The participants of the professional development program in the current study are paraprofessionals, because they do not have formal qualification for their function as a trainer of the second generation of trainers. Paraprofessionals frequently do not have a higher education degree like Bachelor of Arts or Master of Arts, which most professionals have (Fulligni, et al. 2009). That is why paraprofessionals mostly have less prior knowledge about the subject and they mostly have a lower status than professionals (Anand, 2011). Wallace, Shin, Bartholomay and Stahl (2001) name seven competencies for the facilitators of professional development who work with paraprofessionals (see table four). Two of these competencies match with requirements for the program itself. The competency training relates to the requirement job embedded and the competency instructional support relates to the requirement that the program should be instructionally focused. Both requirements are described in the category means. In the current study, the other five competencies are compared with the competencies of the facilitators of the professional development program in Sajag. Although, Wallace et al. (2001) state that a lot of facilitators do not have all competencies due to a lack of pre-service preparation or a lack in professional staff development opportunities.
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Abstract: Technological innovation in education give rise to new and more efficient possibilities for developing employees through professional development training. Because of increasing technological possibilities, researchers keep referring to the subject of blended learning. Despite elaborate coverage in literature, little literature exists on how blended learning can be applied in a business setting. This study analyses how an organisation, who markets professional development training, can offer blended learning. Blended learning, a thoughtful combination of educational experiences delivered through face-to-face and online activities, is a challenge for organisations who wish to professionally develop their employees through this type of training. In this comparative case study, it is analysed how professional development training can be offered through the use of blended learning. The data is based on interviews with six blended learning experts and theoretically grounded in a conceptual model with theoretical propositions. The central result of this study is that the learner is the most important element of the learning experience. As such, the central recommendations focus on the learner—individual learning styles and learner control have to be facilitated in creating a blended learning environment. Only then a blend will be successful. Furthermore, the case study showed that collaboration is important in blended learning. Collaboration is straightforward to accommodate in face-to-face learning, however, in online learning social cohesion has to be formed face-to-face so that the threshold to collaborating online is lowered. Finally, no optimal blend is possible in practice, because of the fact that every learning situation is different. The recommendations given in this study on how blended learning can be offered in a professional development training setting, contributes to the literature of blended learning by providing empirical evidence on how blended learning is used in a business setting.
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more about the principal’s technology than the principal itself. This practice, though not allowed by procurement policies and legislation, contributes to agents developing a monopoly over the components of the public service ETPD value-chain. These developments – by design or default – consequently lead to a) an unfair distribution of government procurement of ETPD provision and b) social networks of relationships formed between officials responsible for scheduling of ETPD programmes to be procured. There is also no automated process of scheduling and for the rotation of sourcing ETPD, which encourages self-interest behaviour among and between the agents and their staff. The net-effect is that certain contractors, as common agents, get pulled into the different components of the ETPD value-chain or, with possible potential reaches in other areas of the institution, including future work. This practice has led to monopolies due to personal, professional and geographical proximity of officials and their departments to certain HETIs and IICs. A respondent confirms that “personal-professional relationships based on past liaisons and familiarity of programme and course materials” play an important influence in choosing an agent on a specific component or all the components of the ETPD value-chain. More concretely, the respondent suggests: The [A] tender was approved and a number of institutions [IICs & certain HETIs] bid in the process – so you need to understand that there was a tender around research design – and then another on developing and piloting – and a third on the delivery. The numbers would vary, and depending on the nature and scope, the HEI would be pulled into the next and the next contract – using a specific clause related to familiarity of the programme.
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Yet states and local initiatives struggle with how to engage FCC providers in these sys- tems and quality improvement initiatives report low rates of FCC participation (Elicker et al. 2011). Support staff and specialists who are equipped with the skills and knowledge to support FCC providers in quality improvements are critical components of systems and programs that seek to engage and sustain provider participation. Understanding the training and professional development needs of support staff as well as the challenges faced in carrying out this work has the potential to inform state efforts to develop train- ing and technical assistance or coaching credentials as part of their professional devel- opment systems as well as other initiatives to develop this sector of the early care and education workforce. The current study of agency staff within one state’s early care and education professional development system, offers a preliminary snapshot of agency staff characteristics and job experiences, and is intended to inform future professional development efforts geared towards agency staff as well as future research on the rela- tionship between agency staff, high-quality support, and positive outcomes for provid- ers, children, and families in FCC settings.
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In conclusion, little is known about the training and professional development needs of quality managers except that they are considered critical to the effective implementation of quality management programs. It follows that if the current training and development regime does not adequately equip quality managers to perform their roles competently, this may contribute to the failure of many quality management programs and systems. Such failures would increase the likelihood of quality management being consigned to the “dustbin” scenario described above.
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The goals to increase TVET participation for secondary students to 70% of upper secondary students by 2025 (Kurnia 2013, 29) remain, albeit a major challenge to achieve. As is the case internationally, Indonesia is concerned to raise the skill levels of the populace and is investing to achieve this. Indonesia spends 20% of its annual budget on education, a major commitment. Nurkholis & Petrik (2014) argue that TVET could be improved by focusing more on didactics and learner centred teaching methods in the training and professional development of teachers. They also note that TVET practitioners should be encouraged to research best practice in teaching. The competency based Indonesian Qualifications Framework (IQF) provides a framework for TVET, for learners and the teachers. It also provides opportunities for learner centred approaches to be used rather than teacher directed approaches. There are excellent examples of learner centred teaching and action oriented learning in TVET (Nurkholis & Petrik 2014) which could serve as models for the sector.
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This tool has been designed to encourage the systematic evaluation of current services offered in your organisation in relation to education and training. The aim of the benchmarking process is to enable your organisation to judge its ability in six domains: team working, communication, role awareness, personal and professional development, practice development and leadership and team working. Associated with each domain are a set of key questions you should ask about your services in relation to evidence- based ‘best practice’. ‘Best’ practice has been identified and summarised through a systematic review of the literature and through consultation with services users and professionals.
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The Ghanaian public sector procurement is experiencing a paradigm shift from a clerical role to a more strategic function targeting optimum achievement of value for money. For this to be fully realised, the skills of the workforce must be developed to meet contemporary expectations. Underperformance and misapplication of the public sector procurement function has been linked to a shortage of an adequately-skilled workforce. This study was designed to ascertain the nature and level of professional development required to enhance competencies of the workforce for successful delivery of the procurement function. The study employed questionnaires and interviews in a mixed methodology to collect data from the procurement management workforce within the Ghanaian Road Subsector. The findings of the study suggest weaknesses in key skill areas required of modern procurement practice which inhibit the achievement of maximum value for money. Up-skilling is recommended through appropriate training and continuous professional development with focus on the key areas identified.
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The rapid expansion of social networks within the Web 2.0 context is part of this phenomenon. Cross (2010), Downes (2007) and Siemens (2004) have all described the beneﬁts of informal learning, underpinned by connectivism. The possibility of creating networks of virtual contacts and online communities, the ability to access content and information not physically available to us, and participation in experiences developed by professionals in remote contexts have meant that each individual can now become a communication node that simultaneously gives and receives. Great emphasis is placed on the potential and beneﬁts that such learning networks can oﬀer to professional development. In this context, it is clear that the use of technology in education and training extends and enhances the potential learning spaces available for professional development and the updating of skills. Also Williams, Karousou and Mackness (2011) have highlighted the importance of emergent learning in the ecology of Web 2.0, considering it as the self-organised interaction between diﬀerent people and resources, which make the process and the learning unpredictable.
The items with the highest percentages are “Literature review, reading and taking notes”, “Introduction”, “Problem Specification Table”, “Creative Problem Solving”, “Preparing Checklists for Students”, “Online Survey” and “Reporting Findings”. Then, three items with the lowest percentages are “Preparing action research suggestion form”, “Assessing a research” and “Creating, Revising and Editing the First Draft Paragraph” in spite of the fact that they are at the level of “Good”. Then, the parts in the training regarded to be the most beneficial are “Online Survey” and “Brain Storming”. “Being Able to Exchange Ideas”, “Seeing different problems”, “Creative Problem Solving”,” Preparing Checklists for Students”, “Interview”, “Reporting Findings”, “Tool-Goal Analysis”, “Surveying Websites”, “Results”, “Suggestions”, “Discussion and Problem Statement Table”. All the teachers involved in the study stated that they would suggest the action research training to others and half of them expressed that it contributed to their professional development.
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In the past two decades, a dynamic theoretical discourse has been held on adapting professional development processes to teachers in the 21 st century. The researchers' conclusions regarding the changes required in the teachers' professional development process are based on the creation of learning environments for teachers that are characterized by a high level of collaboration while including experiential elements. Another significant dimension is anchored in the high interaction of teachers with learning materials through sharing and exchanging information with peers (peer learning). This professional development concept is based on "future-oriented innovative pedagogy," which is based on a flexible study structure adapted to the socio-cultural, economic, and technological changes, which are the essence of knowledge in the post-modern era (Videslavsky, Peled and Pevsner, 2011). The process of the professional development of teachers is becoming more complex and deeper while adopting an intellectual orientation with an emphasis on imparting generic skills rather than pedagogic techniques. One of the implications of this approach is the requirement that the role of master teachers will be changed from knowledge transfer to learning facilitators (similar to the change in the teachers’ role definition) so that learners will become independent and proactive, and generators of knowledge. Teaching and learning methods that are linked to the constructivist paradigm are considered innovative because they can provide participants with a more adapted response through the development of the diverse, personal, and interpersonal skills required today in a society that is rich in innovative information (Vidislavsky, 2015). In fact, the teacher must experience in practice learning that is based on quality pedagogy in an innovative environment and participate in training courses in which the approach is implemented, so that the process of teaching and learning that
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A key facilitator to take up of the GLF was the structuring of the different incentives on offer, which enabled settings to pay for cover while staff undertook training, to enhance staff salaries, and provide additional resources to facilitate delivery of the EYFS. Overall, settings which were engaged (actively or passively), predominantly chose the ‘grow your own’ route to securing a graduate leader within the setting. This preference for ‘home grown’ graduates was influenced by two main factors. Firstly, it was felt to be important to encourage existing practitioners’ continuing professional development by enabling them to take up graduate or EYP training. This stemmed from managers’ loyalty to their existing workforce and because they felt qualifications would bring added value to the setting and staff practice. Secondly, managers were reluctant to recruit graduates and EYPs into settings because of concerns about the impact it would have on their existing staff. Managers were concerned that being ‘led’ by a new member of staff could lead to tension and resentment. There was also a concern that although a recruited graduate or EYP would be qualified to lead, they may not have the sufficient experience to fulfil the role of graduate leader in the setting, whereas an existing member of staff would already have this.
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Despite the universal development of information technologies in medicine, to solve a patient’s complex problems there is the need to ensure high quality and efficiency of professional communication, including the acquirement of older colleagues and supervisors’ progressive experience. Development of students’ communicative competence, sustainable skills to build effective relationships with patients, colleagues, management of medical institutions, the ability to successfully prevent or resolve conflict situations is a necessary condition for further professional advancement of a modern doctor. The development of active perception of patient's problems with the subsequent achievement of informed consent - the choice of the most rational behavioral tactics for solving the priority tasks of medical activity: prevention, diagnosis, treatment or rehabilitation, are of particular importance.
Teachers are more than technicians or purveyors of information. Accordingly, they must be committed to lifelong intellectual, personal, and professional growth. Because both faculty and teacher candidates must continually develop these habits of mind, teacher education programs must stimulate the exploration and development of the full range of human capabilities. Thus, all our teacher education programs foster intellectual curiosity and encourage an appreciation of learning through the sustained analysis of ideas, values, and practices; and through intuition, imagination, and aesthetic experience. Teacher candidates are expected to develop a philosophy of teaching and learning. This philosophy and continuous professional growth should include values, commitments, and professional development.
8) Problematic discussions: round table, panel discussion (expert group meeting), forum, debate, etc. This technology provides opportunities for stu- dents to express their thoughts even if they are false. At the same time the teach- er is supposed to guide them to the right direction. This concerns both the con- sideration of particular patients’ problem during practical classes and thematic lectures where the teacher should encourage the students to express opinions on the topic of discussion. Since students understand the “impunity” of their mis- takes in the lecture hall, they are more boldly involved in the dialogue trans- forming the lecture into the creative process of learning new material. It facili- tates the development of different competencies like teamwork, interdisciplinary team, decision-making, problem solving.
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This general trajectory could be theoretically supported using a number of skills acquisition models such as those used to understand stress appraisal and acquisition of coping resources (e.g., Lazarus, 1993; Lazarus & Folkman, 1987), as well as cognitive behavioral theory from the clinical intervention literature (D. Dobson & Dobson, 2009; K. Dobson & Dozois, 2001). Development of these skills generally requires psychoeducation, insurance of the understanding of the information, generation of self-awareness around personal behavior, and application of new skills to induce behavioural change. This fits with the causal model’s trajectory of: participation understanding application, especially given a consideration of the composition of skills. It can be argued that skills are comprised of both declarative and procedural knowledge (Fiori, 2009), which would mean that in order to develop a skill, new knowledge must be gained and then applied in the necessary context. Specifically relating this to EI skills acquisition, Fiori (2009) draws upon the top-down approach in the cognitive literature (Sun, Peterson, & Merrill, 1996) to describe how EI knowledge can develop into an applicable skill through practice, as it strengthens the relationship between declarative and procedural knowledge. This would refer to gaining a better understanding of general emotions and then being able to contextualize and apply these emotional competencies. Other models also emphasize the need for practice (Howells et al., 2005; Huppert & Johnson, 2010) in order for behavior change to occur, something that is also emphasized in this program.
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When developing new Open Science skills frameworks, there is an opportunity to focus on doctoral candidates, as they are the emerging new generation of researchers. This could be done by embracing the Innovative Doctoral Training Principles into the Open Science mechanisms. This will require a root and branch approach to embedding Open Science in all seven of the Innovative Doctoral Training Principles. Once the alignment highlighted above is achieved, it will be necessary to ensure that researchers at all levels are not only aware of the skills and qualifications structures and frameworks, they should also understand that these skills and qualifications are essential to their successful careers in research and, within this context, relevant Open Science courses should be developed, taught and evaluated. This will take a huge shift in current perceptions, where, as shown in our survey, both the Charter for Researchers and Code of Conduct for their Recruitment and the Human Resources Strategy for Researchers are to a large extent unknown to researchers. It is proposed that Open Science mandates from funders and institutions include explicit requirements for Open Science skills training for researchers and that Open Science skills training is designed to be aligned, coordinated, embedded, standardised, iterative, scalable, transferable, open, adaptable, rewarded and above all, mandatory. 82
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Sometimes students experience a judgment of an assessment or test or achievement as helpful for their learning process and sometimes as very injustice and not helpful. Lecturers are expected to assess accordingly to the assessment criteria and learning outcomes (Reddy & Andrade, 2010). Judging in tests with closed question is an easy task. However if an assessment has many open questions, with many choices that students have to make, such as in essays, cases, internship reports, research reports and so on, assessing is far more difficult. In a curriculum that targets agentic engagement (Reeve & Tseng, 2011) the assessor must be prepared to adjust his assessing on the substantive choices of the student and the learning outcomes the student has to prove. Furthermore, the assessor has to outline the achievements against an expected final level (Andriessen & Manders, 2014). In assessing, the assessor can deliver feedback that contributes to further development of the students during and after the education (lifelong learning). In this report, this kind of feedback on a summative assignment is called summative feedback. It is the base of the formative feedback of a next teaching unit and assignment. Assessing cognitively complex tests is hard, because in such a test a student can make his own choices, whereas the assessment criteria leave room for interpretation by the assessors. Not just because of this room for interpretation of the criteria, but also the difference in reference frameworks between assessors can cause much confusion (Vivekananda-Schmidt, MacKillop, Crossley & Wade, 2013). It is important that assessors possess knowledge of and are capable in assessing so that they are self-effective in arriving at an assessment. Assessors must be aware of the way in which they arrive at an assessment in the assessing process and willing to sharing their judgment with colleagues and students transparently (Blair, Curtis, Goodwin & Shields, 2013). In this report, a research is being presented in the context of a professional master education into the relation between assessor competencies, self-efficacy in assessing and to delivering summative feedback.
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The pedagogical practice: As a last line of analysis, we seek to understand and characterize the professional development of the teacher at the higher level, which aspects this professional values and considers relevant in this process and which are the main lessons learned and acquired in the teaching profession. Let us see below what the narratives of the interlocutors revealed about the development, relevance and learning that come from their professional career in the higher teaching. The contemporary educational paradigm makes us reflect on the development of pedagogical practice based on a reflective teaching action based on dialogue, exchange of experiences, research and content applicability, requiring a greater involvement of all the subjects involved in the process. teaching-learning. In this context, one of the main competencies required of the teacher is his ability to articulate the curricular contents with the social reality in which the student is inserted, in order to contextualize the teaching. To understand how the interlocutors develop their pedagogical practice in the daily life of their teaching activity, let us see what their narratives reveal:
Though there is a plethora of studies about the behavioural and the academic difficulties that ADD children present in the classroom, it is disheartening that the work concerning evaluating the basic knowledge levels of teachers is sporadic at best. This is true especially of most countries and India as well. There is also a serious paucity of systematic attempts to improve the knowledge of teachers, and though the teachers themselves have been vociferous in expressing their desire for the acquisition of greater skills and competence to deal with the ADD children in their classrooms, there has been very little work available. In India, where most classrooms have a very low teacher student Ratio there is a serious need for work which focuses on formulating training modules for the Teachers to improve their knowledge base and provide them with practical strategies to be used in the classroom. This research initiative is a step in that direction
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