 10 −5 - level and the very clear detection of the 1.7 Earth radii of CoRoT-7b at 3.5 10 −4 relative flux are promising evidence of CoRoT being able to detect even smaller, Earth sized planets.
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These principles were used to identify the exact nature of the mineralized masses in POF, and the results are evi- dent in Table 3; thus, a clear distinction between woven bone, lamellar bone, cellular and acellular cementum was possible. Acellular cementum demonstrated characteristic “brush border” appearance under polarizing microscope because acellular cementum rarely shows intrinsic collagen bundles, and the extrinsic fibres, which are arising from the PDL and getting incorporated into the cementum, exhibit a visual loss since these fibres cannot be seen by rotation of the polaroids. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the fibres change their direction. If the new direc- tion of these fibres were perpendicular to the surface of the slide, they would not be birefringent since collagen is isotropic when viewed from this aspect. Cellular cemen- tum mainly exhibited thin parallel fibre arrangement and/ or quilt-like, which consisted of short lengths of fine col- lagen bundles grouped in random fashion. 8 Cundiff 6 stated