A 60 GHz demonstrator is currently developed to show the potential of wirelessdatatransmission for HEP applications. Studies to test the feasibility of wirelessdata transfer for tracking detectors have been conducted. High speed datatransmission has been demonstrated with two setups at data rates of 1.76 Gb/s and 3.8 Gb/s. Carrier frequencies above 200 GHz allow for even higher data rates. A transmission at a data rate of 10 Gb/s has been demonstrated. For high density link environments in general, signal integrity can be ensured by exploiting directional antennas, polarization or attenu- ating reﬂections using an absorbing foam. In order to apply wirelessdata transfer in future detectors, detailed design studies will have to be conducted to demonstrate the full potential of wireless commu- nication and to create a working wireless readout system.
Although Hamming codes were a great progression, it had some undesirable proper- ties. Firstly, it was not very efficient. It was requiring three check bits for every four data bits. Secondly, it had the ability to correct only a single error within the block. These problems were addressed by Marcel Golay, who generalized Hamming's construction. During his process, Golay discovered two very astonishing codes on which the binary Golay code has already mentioned concisely in Section 1.2.2. The second code is the ternary Golay code, which operates on ternary, rather than binary, numbers. The ternary Golay code protects blocks of six ternary symbols with five ternary check symbols and has the capability to correct two errors in the resulting eleven symbol code word (Golay 1949, vol. 37, p. 657).
In agriculture, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely promoted as a means to improve on-farm yield and profitability through the provision of real-time or on-demand sensed data [1–3]. WSNs operate by wirelessly sending data from spatially distributed nodes to either a relay node or a gateway. Most WSN applications in agriculture involve sensing soil moisture and/or weather, in which sensed data is usually used for irrigation decision support [1,3]. A range of commercially available WSN solutions exists for agricultural applications; e.g., the Plexus mesh-networking radio system (Measurement Engineering Australia Pty Ltd, Toowoomba, Australia) and Teralytic 26 sensor LoRa node (Teralytic, New York, NY, USA). Despite the commercial availability of soil moisture WSNs, on-farm use of moisture sensor technology, let alone WSNs, is actually quite poor. Only 22% of Australian farmers use any sort of soil moisture monitoring product . Lack of adoption is in large part due to the risk of damage to in-field sensors and WSN nodes by machinery, extreme weather events, grazing animals, and pests [5,6]. One solution is to bury all sensor and communication components below the depth of cultivation to form a wireless underground sensor network (WUSN) [5,7]. WUSNs operate by wirelessly sending data through both the soil and air between two buried sensor nodes as underground-to-underground ground communication (UG2UG), or from a buried node through the ground–air boundary to an aboveground node as underground-to-aboveground communication
Although there are some reports  that introduce measurement-while-drilling tools, and enormous litera- tures on signal processing in other fields such as geophy- sics, medical imaging, vibration studies, etc., however, there are few literatures that introduce data or signal processing techniques for a measurement-while-drilling system in petroleum engineering. A measurement-while- drilling system based on a microcontroller is developed in . The data come from different down-hole sensors such as three-axe accelerometers, magnetometers, gamma-ray detector, resistivity detector, and other sensors. Ledroz et al.  and Pecht et al.  use a fiber- optic-gyroscope-based inertial measurement unit in gyro- scope aims. Wavelet transform in  is used to get rid of high-frequency noise from the contaminated data. In  and , a limited impulse response low-pass filter is used as a DC (direct current) estimator, and a band-pass filter is used to eliminate the large out-of-band noise compo- nents caused by the mud pumps, and at last a zero mean signal is acquired. In , we propose a two-step filtering method in which a dynamic part mean filtering algorithm is proposed to separate the direct current components and a windowed limited impulse response algorithm is used to filter out the high-frequency noise.
We consider a fixed set of mobile data users in a wireless cell served by a single base station and focus on the downlink channel. The base station maintains a sepa- rate queue of data for each user. Time is slotted and in each slot (time period in the standard MDP terminology) the base station can transmit data to exactly one user. Let be the channel rate of user during time period , i.e., the amount of data that can be transmitted to user during time period by the base station. We assume that the base station knows at all time periods the vector 1 2 N . How this information is gathered depends on the system in use. An example of a resource allocation system widely known and used in practice is the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO system . A good description of how this information is generated is also provided in . A good framework for resource allocation and related issues in this (and more general) setting can be found in .
Chapter 3 develops a flexible sensor membrane for multi-site epicardial ECG monitoring of heart regeneration in zebrafish. To meet the requirements of long-term in vivo sensing, the sensor membrane went through a series of design optimizations to enable long-term biocompatibility and reliable functionality. To further achieve continuous monitoring, the wireless operation of the sensor membrane was demonstrated by prototyping signal processing, wirelessdatatransmission and wireless power management modules on a printed circuit board (PCB). The device was tested on neonatal mouse instead of zebrafish because of size and weight limitations. To further reduce the size and weight, a parylene-based printed circuit membrane was designed and fabricated to replace the PCB. The flexible, light-weight and compact parylene printed circuit membrane was monolithically fabricated with sensor electrodes and provided mechanical substrate and electrical interconnection for electronic components. The miniaturized wireless ECG recording implant can be potentially deployed on small animal models and achieve minimally invasive needle injection. The work provided the material for a conference proceeding  and two journal papers  
It will create problem when consumer is out of Town or home is locked due to other reasons. This system of wireless meter reading is based on the same principle of wirelessdatatransmission that is used in power theft detection Utility company personnel will have a device consists of wirelessdata receiver with microcontroller and display The Base station unit will be consists of a zigbee module attached with a Transceiver micro-strip antenna, microcontroller attached to digital meter. The frequency of communication will be in 900 MHZ. the data will transmitted to the central station at regular intervals. The end station consists of an ARM micro controller receiving data from different PIC micro controllers through Zigbee receiver. The data thus received is processed and calculated the exact amount of power consumed by specific customer.
transmission and high-speed datatransmission. In view of the above observations, although the GHz frequency band can give a suﬃciently high datatransmission rate, due to its poor penetration in a biological medium (where serious energy loss occurs), the GHz frequency band is not suitable for deep implantable medical devices. For the kHz frequency band, the EWM penetration depth can reach a depth of meters, regardless of penetration depth limitations. However, most implantable medical devices have higher transfer rate requirements. For example, the transfer rate for capsule endoscopy should be greater than 10 Mbps , and the transfer rate of a multichannel neural signal recording system should be 100 Mbps or even higher . Therefore, the kHz frequency band is not suitable for a wirelessdatatransmission carrier frequency for implantable medical devices. Thus, the frequency range selected in this paper is limited to the MHz band. Previous literature indicates that when carrier frequency f = 11.61 MHz, through circuit optimization the energy transfer eﬃciency can reach 88.01% , which meets the design requirement for high-eﬃciency energy transmission. At the same time, based on MDAPSK technology, log M 2 times (where M is modulation order) the datatransmission rate of the carrier frequency can be obtained. Therefore, one can simultaneously meet the requirements of energy transmission eﬃciency and datatransmission rate for deep implantable medical devices by selecting a suitable combination of carrier frequency f and modulation order M.
In this paper consists of Secure Message Transmission over Wireless Communication technology using ZigBee based wirelessdatatransmission from one person to another person with data security. Here in this system we are using two section ,both section consists of ZigBee module also it works as receiver and transmitter section ,one section of ZigBee module is interfacing to the Personal Computer(PC)/mirocontoller and another section of ZigBee module is interfacing to the ARM LPC2148 micro controller and LCD.A person can communicate with other person securely that is whatever the information sends by person to other location that should not be hacked .So, for security purpose we are using wireless ZigBee communication technology which is datatransmission done with securely in a short range of communication
ABSTRACT: Wireless Sensor Network is a very important technology in which sensors are placed in a distributed manner to monitor the physical and environment changes such as temperature, humidity etc. An ecological monitoring system consists of a sensors which are linked together to form an integrated system of electronic temperature and event logger. Datatransmission through this network may be done through wireless communication modes (e.g. Wi-Fi). Which enables data access from anywhere, the alert feature has also been implemented to notify users via message for monitoring data when they exceed values and events of interest. The integration of Wireless Sensor Network and wirelessdatatransmission using esp8266 wifi module, This proposed system combines the advantages of wireless sensor networks and GSM technology which is a low power technology. Context information brings new opportunities for efficient and effective system resource management of mobile devices. In this work we focus on the use of context information to achieve energy-efficient, ubiquitous wireless connectivity. Our field-collected data show that the energy cost of network interfaces poses a great challenge to ubiquitous connectivity, despite decent availability of cellular networks. We propose to leverage the complementary strengths of Wi-Fi and cellular interfaces by automatically selecting the most efficient one based on context information. We formulate the selection of wireless interfaces as a statistical decision problem. The challenge is to accurately estimate Wi-Fi network conditions without powering up the network interface
PIC 16F887 is powerful yet easy-to-program (only 35 single word instructions) CMOS FLASH-based 8-bit microcontroller packs Microchip's powerful PIC architecture into an 40- or 44-pin package. The PIC16F887 features 256 bytes of EEPROM data memory, selfprogramming , 2 Comparators, 14 channels of 10-bit Analog-to-Digital converter, 1 capture/compare/PWM and 1 Enhanced capture/compare/PWM functions, a synchronous serial port can be configured either 3-wire Serial Peripheral Interface or the 2-wire Inter-Integrated Circuit bus and an Enhanced Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter . These features are make it ideal for more advanced level A/D applications in automotive,industrial, appliances or consumer applications.
Abstract: A cluster denotes a group of independent servers interconnected through a dedicated network to work as one centralized data processing resource. Clustering is a popular strategy for implementing parallel processing applications. Clusters are capable of performing multiple complex instructions and it also improves systems availability to users. Computer cluster is a simple two node system which just connects two personal computers. A cluster is a logical unit of file storage on a hard disk in case of personal computer storage technology and it is managed by the computers operating system Replication means that a copy of something is produced in real time that is, copying objects from one node in a cluster to one or more other nodes in the cluster. If a change is made to an object in one node in a particular cluster then this change is replicated to other nodes in the same cluster.
Abstract- Nowadays, with the rapid increase of Wireless sensor Network enabled many devices and the more wide spread use of Wireless Sensor Network. WIRELESS sensor network (WSN) is a network system comprised the distributed devices using wireless sensor nodes to guide physical or environmental conditions, such as sound, temperature, and motion .Secure datatransmission is a critical issue for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Clustering is an effective and practical way to enhance the system performance of WSNs. Sensor used for these purposes needs to be deployed very slowly and in a random fashion Clustering is a technique employed to increase the various capabilities of a sensor network. We propose two secure and efficient datatransmission (SET) protocols for clustered Wireless sensor Network CWSNs, called SET-IBS by using the identity-based digital signature (IBS) scheme and SET-IBOOS by using identity-based online/offline digital signature (IBOOS) scheme. This application facilitate to facilitate require packet Delivery from one or more senders to multiple receivers, provisioning security in group communications is pointed out as a critical and challenging goal In this paper, we study a secure datatransmission for cluster-based Wireless Sensor Network (CWSNs).The results show that the proposed protocols have more performance than the existing secure protocols for CWSNs, in terms of security overhead and energy consumption.
Digital signature is one of the most critical security services offered by cryptography in asymmetric key management systems, where the binding between the public key and the identification of the signer is obtained via a digital certificate. The Identity-Based digital Signature (IBS) scheme, based on the difficulty of factoring integers from Identity- Based Cryptography (IBC), is to derive an entity’s public key from its identity information, e.g., from its name or ID number. In this Existing System of wireless sensor network comprised of spatially distributed devices using wireless sensor nodes to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as sound, temperature, and motion. The individual nodes are capable of sensing their environments, processing the information data locally, and sending data to one or more collection points in a WSN. Eﬃcient datatransmission is one of the most important issues for WSNs. Meanwhile, many WSNs are deployed in harsh, neglected and often adversarial physical environments for certain applications, such as military domains and sensing tasks with trustless surroundings.
We studied the maximum available bandwidth path problem, which is a fundamental issue to support quality-of-service in wireless mesh networks. The main contribution of our work is a new left-isotonic path weight which captures the available path bandwidth information. The left-isotonicity property of our proposed path weight facilitates us to develop a proactive hop-by-hop routing protocol, and we formally proved that our protocol satisfies the optimality and consistency requirements. Based on the available path bandwidth information, a source can immediately determine some infeasible connection requests with the high bandwidth requirement. We tested the performance of our protocol under different scenarios. Network links and paths are characterized by generic weights, themselves a function of one or more metrics. A binary operation and an order relation are defined on the set of weights, and they are intertwined by the isotone property. We have shown that, within this framework, a generalized Dijkstra’s algorithm correctly computes lightest paths. On the other hand, without isotonicity, the generalized Dijkstra’s algorithm does not determine lightest paths in general.
The protocol stipulates a series of specifications from sensor interface definition to the data acquisition . The STIM interface standard IEEE1451 enables sensors to automatically search network, and the STIM promotes the improvement of industrial WSN
Abstract - Ensuring trustworthiness and security in multi hop wireless networks is to improve throughput, efficiency, and packet delivery ratio and it also reduce delay in a secure manner. In this scheme, all the mobile nodes share the master key value with their neighbors and submit trust value information to the accounting center which is based on their energy level, battery power, and how efficiently they relay other node’s packet and these values are used to select the path from source to destination. The communication between source and destination is initialized using route-request and route-reply packets through trust based routing protocol. The data packets are sent through only highly trusted nodes. The authentication process is handled by accounting center. The destination prepares symmetric key from its master key and compares it with the symmetric key that was composed from source’s master key for authentication purpose. The trusted values will be updated frequently and sent to accounting center through base station for further processing.
The Base stations (BS) are connected by means of a wired backbone, so that there are no power constraints and bandwidth during transmission among BS. The intermediate nodes are used to indicate relay nodes that function as gateways connecting an infrastructure wireless network and mobile ad hoc network. DTR aims to shift the routing burden from the ad hoc network to the infrastructure network by taking advantage of widespread base stations in a hybrid wireless network. Rather than using one multi-hop path to forward a message to one BS, DTR uses at most two hops to relay the segments of a message to different BS in a distributed manner, and relies on BS to combine the segments. When a source node wants to convey a message stream to a destination node, it partition the message stream into a number of partial streams called segments and spread each segment to a neighbor node. Upon receiving a segment from the source node, a neighbor node decides among direct transmission and relay transmission based on the QoS requirement of the application. The neighbor nodes promote these segments in a distributed manner to nearby BS. Relying on the infrastructure network routing, the BS further transmit the segment to the BS where the destination node resides.
This the most important routing approaches in the data centric routing protocols. The focal point is about the diffusion of the information by using the nodes with the use of a name approach mainly for the accessibility of the data. It is mainly utilized to remove the unrequired operations to save the energy. The use of the attribute value is used for the primary needs of the sensor nodes to create the query. The query relies on the names of the objects, time intervals, and geographical location and so on. The required data are transmitted from the source to the sink node by using the interaction of the neighbor nodes. The other information acquired by the directed diffusion is assisted for the comparison of the collected data with the interested value (Required Data). After the completion of the datatransmission, the sink node again sends the original data packets by accessing to the particular path which takes less time to deliver data packets.
Nagesh Babu et al  proposed for method Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) plays vital role in research field. Due to its rapidly increasing application in monitoring various kinds of environment by sensing physical phenomenon. Clustering is an efficient and effective method to enhance performance of the WSNs system. In this project work, we study a secure transmission of data for cluster-based WSNs (CWSNs), where the clusters are formed dynamically and randomly. its propose two Secure and Efficient dataTransmission (SET) protocols for CWSNs, called SET-IBS and SET-IBOOS, by using the Identity-Based digital Signature (IBS) scheme and the Identity-Based Online/Offline digital Signature (IBOOS) scheme, respectively. The cluster routing protocol LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is considered and improved. In SET-IBS, security relies on the hardness of the Diffie-Hellman problem in the pairing area. SET-IBOOS additionally decreases the computational operating cost for protocol security, which is critical for WSNs, while its defense depends on the stability of the problem of discrete logarithm. We propose a clustering routing protocol named Enhanced LEACH, which extends LEACH protocol by balancing the energy consumption in the network. The simulation results show that Enhanced LEACH outperforms LEACH in terms of network system lifetime and reduce the energy consumption.