Top PDF An Analysis of The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Occupational Stress (A Study with Special Reference to Selected Hospitals in Pune City)

An Analysis of The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Occupational Stress  (A Study with Special Reference to Selected Hospitals in Pune City)

An Analysis of The Relationship Between Organizational Commitment and Occupational Stress (A Study with Special Reference to Selected Hospitals in Pune City)

It is proved by many of the study that there is relationship between organizational commitment and occupational stress. These studies point to that continued interest is the result of the belief that if properly managed, employee’s organizational commitment can lead to valuable consequences such as organizational success, reduced employee turnover and low absenteeism. An extensive reviewing revealed that a great deal has been written about the causes and adverse effects of occupational stress as well as the importance of organizational realization of individual professional goal &organizational goals. However a study which could address the relationship between organizational commitment and occupational stress in hospitals in Pune city has not been conducted. The problem to be investigated is to examine the relationship between occupational stress and occupational commitment in hospitals in Pune. Further this study aims to explain the level, causes and dimensions of occupational stress and the level and forms of organizational commitment of employees in hospitals in Pune city.
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The Analysis of the Relationship between the Levels of Organizational Forgiveness and Organizational Commitment of Teachers

The Analysis of the Relationship between the Levels of Organizational Forgiveness and Organizational Commitment of Teachers

Abstract In this research, it is aimed to determine the level of organizational forgiveness and organizational commitment of teachers and their relation. Descriptive method was used in the research. The working population of the research: Teachers who work in primary schools and high schools in the Battalgazi and Yeşilyurt district centers in Malatya province during the 2017-2018 academic year. A total of 450 teachers from 6 primary schools and 6 high schools selected by means of population sampling were included in the study. Two scales, "organizational forgiveness" and "organizational commitment", were used to collect the data of the study. In the analysis of the data, arithmetic mean standard deviation calculation, t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. According to the findings obtained as a result of the research, it was seen that there was a significant difference between school type, education status and occupational seniority variables while there was no significant difference between teachers' organizational forgiveness and gender, marital status, number of children and field of study. Participants' organizational commitment levels were low at both overall sum and dimensions. There was a low level of positive relationship between organizational forgiveness and organizational commitment. Based on these findings, teachers' awareness about organizational forgiveness and the necessity of providing jobs in order to increase school commitment and suggestions such as personal rights, profession promotion, purchasing power and working conditions can be improved.
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Analysis of the Relationship Between Stress and Organizational Commitment in Employees: A Meta-Analysis Study

Analysis of the Relationship Between Stress and Organizational Commitment in Employees: A Meta-Analysis Study

In this study, it was also concluded that there is weak negative relationship between stress and affective commitment; weak positive relationship between stress and normative commitment and small positive relationship between stress and continuance commitment in employees. Similar to this result, Meyer et al. (2002) reported that affective commitment is negatively related to stress and work-family conflict, but continuance commitment is positively related to both variables in their meta-analysis study on organizational commitment. Researchers stated that they encountered very few studies to calculate the relationship between normative commitment and stress. That stress affects only affective commitment negatively among organizational commitment sub-dimensions can be explained by the fact that stress is an emotional concept. Employees who have high affective commitment levels have also high levels of integration with the organization, making an effort towards organizational objectives and willingness to contribute in the organization (Allen & Meyer, 1990). However, affective commitment of employees who cannot go into balance state against stress and start exhaustion may be more easily affected by this situation in a negative manner and this negative impact may cause that affective commitment levels of the employees decrease. Therefore, employees who are exposed to causes of stress may exhibit behaviours in the direction of breaking emotional ties which enable integration and identifying with the organization. In addition, many researches (Aydoğan, 2008; Yıldız, 2013; Yiğit, 2009) verify that there is a negative relationship between stress and affective commitment in employees. On the other hand, stress has a positive impact on normative and continuance commitments of employees. Employees with high normative commitment level have emotions such as being responsible, feeling
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The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

The relationship between the occupational stress, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction with organizational citizenship behavior

Organizational Commitment is an employee psychological additional behavior to the organization. Organizational commitment is one of the important parts within organizational behavior. And have found that the clear relationship between organizational commitment and attitudes and behaviors in the workplace (Porter et al., 1974, 1976; Koch and Steers, 1978; Angle and Perry, 1981). Two most comment approaches have been determine, they are commitment-related attitudes (Job Satisfaction, the employees feeling about the job) and commitment-related behaviors and it have been done not only in private, public and non profit sector, but also it have been determine internationally. Commitment is not something that you can directly see. The employees should have to characteristics that will show our commitment within organization, they are focus and personal sacrifices. Focus means the employees should focus and pay fully attention on the job or task that have been given from the production level of the product or services until on how to making profit to the company. Personal sacrifices means the employees should be more loyal and have self belonging to the organization and it will show the commitment straightly to the organization. The employees will be willing to make personal sacrifices to reach your goals. People need to attach a meaning to the sacrifice. If this sacrifice does not provide them with a sense of achievement, they will not be willing to do it. Commitment is a willingness to look for a new and better way to do something and then do it. It focuses on eliminate the procrastinating the task given and confronting on what is not working. This spirit of commitment allows a person to take risks they would not have taken before. This risk is looking to the future in its place of revise the past. Commitment within Bernama TV not is the same for each level. Bernama TV has two different areas or two different working fields which is management team and production team. They have different commitment to be show, practice and present. According to Buchanan (1974) most scholars define commitment as being a bond between an individual (the employee) and the organization (the employer), though his own definition of commitment Meyer and Allen (1991) and Dunham et al (1994) identified three types of commitment; affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Normative commitment is a relatively new aspect of organizational commitment having been defined by Bolon in 1993.
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Impact of Occupational Stress, Interpersonal Trust, and Organizational Commitment on Valence, OCB and Job Satisfaction: A Variance-Based SEM Analysis

Impact of Occupational Stress, Interpersonal Trust, and Organizational Commitment on Valence, OCB and Job Satisfaction: A Variance-Based SEM Analysis

According to the World Health Organization (2014) report, there is a shortage of 7.2 million skilled health care workers globally, which is expected to rise up to 12.9 million by 2035. This situation is more or less same as Pakistan. Because of high rates of unem- ployment in Karachi, health care professional tends to suffer from a high work anxiety, fatigue and increasing workload. Even healthcare institutions face difficulty in recruiting such healthcare professional which could serve in the organization for a longer period of time. Employees are given various trainings and workshops for their professional de- velopment, however, due to high inflation some of the healthcare employers are not in a position to offer competitive financial benefits to their employees. Since, the healthcare professionals face difficulty and notable hindrances in moving from one organization to another, they tend to continue with their present job as compulsion (called continuance commitment). Notwithstanding, it is often observed that the healthcare professionals suf- fer from occupational stress, which hinders them to exhibit OCB. Moreover, the inter- personal trust among co-workers and supervisors and organizational commitment are significantly related with a valence of job satisfaction.
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The Relationship between Ethical Values and Organizational Commitment of Staff in Public and Non- Public Hospitals

The Relationship between Ethical Values and Organizational Commitment of Staff in Public and Non- Public Hospitals

as the study done by Randall, Cote showed this fact (30). Yousef analysed the correlation between organizational commitment and ethical values in a study which showed that there is a moderate relationship between organizational commitment and ethical values and the results also showed that occupational ethics have direct and positive effect on different aspects of organizational commitment (affect, normative and continuous) (31). Okpara studied the effect of occupational ethics on job satisfaction and organizational commitment in 2008 which showed a meaningful relationship between them (32). In another study also it is showed that organizational commitments predict occupational ethics and occupational ethics had a special effect on normative commitment (33). In a study done by Saks and colleagues, the relationship between occupational ethics, occupational attitudes and tendency to job quit were analysed in the staff of a service providing organizations. Findings showed that occupational ethics related directly with organizational commitment and job satisfaction, and it also related indirectly with lower tendency to quit the job (34). The Study results showed that ethical values in private and governmental hospitals are significantly different from each other (35). Findings showed organizational commitment in private and governmental hospitals are different. Multiple regression analysis showed that organizational commitment meaningfully related with private and governmental hospitals and also gender but there was no relationship with job record, education and age group. The study showed organizational commitment in governmental hospital was more than private ones which is because of varied ethical values in governmental hospitals. Results of studies done by Yousef and Schwepker showed a meaningful relationship between occupational ethics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction and support our finding (36,37). Attention to ethical values can improve the organizational commitment in hospitals and furthermore can result in more staff job satisfaction. Private hospitals can improve their efficiency and satisfaction of their patients and customers by
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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTIVATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

The main purpose of this article is to examine the relationship between motivation and organizational commitment of employees working in Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Ltd(TNPL) at Kagidapuram, Karur District. The research is aim to appraise the existing literatures and eventually build up the conceptual framework as well as hypotheses. A stratified proportionate sampling design has been employed and 330 employees have participated. The data are analyzed using chi-square, F test, paired t-test, factor analysis and multiple regression. The result of the analyzes showed that there is significant association between motivation and organizational commitment and its dimensions viz. affective, continuance and normative commitment. F test results shows that there is significant mean difference between motivation and organizational commitment. Factor analysis is used to reduce factors for motivation. Findings suggest the there is significant and positive association and relationship between motivation and organizational commitment
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Abstract: The study investigated emotional intelligence as a moderator in the relationship between occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior among graduate employees in Nigeria. The purpose of the study was in twofold: firstly, to empirically examine the relationship between occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior. Secondly, to empirically investigate if emotional intelligence would moderate the relationship between occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior. The study was conducted to demonstrate whether the presence of emotional intelligence could result in a better level of employee performance, even as employees experience a certain level of occupational stress. In view of the above, the study has contributed to the formation of a new model of psychological intervention for occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior. The study adopted the positivist explanatory cross-sectional (survey) research design to systematically sample opinions of 1,532 male and female graduate employees across. The various sectors of the Nigerian economy, using a structured and validated questionnaire and version 20 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), two hypotheses were stated and analyzed using Pearson Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis while the percentage, mean, standard deviation and the frequency of the biographical and occupational data were also determined by the descriptive statistics. The results showed that there was a weak positive relationship between occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior. Emotional intelligence significantly moderated the relationship between occupational stress and organizational citizenship behavior. Human resource managers should develop emotional intelligence in employees in order to increase the level of organizational performance, and reduce the negative impact of occupational stress. This could be achieved through training and seminar participation. Recommendations of the study could assist in training and developing effective manpower capacity towards improving the economy of the nation.
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Relationship between Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Commitment in Hospitality Industry: Case of Antalya, Turkey

Relationship between Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Commitment in Hospitality Industry: Case of Antalya, Turkey

Factor analysis was also conducted in order to find the factor structure of OCQ items. Kaiser- Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was calculated as 0.804 which is above the accepted value. The Bartlett’s test showed that the variables suitable for the factor analysis (p=0.000, Chi- Square: 1067.698). The 20 items were factor analyzed with using principal components solution with varimax rotation. Some of the items that had low factor loading than 0.50 (I do not feel a strong sense of belonging to my organization; I feel that I have too few options to consider leaving this organization; One of the major reasons I continue to work for this organization is that leaving would require considerable personal sacrifice -another organization may not match the overall benefits I have here; Right now, staying with my organization is a matter of necessity as much as desire) were excluded from analysis. Therefore, three factors (affective commitment, continuance commitment, normative commitment) were obtained and these factors were explaining 52.773% of total variance which was above the acceptable value (Nakip, 2003: 412). The Cronbach’s Alpha values of the factors ranged from 0.705 to 0.880 which showed good internal reliability for each factors (Hair et al., 1998: 118).
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A Relationship Between Occupational Stress and Organisational Commitment of I T Sector's Employees in Contrasting economies

A Relationship Between Occupational Stress and Organisational Commitment of I T Sector's Employees in Contrasting economies

Through HR department consent was approved. Only 173 organisations out of 510 organisations approved participation reflecting 34.9% response rate. On-line semi structured matrix survey questionnaire containing 30 items related to stressors, role of occupational therapist, personal strains, personal resources, antecedents of organisational commitment, and perceived job satisfaction. Six point Likert scale was used. IBM SPSS 23.0 was used for the quantitative analysis. Once, we reached our approximation by having male to female (51:49) and middle to operational (49.2:50.8). We ran (Shaprio-Wilk) normality distribution test and it reflects data is normally distributed. Mainly, independent t-test and correlation considered for measuring relationship and statistical significance. Moreover, funnel approach was adapted to facilitate research in gaining comprehensive findings about variables of interest.
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Relationship between big five personality and organizational commitment: a study among executives in a public sector organization

Relationship between big five personality and organizational commitment: a study among executives in a public sector organization

Umi et al. (2015) investigate the influence of personality trait on affective commitment vocational teachers. The population of this survey is vocational teachers in a foundation in the field of education in Surabaya. The technique of collecting data uses questionnaires, while data analysis techniques use regression analysis. The results showed that personality trait had a significant influence on the affective organizational commitment of teachers in Vocational High School. In addition, it was found that two of the five personalities are trait agreeableness and conscientiousness that significantly influenced the affective organizational commitment. It means that teachers who have agreeableness and conscientiousness trait will have emotional attachment, identification and full involvement to organization. Gozde and Emel (2016) studied the Relationship between personality traits, demographic characteristics, and organizational commitment of construction professionals is discussed in this paper. The discussion is based on statistical analysis of data collected from 922 Turkish professionals. Results show that agreeableness and consciousness personality traits are correlated with all of the organizational commitment scales; positively with affective commitment and normative commitment, and negatively with continuance commitment. Marital status and age are two important demographic characteristics on organizational commitment levels. The results are likely to affect both the human resource management approaches of construction firms and related academic researches in the future.
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The relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment among faculty members

The relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Organizational Commitment among faculty members

The analysis of the results from H3 indicated that the correlation coefficient between the affective commitment and the rate of POS was significant at the level of P≤ 0.05. The rate of correlation between two variables was r = 0.44, indicating a linear correlation between these variables. The determination coefficient also showed that 18% of variance of scores was common among the affective commitment and the rate of POS share about. A number of studies corroborate the relationship between POS and normative commitment (see the meta- analysis of Meyer et al., 2002). According to Eisenberger et al. (2004), this relationship can essentially be explained by the norm of reciprocity put forward by Gouldner (1960). This norm stipulates that when a person or an entity (e.g. group, organization) does someone a favor, the recipient of this favor feels the obligation to return the favor. Thus, when individuals perceive that their employer shows concern for their well-being and seek to meet their needs, they are more likely to feel indebted to the organization and show loyalty (Gakovic and Tetrick, 2003). Therefore POS is likely to increase the level of normative commitment. Compared to the relationship between POS and affective commitment, it appears to be more the economic aspect of the exchange between employees and the organization that explains the link between POS and normative commitment (Shore and Tetrick, 1991).
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A Correlation between Workplace Stress and Organizational Commitment: Doctors response from Public and Private Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan

A Correlation between Workplace Stress and Organizational Commitment: Doctors response from Public and Private Hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan

organization .Moreover, Continuance commitment explains employee’s dedicated performa nce to serve the same organization. After an organization there is a well defined plethora working around and to be very honest it seems so reckless. Now that, all the types of organizational commitment has been explained, It is easy to make a clear understanding regarding the relationship between organizational commitment with occupational stress. Organizational commitment is the emotional attachment of employees towards their current organization. Organizational commitment is a strong conviction in, and absorption of organization objectives and principal, and enthusiasm to exert significant effort in favor of the organization, they serve and their clear will to sustain organization citizenship. Organizational commitment has been an umbrella which shadows affective, normative and continuance commitment. And these evaluate organizational commitment as a variable. Affective commitment points at emotional tie and reorganization of the employees with the alliance. The favors gained being part of the organization is referred as continuance commitment whereas, normative commitment shows an urge of upholding employment.
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Examining the Relationship Between Perceived Organizational Justice and Dimensions of Organizational Commitment

Examining the Relationship Between Perceived Organizational Justice and Dimensions of Organizational Commitment

previous research were developed, and after a preliminary review with research supervisor, number of questions declined to 25. The questionnaire then was examined by experts and professors of Educational Science and Management for measuring validity, and their comments and suggestions were applied and questionnaire questions reduced to 22. The results of factor analysis of the perceived organizational justice questionnaire also confirmed four principal components of distributive justice, procedural justice, interactive justice and interpersonal justice, where 71% of the variance for questions were extracted. 903% = KMO and Bartlett's (P) test showed that the sample size is adequate, and desired factors exist in population. Orthogonal rotation or factor loadings higher than 3%, gives our four desired components.
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The Role of Organizational Factors of Empowerment and Motivation in Enhancing Employees' Commitment in Indian Automotive Industry

The Role of Organizational Factors of Empowerment and Motivation in Enhancing Employees' Commitment in Indian Automotive Industry

Abstract Studies show that positive feelings and perception of the employees about the various aspects of their job and employment lead to higher organizational commitment which indicates that it is the psychological capability of an employee that is related to the intrinsic Employees’ empowerment, recognized as an effective management technique which can universally be adopted by business organizations to improve organizational relationship, identification, performance and productivity. Researchers have conducted numerous studies to understand the nature and dimensions of empowerment. In this context this article aims to investigate the role of organizational empowerment and motivation factors in enhancing the employees’ commitment as measured by affective, continuous and normative commitment in the automotive industry in India. A random sample size of 242 employees from Indian Automotive Industry consisting of two automobile and two auto-component companies was taken to participate in data collection from NCR (National Capital Region), India. Data analyzed using linear regression analysis showed positive relationship between organizational factors of empowerment & motivation and employees’ commitment.
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The role of organizational justice in the relationship between LMX, organizational commitment and intent to turnover

The role of organizational justice in the relationship between LMX, organizational commitment and intent to turnover

As mentioned before, various authors found a relationship between organizational justice perceptions of employees and organizational commitment. However, how different dimensions of organizational justice interact with different forms of commitment is still a point of conflict between authors, as different study findings support different hypothesis drawn by authors. McFarlin and Sweeney (1992) conducted a survey on bank employees and found that distributive justice ended to be a stronger predictor of personal outcomes than procedural justice, whereas the reverse was true for organizational outcomes. The fairness of a firm's procedures may have a greater impact on organizational commitment than the fairness of distributive outcomes that workers receive, perhaps because procedures define the organization's capacity to treat employees fairly. Thus, if they see procedures as fair, employees may view the organization positively, even if they are currently dissatisfied with such personal outcomes as a low pay raise. It was also found out that fair procedures also lead to positive evaluations of the supervisors. Result of regression analysis done by Mcfarlin and Sweeney support this noting of theirs (1992). Briefly, according to referent cognitions theory, as explained before, individuals evaluate their work experiences by reflecting on "what might have been" under different circumstances and conditions (Folger, 1986a). The findings by Sweeney and Mcfarlin (1992) support the applications of Referent cognitions theory given by Cropanzano and Folger's (1989) stating that the outcomes of subordinate’s evaluation of supervisor and organizational commitment would be most negative when both distributive and procedural justice are low. But positive evaluations would be expected when procedural justice is high, regardless of the level of distributive justice.
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The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Trust of Staff

The Relationship between Organizational Commitment and Organizational Trust of Staff

The present study aimed at investigating the relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment in staff. Eighty-four persons from 101 staff of department of Sports and Youth in the province of Mazandaran responded to two questionnaires of “Organizational Trust Inventory (OTI)” developed by Shockley-Zalaba, Ellis, and Winograd (2000) and “Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ)” developed by Allen and Meyer (1990). The reliability analysis of questionnaires for OTI, and OCQ were reported ɑ = 0.92 and ɑ = 0.82, respectively based on Cronbach's alpha measure. Results revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment (r = 0.573, p = 0.001), affective commitment (r = 0.54, p = 0.001), task commitment is (r = 0.345, p = 0.001). But the positive relationship between organizational trust and continuous commitment (r = 0.202) wasn’t significant (p = 0.066). In conclusion, it is suggested that managers should create trust of staff in order to increase its organizational commitment.
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PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND AFFECTIVE OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AS MEDIATING VARIABLES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER GROWTH AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

PERCEIVED ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND AFFECTIVE OCCUPATIONAL COMMITMENT AS MEDIATING VARIABLES ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL CAREER GROWTH AND EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE

The affective occupational commitment is conceptualized as psychological condition or paradigm that tied an individu to perform a relevant action with one or more targets, and their willingness to withstand in an action (Cooper-Hakim and Viswesvaran, 2005). Porter, Steers, Mowday, and Boulian (1974) define commit- ment as a strong faith and acceptance of organizational goals, willingness to keep a membership in an organization. Robbins and Judge (2007) define commitment as a condition in which an individu take a side on their organization together with its objectives and is willing to maintain their membership in the organization. Mathis and Jackson in Sopiah (2008) define organizational commitment as a position in which employee believe and willing to accept the organizational objectives, as well as having intention to stay or do not left their organization. Mowday in Sopiah (2008) stated that there are three aspects of commitment: (a) affective commitment, related with the willingness to be tied to the organization. Individu maintain their membership because of their own willingness. The key of this commitment is ‘want-to’; (b) continuance commitment is a commitment that is based on rational needs. In other words, this commitment is developed based on profitability consideration; the individu considers what they should sacrifice if they need to stay in an organization. The key of this commitment is the need to stay (need to); and (c) normative Commitment is a commitment that based on the norms that exist in employee’s value system, which includes individu belief on their responsibility for the organization. He/she feels the need to stay due to loyalty. The key of this commitment is the responsibility to stay in the organization (ought to). Allen and Meyer (1996) define affective organizational commitment as “psychological relationship between employees and the organization which reduces the probability of employees leaving the organization voluntarily is so small”. It is expected that employees with strong affective commitment will stay in the organization because of the emotional ties with the organization.
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The relationship between job stress, perceived organizational politics and turnover intention

The relationship between job stress, perceived organizational politics and turnover intention

activities and decision making process is a misperception of actual event, this perception is part of the individuals view of reality and therefore will draw their associated cognitive and behavioural responses. However, Bryne (2005) suggested that perception of organizational politics has negative outcomes and is harmful for employees as well as for organization. Poon (2002) observed that organizations that are live with politics provide an uncomfortable environment for people to work in and not good for promoting positive work related behaviours. Vigoda-gadot, Vinarsky-Peretz, and Ben-Zion (2003) held that ‘perception of politics is usually individual view about the level of power and influence used by other organizational members to gain advantage and secure their interests in conflicting situations. It connotes attempts to influence others using discretionary behaviours to promote personal objectives (McShane and VonGlinow, 2003).’ Organizational politics has been found to be positively associated with psychological variables like work stress (Ferris, Frink, Bhawuk, Zhou and Gilmore, 1996: Kacmar, Bozeman, Carlson and Anthony, 1999) and negatively related with employee attitude like job satisfaction, organizational commitment (Cropanzano et al, 1997) Witt, (Kacmar, Carlson and Zivnuska, 2002) as well as Kacmar and Ferris (1991) further revealed organizational politics is a potential source of stress and naturally created an unpalatable atmosphere for people to work. It is hypothesized that there will be no statistically significant positive relationship between perceived organizational politics and turnover intention (H 2 ).
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The Study on the Relationship between Change Leadership and Employee Commitment for Organizational Change

The Study on the Relationship between Change Leadership and Employee Commitment for Organizational Change

Available online: https://edupediapublications.org/journals/index.php/IJR/ P a g e | 1547 Change leadership models also stress stimulating and empowering employees to participate in the change (Herold et al., 2008). Employee participation is often seen as an important way of creating support for change among employees. Participation may give employees a feeling of ownership and control over the change, thereby making the change less threatening (DeVos et al., 2007). Participation may also contribute to the quality of the change that is being implemented (DeVos et al., 2007; Lines, Selart, Espedal & Johansen, 2004). Senior managers may have a good birds-eye view of the organization, but frontline employees are often more knowledgeable about the operations of the organization. Their expertise may thus be used as important input in designing and implementing the organizational change. Organizational change theorists have also been critical about employee participation in organizational change. Organizational change in the public sector often emanates from higher level reforms and top-down policies formulated at the political level. Although examples of far-reaching employee participation in public sector change can be found (e.g. Van der Voet, Kuipers & Groeneveld, 2014), Dunphy and Stace (1988) argue that employee participation is often limited to determining the sub goals of a larger change effort that is being directed by senior managers. Moreover, many contemporary organizational changes in the public sector are primarily concerned with cost reduction and efficiency gains rather than improvement of service delivery (e.g. Wright et al., 2013). Such circumstances are ill- suited for employee participation, since decision-making is likely to be centralized to the higher management levels (Mintzberg, 1979).
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