Generally, e-government implementation goes through different stages of growth from the immature to the mature. The first stage is publishing where governments provide information to citizens through static web pages (one way communication), and the second stage is transaction where government exchange information with citizens through dynamic web pages (two way communication), and the final stage is integration where all information and services are provided online at 'one stop'  . Therefore, the ultimate goal of e-government is providing citizens and other stakeholders with full integrated services at one stop shop through serviceintegration . Table 3 shows the most well- known maturity models according to the number of stages, the year of introduction and researchers who designed or adapted the model. It can be seen from the table that no new models have been presented in the literature after the year 2009. However, researchers are still adapting and presenting these models as a foundation for conducting research in their specific context.
Lack of plans and strategies to successfully apply the idea of serviceintegration in e- government implementation can be seen as a real obstacle that prevents e-government projects from reaching their identified goals and objectives (P1). These strategies ignore the importance of continuous development of the content of e-government websites whether it is related to information or services. For example, many government agencies’ websites still contain the same old information it had at the time of initiation or when the website was launched. There are no updates to help the users and encourage them to use the e-provided e-services. This impedes the use of e-government services in general and negatively affects the trust in electronic participation of people in e-government activities including acquiring integrated services in the future (P5). P10 stated that people prefer to use the old paper based methods to get government services instead of using modern web based methods due to the lack of trust in new technologies. They think it is not reliable and the content is not accurate.
Abstract— Serviceintegration is one of the most critical issues affecting electronic governmentimplementations all over the world. Providing integrated services to citizens, businesses, and all other stakeholders involved in electronic government activities at "one stop portal" is considered to be a big opportunity for governments to improve their services’ efficiency and effectiveness. This paper aims to provide a general background and theoretical foundation towards understanding the role of serviceintegration and its importance in electronic governmentimplementations in order to achieve the main aims and objectives of electronic government programs all over the globe by conducting a comprehensive literature review on electronic government, in general, and the issue of serviceintegration in particular. The paper has shed a new light on the main concepts, definitions, characteristics, interactions, models, objectives, benefits, challenges and analytical bases for the topic. As a result, a model that is suggesting a set of key factors to accomplish serviceintegration in electronic governmentimplementations and clarifying the importance of serviceintegration in electronic governmentimplementations is proposed. The main contribution of the paper is to build a good understanding of the nature and role of serviceintegration in electronic governmentimplementations and to establish a foundation for further research in this domain.
technology as mentioned above. As a result, coverage is very limited in the scope of regional organizations device (OPD) in charge of their respective websites. Kumorotomo (2014) in his research also showed that each of the local governments in Indonesia have a different perception and understanding of the application of e-government, particularly related to standard websites. Some local governments understand that the implementation of e-government is to provide a website as a means of publicizing information. However, some local governments understand the application of e-government is providing website as an interactive means between the government, private, and community. In particular, Kumorotomo (2014) explains: First, websites district and the city is now accessible with both, but mostly still entered in the first stage, which is simply to publish information about the profile of the area concerned. Secondly, all the city local government website has entered into the stage of interactive, Although some local government districts and cities have implemented e-government through interactive websites, interactive website available but the local government has not been used optimally for public service proposition. In Kumorotomo study (2014) revealed that local governments interactive website providing interaction applications include: 1) the guest book, 2) forums, 3) chatting, 4) the contact link (link), and 5) jajakpendapat (polling). However, most applications that interaction is not yet optimized. Ironically, based on research results Kumorotomo (2014), the majority of interactive web applications there is no local government interaction activities between government, private, and community. It seems, Therefore, most local governments and village governments in Indonesia has not made the website as a means of public service. There are many factors that make the implementation of e-government is still not up to them: the lack of government awareness of the importance of e-government, there is no operational policies concerning the implementation of e-government, the vision and mission of the regional government has not supported the implementation of e-government, the policy of the local government budget not support the implementation of e- government, the lack of human resource capacity memanfaaatkan information technology, minimnyaa supporting facilities such as the internal network is not adequate, the management of e- government has not done well, and the culture that has not kept pace with developments in information technology.
This work presents hybrid architecture for e- governmentintegration and interoperability. As a result, the architecture helps to improve one-stop e- government portal effectiveness. The proposed hybrid architecture comprises a centralized one-stop e-government portal (1EGP), distributed e- government application provider (EGAP), and distributed e-governmentservice providers (EGSP). 1EGP centralizes all e-government applications in a single place so that portal users can access all online services in the portal. The EGAP is responsible to provide e-government application (EGA) to be hosted in 1EGP. EGA is distributed application provided at the level of a ministry. Therefore, there are 24 EGAPs if all 24 ministries in Malaysia participate as EGAP. Furthermore, EGA is a centralization of EGS in a ministry that is provided by respective departments under the ministry. For example, Education Ministry EGAP centralizes all education- related applications under it hosting server. EGA is built from composition of distributed e-government services (EGS) while EGSP is responsible to provide EGS for EGAP.
In this paper, we present a framework for generating semantic model ontologies in OWL syntax from a governmentservice domain. In addition, current works employ OWL ontologies in e-government to the Semantic Web viewer, which implemented semantic sharing integration for e-government domains (Civil information, health information, education) ontology. The case of State of Kuwait e- governmentintegration is presented. The domain ontology is created with the knowledge-based editor Protégé. In addition the domain ontology hieratical implemented in the OWL-VIZ analysis. It is extremely handy to be able to point a Web browser to an appropriate server and to begin editing. Like a Google doc. Thus facilitating to improve the knowledge sharing so that citizens can take more knowledge benefits from the e-government sharing. We have developed a set of specific ontologies that match the Kuwait E-government requirements, which are civil information, health information, and education. The current research focusing on Semantic Web development, in the e-government paradigm, does not refer to any existing ontology development methodology. The e-government specific ontology models that they have developed or the ontology-based solutions for e-government services integration have discussed. There is a lack
ICTs. ICTs access means that there is a constant need of investments in ICT infrastructure in government units. In particular purchase of hardware, infrastructure networks construction. Also there must be implemented either standard or created new dedicated back-office and front-office information systems. ICTs investments in themselves do not mean success in adopting e-government. Improvement of efficiency must involve a variety of organizational, social and cultural changes that will lead to, transparency, and accountability in government units by reducing transaction times and removing redundant layers of bureaucracy. Lack of relevant changes, such as re-engineering of government processes and documents workflows or adaptation of the law, usually means that the implementation of ICTs does not bring the expected benefits. Low quality and lack of integration of information systems and their lack of adaptation to the needs of users can be even a cause of failure to use ICTs. In particular, this relates to the e-government services for citizens and businesses. Thus, in addition to ICTs supply, the adopting e-government is also determined by ICTs demand. Competences of government managers and employees are very important for these two stages. Their knowledge and skills are needed to take appropriate investment decisions, implement ICTs and successfully use ICTs. TQM process in e-government outsourcing requires people and technology as basic inputs, so that applied information and communication technology can guarantee public service delivered correctly and timely. TQM process consists of cycles. Managers are to view performance of e-government outsourcing system in dynamic way. Reactions from the citizen are triggers for the managers to inspect activity of outsourcing vendor and modify, if it is neccessery, delivery procedure for public services. The public service delivery is obligation for each participent and avery bit of technology, involved in proceses related to TQM.
For system quality, this article focuses on two variables: security and stability. Security is an important factor affecting the quality of e-government services. E-government system must ensure the security and confidentiality of users’ information as well as users’ submitted information, especially when in the course of handling public business involving privacy information, financial information, confidential information, etc., so as to enhance people’s confidence in using e-government systems, promote people’s interest to continue to adopt and improve public satisfaction. However, unfortunately, the influence of the stability on quality of online services was not significant. The possible reason may be due to our questionnaires mostly are done by people who live or work in Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen and other big cities, in these cities, network stability is relatively affordable, so user concerns about stability is not strong. We can expand the scope of samples to test again in the future. A stable government portal site can guarantee citizens to enjoy e-government services anytime and anywhere. With the popularity of various mobile Internet devices, it will bring opportunities and challenges to the construction of e-government.
There are scopes for even greater efficiencies in the future through greater sharing of processes within and between departments. Of all the security methods and issue that are common in e-commerce is understood can also be used to e- government risk management subject, but e-government is different because it has direct network access to each other that is much better than business networks because most of them are linked for passing, transferring and sharing information. Moreover, business network accesses are competitors where they don’t allow their sensitive information to be shared publicity. The importance of e-government is to use electronic information technology to break boundary of government administrative organization to have virtual electronic government security (Kaur, 2003).
The UN (2003) defines the quality of website Measure index as quantitative evidence, which measures the efficiency of governments to use e-government as a tool to inform, interacts, and is Reticulates. To the governments that have established a presence on the Internet, and the apportionment of the international organization of government services to the five stages: Emerging presence, Enhanced presence, Interactive presence, Transactional presence and, Networked presence. Accordingly, Previous studies measuring the level of application of the terms of the number of stages, ranging from the divided into three phases, four or five or more (World Bank, 2002; Layne and Lee, 2001; D.M. West, 2004; Clay, 2001(see Appendix)). Was adopted by a researcher at the division level of application to the four stages in view of the widespread use of previous studies and the adoption of this division in the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology of Jordan, on the other represented in the (presentation of information, mutual contacts, financial transactions and the integration of services).
Organizational barriers were found to be very significant within the Jordanian context. Like most of the developing countries the public institutions in the research context are part of a larger chain of command and control in which there are levels of political decision making. Moreover, any national institutionalisation of e-govemment, and hence e-services usually includes the establishment of steering committees with the role of setting clear responsibilities and mandating for e-govemment development. However, e-services development in most Arab states has so far been largely project-based (Salem, 2007). The - lack o f coordination and integration between the different agencies, and the existence of different visions and attitudes threat the very essence of the effective and efficient implementation of e-services. In Jordan, there are still limited efforts of public sector organizations reforms (Al-Omari, 2006), a lack of proper institutional framework and operational leadership to drive e-services reduce government capacity to effectively coordinate and implement e-initiatives according to Ciborra & Navarra (2005). Another important barrier that is related to organizations is the resistance from the employees. Resistance before and during the use of new IT systems is a major reason for e-initiative failure in organizations. Initial forms of apathy and passive resistance such as indifference, lack of interest, and complaints could develop into more hostile forms of resistance to change the legacy governments such as: active resistive behaviors to stop system use (Lam,
With a population of over 3 million, Nairobi City County is among the first Counties to embrace e-government through ICT-Led Transformation program that aimed at making the use of technology in improving service delivery and efficiency to the Nairobi City County citizens at the County headquarters and its satellite offices. Additionally, Nairobi City County and ICTA launched a personalised and user-friendly online platform http://www.nairobi.go.ke to offer easy, fast, secure and personalised services to Nairobi residents. The new site allows the citizens to access NCC services from anywhere and at any time over the internet using devices ranging from the most basic web-enabled cell phones, smart phones, laptops and tablets (ICTA, 2014). The new interface is a web- based citizen informational and service delivery portal which offers seamless integration with the NCC e-payment system and allows a secure channel for citizens to pay for county services (Kidero, 2014).
empirical investigation show that the p value of the relation- ship between complexity and fit is 0.341, which significantly exceeds the significant value at level 0.1. This means that this study does not support the existence of a relationship between the complexity of cloud computing and its fitness to implement e-government services. Regarding the rela- tionship between the complexity and technology fitness for specific tasks, Lam et al.  confirms this relationship in the context of IT adoption by a hotel employee. However, Lee et al.  rejects that the complexity of a personal dig- ital assistant (PDA) affects its fitness for insurance industry tasks. In the context of cloud computing, the results of the study by Low et al.  shows that the effect of complex- ity on cloud computing adoption is not supported. Further, Stieninger and Nedbal  demonstrates that due to sim- ple administration tools, high usability, and high degree of automation, experts do not consider cloud computing as a very complex technology to implement. This is consistent with the finding of this research. Furthermore, IT experts believe that it is not essential to be able to try out cloud ser- vices for long enough to measure its fitness for organization tasks. This interprets the result of this study in regarding to the trialability (Hypothesis 6). The output of the empirical analysis shows that this hypothesis is not supported (with p value 0.232). In addition, a path coefficient value of 0.056 represents a weak relationship . The outcome is in accor- dance with Tehrani and Shirazi  and the current research. To assign priority to management-oriented measures, IPMA has been conducted. Based on the results, the relative advantage of cloud computing is highly relevant to measuring its fitness for e-government implementation tasks, due to its significant impact. This dimension scored a high index value of importance; however, the minor potential for a further increase of performance can be applied. Efforts should be directed at maintaining or expanding the performance level of this area. With regard to compatibility, nearly the same strate- gies can be applied to performance, although the index value is significantly lower than the relative advantage. In order to determine the fitness of cloud computing for undertak- ing e-government tasks, compatibility characteristics must attain and sustain a particular degree of performance. For the dimension of task identification, results indicate that this factor has a high level of performance while scoring a low importance value. In addition, security has a low impact and scoring a relatively low index value of performance, which imposes a relatively substantial potential for further improvements.
[Roberto V. et. al., 2005] proposed a semantically- enhanced architecture to address the issues of interoperability and serviceintegration in E-Government web information systems. Architecture for a life event portal based on Semantic Web Services (SWS) is described. The architecture includes loosely-coupled modules organized in three distinct layers: User Interaction, Middleware and Web Services. They focused on the second layer which defines an explicit conceptual model in terms of three domain ontologies: the E-Government, the Life Event and the Service Ontology, each of which grounded on the upper ontology D&S, and an infrastructure for interoperability and integration in terms of Semantic Web Services, based on the IRS-III framework. Their architecture applies semantic web technology at the data and service level.
- Lack of understanding of current system landscape and portfolio management processes. Many ERP implementations start at the domain levels instead of at the organization level, due to the functional perspective, instead of a horizontal, end-to-end business process view. An ERP project is about the processes. A great deal of time should be allocated to processes comprehension, determining which processes to reengineer. Understanding the existing system landscape and getting the necessary expertise to support the required legacy applications documentation in the re-engineering effort improve the chances to succeed. As a comment here, the public sector is unique when we look at the number of mandated systems that a public organization has to interface with.
The main aim of the e-governments is to deliver the governmental services to the customers online, i.e., citizens, enterprises, public organizations . E-government was built considering the Web and data warehouse technologies for maintaining the huge amounts of the data. Data warehousing (DW) and Business Intelligence (BI) are used for supporting decision-making. BI employs set of applications and technologies for aggregation, storing, analyzing, and delivering data . BI applications exploit the stored data in the data warehouse or data marts which were extracted from the operational databases . A data warehouse is a repository that stores a comprehensive information from several databases to fulfill decision makers’ requests . Furthermore, the online analytical processing (OLAP) uses the data warehouses to browse different kinds of data satisfying the needs of the users from different perspectives .
facilities as majority of the public and private hospital are located in big cities. Due to the importance of service quality especially in healthcare sector of Pakistan. This study is focused on to evaluate the difference between public and private hospital service quality in Pakistan. However very small works in marked from the literature to measure the quality of service give to satisfy patients. For this purpose ‘SERVQUAL’ tool was used to measure the patient’s perception about service quality delivered to customer by this hospital. Five service quality element; timeliness, tangibles, assurance, empathy and assurance were used to measure the patient perceptions about the service quality of public and private hospital in Pakistan. Due to nature of this study only those respondents were included in the study having experience of both hospitals. Descriptive statistics, t-test was used to compare the quality of service given to patients by public as well as private hospitals to increase the patient satisfaction. In Pakistan both private and government hospitals are delivering healthcare services. Pakistan is a developing country so spending his major part of GDP on defense services. In addition to this mismanagement and larger number of administrative set up consume so much GDP share that is actually required. Pakistan spend small share of GDP on education and healthcare as compare to developed countries around the world. There are many problems not solved with allocation of low budget of healthcare sector. Therefore Pakistan is those country that having poor healthcare facilities in government hospitals. That’s why the private hospital in this business. Highly income people prefer the private hospital because of its facilities. While on the other low income people prefer to Government hospital because of it less expensive as compare to private hospital.
To advance the understanding of e-governmentintegration in the literature and to grow a cumulative body of knowledge, it is essential to define the meaning of the concept. As Gulledge (2006) mentioned, the term integration is full of confusion. The overview of definitions shows little consensus. A grounded look at definitions is warranted during the continuing genesis of this phenomenon; convergence of thought is important for an emerging area to grow. Though presented definitions are diverse, therefore the key theme is consolidation. Some refer to back-office integration of functions and the services they deliver via processes and IT (Gulledge, 2006; Bekkers, 2007). Others refer to organizational and governance aspects (Scholl et al., 2012). There are also themes that relate to government approach (Scholl & Klischewski, 2007; Virili & Sorrentino, 2009), in terms of being managed like entities; being service and customer oriented and having a provider-client relationship (e.g., service level agreements, service quality, agreement type). Governance, therefore, is implicit in the concept of ‘integration’ and in themes like collaboration.
supply side reform and service transformation . E-commerce platform enables information to be more transparent, sufficient, effective and timely. E-commerce platforms converge producers and consumers to become the information ocean of products and needs. The products and reputation of each enterprise are displayed on the Internet platform. Users can search for the products of the same kind, compare the price of the same kind of products, check the experience evaluation of other users, and have a clear view of the information of the products and merchants. Even if there is something wrong, users can communicate with customer service through instant messaging software. Similarly, the enterprise on the platform, can understand the user's purchase information, browse information, through the large data tools to analyze the needs of users, accurate positioning, according to the requirements to provide products and services, to achieve effective sales. The e-business platform expands the boundaries of the market and connects the global market. Enterprises can also provide personalized customization services on the platform, and achieve the one to one service according to the needs of consumers. The seasonally strong product can also take advance sale model, the enterprise can get the advance sale order and fund, can organize the production in advance according to the demand, so that to evade the market risk.