Top PDF Learning from the problems of problem-based learning

Learning from the problems of problem-based learning

Learning from the problems of problem-based learning

There are many things which a fresh medical student, unburdened by factual knowledge, can begin to learn: basic surgical methods, resuscitation interventions, generic reasoning skills, and counselling techniques, to name a few. The pivotal question, then, is not whether such context-dependent (but sequence-independent) learning will prove effective [20]; rather, it is why this reo- rientation of teaching philosophy has occurred at all, and at this time. Or to put the issue another way: what is the hard evidence indicating that the original educational sys- tem was broken and that the new system is likely to fix it? A secondary issue, which has been a prime concern of PBL critics [21], is whether there may prove to be long-term hidden costs payable for the clear short-term benefits afforded by the PBL teaching philosophy. Since there are major differences in the way that PBL is implemented between schools, evidence to confirm or refute such hypotheses may be impossible to assemble. By the same token, it is an oversimplification to view all PBL as having low fact-based content, just as it is to equate all older teaching methods with rote learning. Nonetheless, since PBL veers more to the active/contextual, and didactic teaching to the passive/factual, it is plausible that one bias occurs at the expense of the other.
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Effectiveness of the Saintificial Approach to the Ability of Problem Based Learning Model Solving the Problem And The Results of Student Learning In Natural Knowledge Science In Basic School

Effectiveness of the Saintificial Approach to the Ability of Problem Based Learning Model Solving the Problem And The Results of Student Learning In Natural Knowledge Science In Basic School

Learning with the models of Problem Based Learning Allows develop the skills to think of students in terms of reasoning , communication , and connection in the process p emecahan problem . The models of learning is based on the theory of learning constructivism roomates knowledge will occur through the process of finding and experiencing through experience alone . Model Problem Based Learning is very relevant to teach the ability to solving the problem since presenting problems that manifest that exist in the surrounding students , involvement of students is directly in solving the problem by integrating a variety of concepts and skills from various disciplines of science . Activities that do the students in a model of of learning is among others Determine the problem , analyze the problem , seeking information to find solutions , berkomunikasi solving problems , and memgevaluasi solving problems such . Results of question answer with teacher grade SDN Janti I in teaching Science Knowledge Alam were conducted during this has a tendency only form of activity to remember , memorize , listen and write anything that was asked by the teacher. Learning Science Knowledge Alam less raises the creativity of students , and most students are not Able to find the solution of the problem to the problems that are being faced . Learning in Janti I Elementary School is known that there are still some obstacles in teaching and learning activities, especially in the science load . The constraints are that students are Able to understand concepts , memorize , but are still lacking in problem solving skills that are associated in everyday life . Based on the results of observations on the Second Semester Assessment of the content of Natural Sciences with the scientific approach it is said to be still low, because there are 46.42% or as many as 13 students who score below 77. Minimum completeness criteria (KKM) in Class IV in Science at SDN Janti I is 77, and as many as 15 students or 53.57% who reach KKM from 28 students. .
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Problem based learning

Problem based learning

problems, with a reading list or other learning resources to support the student’s enquiry. Guidance on accessing online and resource-based material and specific links to recommended websites directs the students to the expected depth and breadth of study. As described by (Moust, Berkel & Schmidt 2005), problems need to be in a relevant context; for example they could be taken from a classroom experience. They need to be realistic and to identify important and relevant learning outcomes for the students that can be applied to their study. Tutors need to help students to transfer this new knowledge to professional practice (McPhee 2002). Sometimes there is no single solution to the problem but attention is drawn to the need to critique what is understood by best practice or best evidence.
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Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

Problem based learning through laboratory work and authentic assessment: empowering critical thinking abilities in indonesia students

Our findings can be explained by Proulx (2004) who found that critical thinking stages were similar to scientific method stages. Thus by applying scientific method that is the core of problem- based learning in the learning process, critical thinking ability can be activated. Buris and Garton (2007) showed how problem-based learning could contribute to every level of education including retention of knowledge, students’ satisfaction, motivation, and critical thinking. For Sungur (2006), students in PBL group tended to participate more actively in doing tasks due to the challenge, curiosity, and mastery compared to students in their control group. They accepted biology as an interesting, important, and beneficial subject. Whilst this was not examined in the present research,
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The Development Of Learning Instruction Based On Problem Based Learning To Improve Problem Solving Ability Of Students In Grade VII (Preliminary Research)

The Development Of Learning Instruction Based On Problem Based Learning To Improve Problem Solving Ability Of Students In Grade VII (Preliminary Research)

This study using the PBL model has been applied in several previous studies such as [7], the results of the study are that the improvement of mathematical problem solving abilities of students who get problem-based learning is better than students who get conventional learning. While the studies conducted by [2], [5], [13], [15], and [16], it was concluded that PBL models can improve students' mathematical abilities. The PBL model has several advantages, namely this model is good for understanding the contents of the lesson, it can provide satisfaction to find new knowledge for students, it develop students' mathematical thinking skills such as problem solving skills, and it provide opportunities for participants to apply the knowledge they have in the world real. Based on these advantages, it is suggested for teachers to develop PBL-based learning devices. PBL steps used in this study are the orientation of students to the problem, organizing students to learn, guiding the investigation of students individually or in groups, developing and presenting the work, analyzing and evaluating the problem solving process.
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The Effect of Models Problem Based Learning and Cooperation Skill on the Critical Thinking Ability in Grade IV Elementary School Student of MI AL-AZHAR Menganti Kab.Gresik.

The Effect of Models Problem Based Learning and Cooperation Skill on the Critical Thinking Ability in Grade IV Elementary School Student of MI AL-AZHAR Menganti Kab.Gresik.

evidenced by the lack of indifference to other fellow students, cheating or dishonesty during the exam, lying to cover up their mistakes and violating school rules. These problems can be an example of the low skills of cooperative students. Thus improving the skills of this cooperation can be done through education. Because a teacher is not only required to be able to instill aspects of knowledge only in the learning process but instill good behavior and character by instilling a habit of positive cooperation skills for students. Based on the above problems, to find out the description of the effect of problem-based learning and Cooperation Skills on critical thinking skills in class IV, the researcher conducted a study entitled "The Effect of Problem Based Learning and Collaborative Skills on Class IV Critical Thinking Ability at MI AL-AZHAR Kab. Gresik ".
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The effectiveness of problem based learning: literature review

The effectiveness of problem based learning: literature review

In Saudi Arabia, at the beginning of this century, PBL started to spread among other health professions such as medicine, dentistry, and physiotherapy colleges (Khalil &Al Rukban, 2010). These authors outline that the majority of the medical colleges in Saudi Arabia are planning to change their curricula to PBL curricula, and newer medical colleges are adopting the PBL curricula (Khalid, 2008). This shift has shown great results in the learning outcomes. For instance, Al-Damegh and Baig (2005) compared PBL students with NPBL students in third-year medical students at the Medical School at King Saud University. The Medical School at King Saud University has two campuses, one campus is in Riyadh (where the teaching method is NPBL) and the other in Al-Qassim (PBL teaching method). The author compared the PBL with the NPBL approach in regard to solving problems and self-directed leaning skills in both teaching approaches.In the Riyadh campus, there were 138 students and there were 65 students in Al- Qassim campus. The results showed that 64% of PBL students were able to answer problem-solving questions correctly as opposed to 7.25% of the students at NPBL students. In addition, 86% of PBL engaged in self-directed learning compared to 20% in the NPBL class. In a nursing context in Saudi Arabia, Aliand El Sebai (2010) conducted a one-group pre-test and post-test design to examine the impact of PBL on nursing students' learning and their self- directed learning abilities. PBL was introduced in the Evidence-Based Nursing Course for one semester only. The results showed significant differences between the pre-test and post-test mean scores for this approach to learning.
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Crafting effective problems for problem-based learning

Crafting effective problems for problem-based learning

Learning in PBL encourages meta-cognitive skills among students. Bruer (1993) argues that learning is quicker when students possess self-monitoring skills generally referred to as meta-cognition. PBL is a learning and teaching philosophy that fully develops a student’s ability at the meta-cognitive level. Successful problem solving is not only dependent on the possession of an extensive body of knowledge, but also on the use of problem solving methods to accomplish the goals (Gijselaers, 1996). Few problems in everyday life or professional practices present themselves with all the relevant information that is needed to understand the problems well to make accurate decisions; more information is always needed. Some of the needed information is obtained by investigating the problem, making observations, conducting primary and secondary research, asking questions, probing and investigating. For a student to determine what needs to be investigated or what questions to be asked requires much reflection, thought and deliberation. Such thoughts, reflections and deliberations are described as meta- cognition (Barrows, 1992). Meta-cognition is viewed as an essential element of skill learning: goal-setting (What am I going to do?), strategy selection (How am I going to do it?), and goal evaluation (Did it work?) (Gijselaers, 1996).
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Development of Digital Comics Based on Problem Based Learning in Accounting Learning at Vocational Schools in Surakarta

Development of Digital Comics Based on Problem Based Learning in Accounting Learning at Vocational Schools in Surakarta

Based on the results of preliminary studies conducted by researchers, data obtained that as much as 86.36% of students liked to read comics and picture stories. The advantages of comics, which are liked by many students, are one of the opportunities that can be utilized by teachers in developing learning media that are more interesting and enjoyable. This is supported by the results of research which state that Andro-web comics are suitable for use in learning, can be used as an alternative for teachers to attract students' attention and help students learn easily and practically because they provide illustrations that ascend in simple language based on the results of preliminary studies conducted by researchers, data obtained that as much as 86.36% of students liked to read comics and picture stories. The advantages of comics, which are liked by many students, are one of the opportunities that can be utilized by teachers in developing learning media that are more interesting and enjoyable. This is supported by the results of research which state that Andro-web comics are suitable for use in learning, can be used as an alternative for teachers to attract students' attention and help students learn easily and practically because they provide illustrations that ascend in simple language [12], [13]. PBL is a learning model that makes problems an important starting point in learning [14]. The problem presented in learning by the PBL method is a problem that has a context with the real world, the more realistic the problem presented is increasingly improving student skills. The purpose of learning with the PBL model is to improve students' analytical skills [15], [16]. This is by the characteristics of accounting material, where students need analytical skills, and reasoning in understanding material and doing accounting problems.
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The Effect of Problem posing Learning Model and Problem Based Learning Model on Skills Writing Text Reviews Cilacap City middle School Students Reviewed from Critical thinking Ability

The Effect of Problem posing Learning Model and Problem Based Learning Model on Skills Writing Text Reviews Cilacap City middle School Students Reviewed from Critical thinking Ability

Weaknesses of the Problem Based Learning model, namely (1) when students do not have an interest or trust so the problem being studied is difficult to solve, students are reluctant to try, (2) learning success requires a considerable amount of time, and (3) without an understanding of the reasons for solving problems being studied, students will not learn what they want to learn (Sanjaya, 2011: 220). According to Huda the steps in implementing the Problem Based Learning model, namely 1) students presented a problem; 2) students discuss the problem in the Problem Based Learning tutorial in a small group [18]. In forming groups, heterogeneous groups must be carried out to provide opportunities for minority students[31]. Problem Based Learning is a student centered approach whereby students deal with ill-structured problems while workingin small groups[32]. Minority students are not isolated in one group. Then the formation of heterogeneous groups can provide opportunities for students to give new ideas and implement obligations equally. Clarifying the facts of a case then identifying a problem. They brainstorm ideas by building on prior knowledge. Then identify what is needed to solve the problem as well as what is not yet known.
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Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency, Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

Development Of Entrepreneur Learning Model Based On Problem Based Learning To Increase Competency, Independence And Creativity Students Of Industrial Engineering

engineering scholars in Indonesia. Department of Industrial Engineering FT UMJ has also applied entrepreneurship courses, by applying this course is expected to generate motivation, independence and creativity of students not only in entrepreneurship courses but also in other fields. However, these hopes have not produced results because based on the results of tracer study obtained that there are many graduates of FT UMJ who work is not in accordance with its competence because it is unable to compete with other universities, especially state universities. And based on interviews the researchers obtained information that they are a lot of less confident and can not freely express opinions when the test forum group discussion (FGD). This research tries to overcome the problem so that students can improve their creativity and independence by developing Problem Based Learning model of learning in entrepreneurship subject and it is expected that this learning model implementation can improve students' independence and creativity so that in the future it can produce a bachelor of FT UMJ Creative Industry Engineering, independent, critical thinking, responsive to problems to be able to compete in the era of globalization.This research aims to improve the competence, creativity and independence of students of Industrial Engineering Department of FT UMJ University to become a bachelor who can compete in globalization era through the development of Problem Based Learning (PBL) learning model in entrepreneurship subject.
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Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Industry 4 0: Improving Learning Quality through Character Based Literacy Learning and Life Career Skill (LL LCS)

Problem Based Learning (PBL) in Industry 4 0: Improving Learning Quality through Character Based Literacy Learning and Life Career Skill (LL LCS)

Education, and Sustainable Development Goals are intended for the purpose of learning and innovation skills. The researchers’ objective is to improve the quality of learning by applying the literacy movement, character values as a provision for life and career skills using the PBL method in the gasoline engine curriculum. The research method is classroom action research with the Elliot action model carried out in two cycles. A total of 34 students with ages ± 19-22 were used as research samples. The results obtained during the study showed an increase, namely: (a) the literacy movement was observed as successfully implemented with an increase of 19.1%; (b) inducing character values improves student behavior by 14.8%, and (c) strengthening competency in the gasoline motorbike curriculum by 11.3%. Problems in the engineering field that are packaged in PBL classes through student literacy and character movements are some forms of learning innovation that need to be applied to similar competencies.
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Problem based learning

Problem based learning

It is a teaching technique used in many medical schools to facilitate learning basic science concepts in the context of clinical cases. Students are assigned to groups of 8­10, and each group is assigned a faculty member who plays the role of a tutor or facilitator as the students work through a case or a problem. This model is very student­centered. In the PBL approach, complex, real­world problems are used to motivate students to identify and research the concepts and principles they need to know to work through those problems. Students work in small learning teams, bringing together collective skills at acquiring, communicating, and integrated information. In PBL curriculum the problem scenarios serve as central component, a set of problem situations that equip students to become independent inquirers, who see learning and epistemology as flexible entities and perceive that there are also other valid ways of seeing things besides their own perspective. PBL instruction addresses several desirable outcomes of an undergraduate education, particularly critical thinking, research skills, communication skills, and other lifelong learning skills. PBL strategy is remarkably a datable vehicle to develop in students, core knowledge in a content area, cognitive skills (analysis, synthesis, application, evaluation, and critique) and action skills (organizing time, resources, coordination, negotiating, tolerating). In PBL, students first encounter a problem, followed by a student centered inquiry process (Norman and Schmidt, 2000;
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Assessment of the implementation of problem-based learning model in Saudi medical colleges: a cross-sectional study

Assessment of the implementation of problem-based learning model in Saudi medical colleges: a cross-sectional study

experience in PBL). Section two comprises the Likert scale grouped into three subscales based on the PBL implantation. The first subscale is “preparation for PBL implementation (readiness to change)” and contains eight Likert items. The other subscale includes 21 Likert items representing “imple- mentation of PBL model”, which contains four Likert items on “training of faculty and students”, six items on “tutor skills”, seven items regarding “the nature and number of PBL problems in the curriculum”, and five items on “assessment of PBL problems”. The last subscale measures “overall PBL experience in my college”, which includes five Likert items. These three subscales are rated on a five-point Likert scale (1–5) in a categorical manner (strongly disagree, disagree, neutral, agree, strongly agree). Sections 2, 3, and 4 are for- matted as a typical five-level Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree).
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The efficacy of self-directed learning versus problem-based learning for teaching and learning ophthalmology: a comparative study

The efficacy of self-directed learning versus problem-based learning for teaching and learning ophthalmology: a comparative study

The students were separated into five groups of 12 students each, with each group guided by a tutor. Two case-based scenarios were adopted. In the first session, the students discussed the case and addressed the learning objectives under the supervision of a tutor. In the second session, the students discussed their findings on case management and differential diagnosis. In the third session, all student groups were brought together as a single class. The tutors for all groups formed a committee that selected students (at least one student from each group) to deliver findings for each objective. This last session ensured that all learning objectives were delivered to all students in an equivalent manner by the end of the course. A total of 15 questions representing the PBL activity were included in the final examination.
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Assessment Essentials of Problem based Learning in Improving the Second Basic Physics Learning Result

Assessment Essentials of Problem based Learning in Improving the Second Basic Physics Learning Result

then revised again in accordance with the shortcomings encountered in the classroom test so that it becomes a feasible product to use in the second basic physics lecture. Based on the results of research analysis and discussion, it can be concluded that physics learning results using PBL model treated with assessment is higher than the results of learning physics using PBL model treated without assessment. The learning process must be improved through applying the assessment process as an integral part of the learning process in accordance with the characteristics of learners. Learning with PBL approach does not merely give attention to the acquisition of declarative knowledge, but also the acquisition of procedural knowledge, therefore the assessment is not just enough with the test. Assessment and evaluation in accordance with the PBL model is to assess the work produced by students as a result of their work and to discuss the results of the work together.
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Innovative Methods in Teaching English Language and Communication Skills

Innovative Methods in Teaching English Language and Communication Skills

Multimedia, is the combination of various digital media types such as text, images, audio and video, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey information to an audience. Traditional educational approaches have resulted in a mismatch between what is taught to the students and what the industry needs. As such, many institutions are moving towards problem based learning as a solution to producing graduates who are creative; think critically and analytically, to solve problems. In this paper, we focus on using multimedia technology as an innovative teaching and learning strategy in a problem-based learning environment by giving the students a multimedia project to train them in this skill set. 2
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CHALLENGES FACED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN TEACHING

CHALLENGES FACED BY DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN TEACHING

The way people view the world is determined wholly or partly by the structure of their native language. Following this way of reasoning, it seems obvious that in a situation when two people being users of different native languages meet, their view of the world, patterns of behavior and beliefs differ. Nowadays, in the era of globalization, more and more people move to another country to work or study and different cultures come into contact. Multiculturalism is an entrenched reality at university nowadays. Those who do not love it bear it, and those who accuse it are few. It defines the core of the moral mission of the contemporary university. Students, and also their tutors, seem to encounter problems concerning cultural clashes. Teaching and learning in a multicultural environment has, undoubtedly, advantages and disadvantages. As far as the negative aspect of learning and teaching in a multicultural environment is concerned, there are various problems encountered while two, or more different cultures come into contact. The problems are encountered not only by students, but by tutors and lecturers as well. As far as it concerns the students, and state that students enrolled in courses taught by professors coming from different ethnic or linguistic backgrounds experience discomfort, tension and conflict. It also applies to professors who experience such reservations towards foreigners and may encounter problems while marking them and trying to be honest. There are students who do not appreciate
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PBL: An Effective Method Of Reinforcement Learning

PBL: An Effective Method Of Reinforcement Learning

This study reveals that the quality of implementation of curriculum and assessment methods needs to be improvised. Concept maps are suitable for quality management in education, thus enabling the paradigm shift in medicine. A series of communication, education, practice, system reforms and the PBL curriculum are required for the success of programme. Curriculum maps need to be developed for the smooth functioning of PBL system. Cultural issues including language problems in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials must be given due consideration. There is a strong need for well trained teachers who can conduct small group PBL sessions skillfully. Assessment methods of the students need to be consistent with how students learn.
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SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

SMALL GROUP LEARNING METHODS AND THEIR EFFECT ON LEARNERS’ RELATIONSHIPS

Working in groups, learners identify what they already know, what they need to know, and how and where to access new information that may lead to solution of the problem. The role of the teacher (known as the tutor in SGL) is to facilitate learning by supporting, guiding, and monitoring the learning process. The tutor must build students’ confidence to take on the problem, and encourage the students, while also stretching their understanding. The constructs for SGL are very different from traditional classroom/lecture teaching and learning. SGL is an instructional model that involves students in research of compelling problems that culminate in authentic problem solution (Hmelo-Silver, 2004). PBL, in contrast to the traditional frontal teaching, is more inductive: students learn the content as they try to address a problem. A further benefit of SGL is the increased collaboration amongst learners. This leads to less individualism and greater opportunities for peer learning. Barrett (2010) highlights, this method of group learning brings a shift from an individual’s knowledge and control to group knowledge and group control. Due to the collaborative nature of a SGL environment, students are more likely to risk making contributions. This should lead to the development of increased self-esteem among learners and is a further argument in favour of this strategy. Cooperative learning refers to work done by student teams producing a product of some sort (such as a set of problem solutions, a laboratory or project report, or the design of a product or a process), under conditions that satisfy five criteria: (1) positive interdependence, (2) individual accountability, (3) face-to face interaction for at least part of the work, (4) appropriate use of interpersonal skills, and (5) regular self-assessment of team functioning. Extensive research has shown that relative to traditional individual and competitive modes of instruction, properly implemented cooperative learning leads to greater learning and superior development of communication and teamwork skills (e.g. leadership, project management, and conflict resolution skills) (Felder & Brent, 2007). The technique has been used with considerable success in all scientific disciplines, including mathematics. The described above attribute of SGL justify us to suppose that implementation SGL methods into education could have positive effect on learners’ relationships.
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