Dong, Xin and Vuran, Mehmet (2011), in this paper its given that, So far, for none of these current models completely catch all the parts of EM signal propagation in the mud medium. In this reference paper, a shut structure channelmodel is produced focused around electromagnetic propagation of signals through the soil. Likewise, three noteworthy segments that impact soil communication are distinguished: lateral, reflected, and direct waves, where the first has not been dissected for WSNs as such. The closed-form channel models are demonstrated to concur with both the underground test bed trials and electromagnetic analysis focused around Maxwell's equations, that can't be spoken to in closed form.
The improved AODV routing algorithm is embedded in the process model . The MAC layer is called to scan channels after receiving the interrupt request of scanning channel from application layer. When it is complete, network layer selects the appropriate channel and network identifier to establish the network, and the node waits for the request frame of processing beacon and accessing network, routing control packet and data packets. After network establishment, other devices also receive the interrupt request of scanning channel and then access the network.
Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced to various expansion boards or Breadboards ( shields ) and other circuits. The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers are typically programmed using a dialect of features from the programming languages C and C++. In addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrated development environment (IDE) based on the Processinglanguage project.
CMOS image sensors provide only small amounts of a power converter can work normally; this is because the CMOS image sensor power is very small, only 5V voltage by USB bus provides can drive its normal work. In addition CMOS image sensor chip only needs several external a few control signals to complete the image acquisition (control signal of the system provided by the CPLD chip USB data transmission board), and the output of the amplifier is integrated in the chip, digital to analog conversion module, only need to modify the value of the special register chip bias voltage to change the output amplifier, gain parameter, thus greatly reducing complexity and finished the hardware design of the volume, has the very high application value.
Many of these novel applications will be possible because WUSNs can provide localized and real-time data about a specific soil region and its surrounding area. Despite In this chapter, we introduce the oretical models to characterize the undergroundwirelesschannel. The models developed in this chapter characterize not only the propagation of EM wave in soil, but also other effects on the communication related to multi path effects, soil composition, water content, and burial depth. The results obtained from this formalization reveal that underground communication is severelyaffected by frequency and soil properties, and more specifically by the volumetric water content (VWC) of soil. Moreover, the effects of weather and season changes are investigated by considering two soil types as examples. Such theoretical models are essential for laying out the foundations for efficient communication in this environment.
ZigBee is one of today's most useful technologies in the wirelesssensornetwork industry. ZigBee, which is a new standard for wireless communication , is based on the IEEE 802.15.4standard announced in 2003 by the IEEE [15, 16]. ZigBee is established on powerful radio (physical layer) and MAC (Medium Access Control) layers defined by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. It utilizes a standard CSMA/CA media access mechanism and supports star, tree and mesh topologies. IEEE 802.15.4 defines three license-free frequency bands. The first band uses the 2.4 GHz frequency band, i.e., the ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) band, and has 16 channels. The second band uses the 902-928 MHz frequency band with 10 channels. The other uses the 868-870 MHz frequency band with only one channel. The capacities of these frequency bands are 250 kb/s, 40 kb/s and 20 kb/s, respectively [15,17,18]. ZigBee deals with transferring certain amounts of data between devices used in personal area networks, measurements with networks, detection, monitoring and checking the applications. However, it is not suitable for large-size file transfers like Wi-Fi or Bluetooth. ZigBee is differentiated from Wi-Fi or Bluetooth in terms of communication approach between multiple devices, and works over simple networks with less power consumption and cost, also providing communication with lower bandwidth demands. In Table 1, a comparison of the features of ZigBee and some other wireless technologies is shown [15, 19]. As understood from the table, although the battery life of Bluetooth is 1-7 days, ZigBee’s battery life is 100-1000 days. In addition, while Wi-Fi’s fields of success are usually speed and flexibility, it can be said that ZigBee’s success rests in durability, cost and power consumption.
problem of using ARM processor S3C2440A to realize protocol conversion between networks . Khan et al. (2016) discussed the idea and scheme of network node design and development. Generally, the combination of processor and radio frequency pro- cessing chip or high integration chip system architecture uses single chip or low-end processor. It also uses the embedded software architecture to implement the transmis- sion network function . Mosterman et al. (2016) studied the two means of the design of embedded software. One is the design idea based on the TinyOS operating system, and another is the solution scheme based on the ZigBee protocol stack. TinyOS can quickly develop component-based architecture, which reduces the code volume oper- ating of the sensing network. The system and library functions are written and designed based on structured concepts and execution models. The solution to the ZigBee stack is to transplant ZigBee protocol stack on the microprocessor or on chip system, and then use the application programming interface function to complete the development of application layer . Khan et al. (2016) studied wireless remote monitoring based on WSN. They used the simple structure, small size, and low cost features of WSN composed of ZigBee technology to realize close range wireless connection, which can ensure the real-time and reliability of data transmission . Nellore et al. (2016) dis- cussed the ZigBee technology and gave the composition of the wireless data acquisition system based on ZigBee. Finally, they completed the node acquisition by using CC2430 chip, designed the hardware and software of the main control unit, and realized data acquisition and wireless transmission . Khan et al. (2016) analyzed the new and open wireless interconnection technology - ZigBee technology, combined sensor technol- ogy, ZigBee technology and routing protocol, and constructed a WSN . Shaikh et al. (2016) studied the ARM9 industrial control motherboard as the core unit, used the om- nidirectional vibration sensor, and designed a set of vibration data acquisition system based on WSN by combining with the ZigBeewirelessnetwork technology .
completed on ease. Many automation techniques came into scene. Bluetooth wireless technology has became more popular standard in the communication arena. Bluetooth technology handles the wireless part of the communication channel; it transmits and receives the data wirelessly between these devices. The existing system architectures incorporate a personal computer for the management. This adds additional complexity to the system, hence increasing the overall fiscal expense. It requires intrusive installation. It also lacks network interoperability that is both home networks and the home automation systems which utilise them have been developed and adopted in an unplanned and ad-hoc manner. Finally, security and safety: the existing approaches have not focused on security and safety problems that may arise from their implementation. This proposed System is a novel, stand alone, low-cost and flexible ZigBee based home automation system. The architecture is designed to reduce the system’s complexity and lower fiscal costs. Hence, the system endeavors not to incorporate complex and expensive components, such as a high end personal computer, where possible. The system allows home owners to monitor and control connected devices in the home, through a variety of controls, including a ZigBee based remote control.
Wirelesssensornetwork node of the networkZigbee input feature factor node layer neuron number is the system (variable) number; the output layer neuron node number is the number of target. Hidden layer nodes selected by selecting experience, usually set as input layer node number 75%. If the input layer has 7 nodes, 1 node in the output layer, the hidden layer can temporarily set to 5 nodes, which form a 7-5-1 BP neural networkmodel. In the training, practical but also on the hidden layer nodes of different number 4, 5, 6 respectively, finally determine the network structure of the most reasonable. To determine the initial weights, the initial weights are not completely equal to a set of values. Have demonstrated, even determine the existence of a group of non equal the system error smaller weights, if the initial set of Wji values are equal to each other, they will always remain equal in the learning process. Therefore, in the process, we design a random number generator program, a random number generating a set of a 0.5~+0.5, as the initial weights of the network.
In this paper can extend and intend some new technology to overcome some disadvantage. In during secretive coal mining incisive a person can breathe easily and prevent from accident that can’t give important to person sheltered . Accessible system using pic microcontroller can perform secure with low performance.  While a person can go underground coal mining with correct way once can go alternate occurs some problem to find out anyone.  ZigBee can transfer only 40km but here increases the data base to wide range the aloofness as we desire.  Existing system relies on massive hardware that consists of PLC, two 12-bit channel ADC modules and 10 inch touch screen. This system is based on the ARM7 microcontroller to devise the absolute system, which offers high recital and very low power outflow.  In this manuscript usingZigBee and WI-FI transmitted the information to host station.  It can use CCTV camera to sense the motion of the human using pic microcontroller.
Step 1: The MAC layer is called to scan channels after network initialization. Then it enters the state of “scan1”. A remote interrupt is called by the MAC layer. A request frame of beacon is sent out, and a timer of waiting beacon frame is set. Then it enters the waiting beacon frame state of “wait”. Step 2: The adjacent nodes which have already entered the network reply to beacon frames after receiving request beacon frames. During the time of the waiting beacon frame timer, the nodes which waiting for entering the network receive and record beacon frames, otherwise the neighbor table is released to rescan channels.
The required climatic conditions for the polyhouse cultivation can be provided by using this proposed technique. The Zigbee technology has used for implementing the proposed wirelessnetwork. Few of the surrounding parameters of ambient temperature, humidity percentage, light intensity range and soil moisture content inside polyhouse are controlled and optimum conditions for crop growth inside polyhouse can be provided with the proposed modelusing abrupt actuators used. This model has developed with the mesh topology consists various nodes which are deployed inside polyhouse and are controlled by one central monitoring unit (CMU). Based on the crop the threshold values for the sensors and control values for the actuators during day time and night time are programmed in the CMU and it continuously receives the sensors data from all the nodes, and with respect to the programmed values of crop the CMU sends the controlling data to the actuator node for maintaining constant and required environmental conditions. By using this proposed model the necessity of human effort can be reduced and also the suitable weather conditions for the crop production irrespective of the season can be provided for the maximum beneficiary to the farmer.
world. Possibilities and way to design and implement a ZigBee-based data transmission and monitoring wireless smart sensornetwork integrated with the Internet are considered and described in the paper. Implementing of a cost-effective such system requires the use and integration of different hardware elements and programming languages. Possibilities and key aspects of smart sensor nodes are considered and described in the paper. Design and implementation of an inexpensive energy saving Zigbee point-to-point wireless smart sensornetwork to monitor sensor data in energy efficient manner usingZigbee modules and different boards are proposed and described. Configuration of used Zigbee modules for smart sensor nodes communication is also described. Data measurement with such sensor nodes is also described. Results of wireless data measurement, data transfer and monitoring with such Zigbee based wireless smart sensornetwork via Web technologies are shown in the paper.
Air pollution index (API) is basically a scale to gauge the severity or how polluted the air is. The greater number of the API represents the more dangerous the air quality to human health. The unpredictable weather that occurred in our country in recent months has exposed our environment towards to natural disasters especially fire which results in hazy environment. Haze will definitely affect the API in that particular area where the fire occurs. On the other hand, industrial waste such as unreacted gas could also affect the API especially the area nearby the industrial area. Nowadays, individual who wants to have an API system has to pay a fortune because the installation cost is very high and expensive. The size is also large and not portable. These systems are usually used by government’s bodies and large companies who own industrial plants to monitor the air quality. This project has been proposed to produce a cheaper version of API system and portable using cheaper materials costs, readily available Arduino microcontroller and GSM system.
One set represents the transmitter and another set represents the receiver. The 12 v relay is connected with receiver set of arduino controller for controlling purpose, power supply is 12 v is apply to the relay set. Ac load is operating with help of relay switch on and off. There is another method for controlling the receiver set by using direct Zigbee remote controller. Using that we apply the direct signal to the receiver set and controls it. But here we used second option that is separate set of Zigbee and arduino controller.
RF modem based agriculture monitoring system serves as a reliable and efficient system for monitoring agricultural parameters. The corrective action can be taken. Wireless monitoring of field not only allows user to reduce the human power, but it also allows user to see accurate changes in it. It is cheaper in cost and consumes less power. Wireless monitoring of field not only allows user to reduce the human power, but it also allowsuser to see accurate changes in it. It is cheaper in costand consumes less power.
This chapter is focusing in explaining about all the research doing in related scope of this project thesis. Under this subtitle, the sources of literature review are from the article and pass thesis. The literature included in this section is about the SCADA system, WSN (Wireless A SensorNetwork), Zigbee, and the Visual Basic 6.0 used for GUI.
In recent years, a few methods have been applied by researchers in order to measure the level of air pollutions. The activity of air pollution monitoring are typically divert into two classifications: source monitoring and ambient air monitoring. A direct approach of monitoring can be done using continuous measurement instrumentation or manual methods or remotely optical sensing systems. For the first type, source monitoring considers the measurement of emissions directly from a fixed or mobile emission source, normally in a close or contains duct, vent, stack or chimney. Stationary source data is used to determine control technology performance, to confirm established permission limits are being met and as an input to ozone and/or health risk prediction models. Ambient air monitoring however involves the depth occurrence of specific pollutants presents in an immediate surrounding atmosphere. Ambient air monitoring used by major urban stations often deploys several instruments which specifically dedicated to measuring specific target pollutants .
Arduino UNO 1.0.4 will use on Xbee Zigbee transmitter device (figure 1.4.1). A fundamental kind of Arduino that have 6 simple inputs and 14 digital input/output pins (can be utilized as PWM outputs). It is a microcontroller board focused around ATmega328 and also contains lots of everything expected to help the microcontroller, essentially unite it to machine with USB cable or force it with AC-to-DC connector or battery to source the power. Arduino board will be the controller to the sensors that integrated with the WSN by code program commands. The output will through the Xbee Pro Zigbee receiver and by using the Labview. Finally the data acquisition will shown on PC and stored for recording data.
In this system we use three sensors i.e temperature sensor, gas sensor and humidity sensor, the sensor senses the respective data and sends it to the ARM controller, the data is digitized by the ADC’s on the board. According to the sensed data values decision is taken based on the sensor value and the threshold values. If the value exceeds the threshold buzzer is activated and a message is sent to the authorized person to take further actions.