cohesion the marker of success (Erie, 2004; Keil and Young, 2008). The spatial consequences of such a fundamental social reorientation are visible in the just-in-time landscapes of transportation and information infrastructures that have laced metropolitan regions since the 1980s. This is the Walmartized, strip-mall landscape of automobile convenience, which values temporal availability (for producers and consumers) over quality and space (for warehousing, transportation, and mass distribution on one hand and single family monster homes in the far reaches of the commuter shed on the other) over other considerations (e.g., density, proximity, and sustainability). The aforementioned study on “megacity challenges” concludes that while “transport overtakes all other infrastructures concerns … the environment matters but may be sacrificed for growth” (GlobeScan, 2007, 7). In this context, we also need to mention that urban regions are but part of larger urbanization clusters such as the regional megalopolis of the Atlantic seaboard in the United States. A recent study of the area concludes, “Overall, the forces of urban decentralization have changed Megalopolis from a region of big city population to a more fully suburbanized agglomeration” (Vicino, Hanlon, and Short, 2007, 348). In the Quebec-Windsor corridor in Canada, as well as in the Edmonton-Calgary corridor and the lower mainland of British Columbia, we see similar tendencies towards large-scale suburbanized agglomeration. The governments of Ontario, Quebec, and Canada have addressed the specific transportation and infrastructure issues of the Quebec City– Windsor corridor with a planned Ontario-Quebec Continental Gateway and Trade Corridor. As is the case with the transportation networks in the regional Places to Grow planning efforts, these transregional plans cut more transversals through the in-between city, treating these areas as terrain to be overcome rather than as places to stay, inhabit, or produce. 2 Perhaps the most visible outgrowth of this tendency is the globally financed,
This document provides an overview of the results from an evaluation of the intern year at the UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems. The evaluation was completed in semester 1 of the academic year 2009-2010 and included both general and psychiatric programmes. The School developed the instrument used to evaluate the intern year.
In what follows, let 𝑚𝑚 be an endomorphism of 𝑋𝑋 unless otherwise specified. The derivations of BCI-algebras in different aspects as follows: in 2005  , Zhen and Liu have given the notion of 𝑚𝑚 -derivation of BCI-algebras and studied p-semi-simple BCI-algebras by using the idea of regular 𝑚𝑚-derivation in BCL- algebras.
We have designed molecules which release alcohols upon exposure to UV light, independent of the reaction media, making it possible to liberate alcohols in a controlled manner in a variety of applications (Pika et al., 2000). Photolysis of 2-(2-isopropylbenzoyl)benzoate ester derivatives, (1), in an oxygen-free environment results in the liberation of the alcohol from the ester and formation of spirolactone (2) (Pika et al., 2003). The reaction mechanism for the release of the alcohol has been elucidated by time-resolved laser ¯ash photolysis (see scheme). Upon irradiation, the triplet excited state of (1) is formed, which decays by ef®cient intramolecular H-atom abstraction to form a 1,4-biradical, (3). Radical (3) undergoes intersystem crossing to form photoenols Z-(4) and E-(4). Isomer Z-(4) returns to the starting material through a 1,5-intramolecular H-atom transfer mechanism, whereas isomer E-(4) releases the alcohol through an intramolecular lactonization reaction and undergoes conrotatory electro- cyclic ring closure to form (2) (Wagner et al., 1991). We present here the crystal structure of (2).
Proteolysis of PSD-95. Rat PSD-95 was cloned into pET47b ( þ) and expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein (;83.4 kDa) in BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells at 37 8C. Cells were harvested 3–3.5 h after induction by 0.4 mM IPTG. The cell lysate was centrifuged at 17K RPM, and the supernatant was loaded onto a nickel NTA column (Qiagen, http:// www1.qiagen.com) and eluted with an imidazole gradient (20 mM to 500 mM). The purest fractions were exchanged (using PD10 columns, Amersham Biosciences, http://www.amersham.com/) to: 20 mM Tris (pH 8), 150 mM NaCl, 5 mM DTT, 10% glycerol for limited proteolysis (protocol based on that of Stroh et al. ). Digests of PSD-95 were initiated by adding protease to the following final concentrations: 0.83 lg/ml sequencing grade modified Trypsin (Roche, http://www.amersham.com), 0.1 lg/ml of proteinase (Fluka, http://www.sigmaaldrich.com), or 8.3 lg/ml of thermolysin (Sigma, http://www.sigmaaldrich.com). The thermolysin reaction was also supplemented with 5 mM CaCl 2 . Digests were incubated at 37 8C
Folate is a B-vitamin essential for one-carbon metabolism and takes part in amino acid metabolism as well as DNA synthesis, repair and methylation [1,2]. Women are espe- cially susceptible to folate deficiency during pregnancy, which is a period of rapid fetal growth, organ differentiation and high rates of cell division [1,3,4]. Since the 1950s, folic acid supplementation has been known to prevent megalo- blastic anemia during pregnancy . In the 1990s, large randomized trials demonstrated that peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation can prevent neural tube de- fects (NTD) in the newborn infant [6-8]. Today, na- tional health authorities in many countries recommend periconceptional folic acid supplementation, and some countries have introduced mandatory folate fortifica- tion of foods [1,3,4,9,10]. In Norway, folic acid supple- mentation of 400 μg/d is recommended from the time of planning a pregnancy to gestational week 12 [2,11], as is a daily folate intake of 500 μg/d. This is in line with the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations .
4-(N-imidazolyl)benzocyclobutene (5 mmol, 850 mg) and 4-bromo-1-butene (6 mmol, 810 mg,) were placed in a two- necked round-bottomed flask under a nitrogen atmosphere and the mixture was heated at 353 K for 5 h. A light-yellow solid was obtained after the surplus 4-bromo-1-butene was removed under vacuum. Colourless crystals of compound (I) were obtained by recrystallization of the solid from methanol-ethyl ether (1:4 v/v) solution (yield: 1.278 g). 1 H NMR
Three methoxy groups in (I) and (II) are almost coplanar with the attached rings, with torsion angles C16—O1—C3— C4 of 6.0 (1) , C19—O3—C12—C11 of 11.0 (1) and C17— O5—C14—C15 of 3.4 (1) . The fourth methoxy group at C13 is twisted away from the attached ring, with a torsion angle C18—O4—C13—C14 of 64.4 (1) .
Of the 53 BCTs originally included in the taxonomy, 42 (79.3%) were accurately and reliably identified and categorised at least once in the NCSCT transcript (Appendix 1). Inter-rater reliability across transcripts was high (93.4% agreement). All discrepancies were resolved through discussion. No new BCTs were identified or any major theoretical or structural problems with the taxonomy. Three minor adaptations were proposed: i) reduce the number of items in the framework by merging typically co-occurring and theoretically related BCTs, and ii) enhance clarity and facilitate distinctions between BCTs by refining existing BCT definitions and labels, or iii) creating definitions where previously absent. A full list of adaptations is available in Appendix 2, and summary examples of each in Appendix 3. The refined taxonomy comprised 40 BCTs (Table 1).