A more recent longitudinal study of the long-term impact of P4C was conducted in Madrid (Colom et al. 2014). This was intended to track children attending two private schools over 20 years. A total of 455 children aged 6 (first year of primary school) to 18 (final year of high school) from one school were trained in the P4C programme. Another 321 pupils from another school matched on demographic characteristics formed the control group. Data on children’s cognitive, non-cognitive, and academic achievements were collected at three time points, at ages 8, 11/12, and 16. Preliminary analyses of 281 treatment children and 146 control children showed that the programme had positive impacts on general cognitive ability (ES = 0.44), but results on academic achievement were not yet available. The authors implied that the programme was particularly beneficial for lower-ability pupils, but this was not clear from their presentation of the analysis. Moreover, although the study was large scale and long term, pupils were not randomised in terms of receiving P4C instruction, and the study may not be generalisable as participants came from relatively prosperous families. In short, the results from this preliminary analysis should be treated with a high degree of caution.
An informal discussion was held with one teacher who had been delivering the intervention, along with a member of CEP. In her view, the training received was too ‘American’ and ‘not the way things would be done here’, especially the ‘self-talk’ and motivational elements. She suggested that the training could have been condensed into one day rather than two. She had not accessed any of the additional resources suggested and also noted that she had not made use of the manual provided at the training day, except when, as a school, they designed their own scaffold. She noted that CEP had given them flexibility and that they had gone on to adapt and use the intervention as they felt suited their school. Overall the teacher was extremely positive about the intervention (although noted this was as adapted and used by CEP rather than the way they were trained). She felt the intervention had been very beneficial and intended to continue using it the following year. She also felt that the children had internalised the techniques and that this was demonstrated in the ‘cold writing tasks’ where children were given no guidance but used the techniques taught of their own accord.
Finally, the Unitas TextNow Transition Programme has been adapted to overlap with transfer from primary to secondary school. Considerable attention has been paid to the potentially negative effects of transition, particularly with respect to the apparent performance dip in transfer. The evaluation team is not aware of any quantitative research to support effects from an alleged ‘ transition dip’, even though the notion has informed the discourse of policy-makers (e.g. DfE, 2013). However, there is some more general quantitative evidence of the impact of summer vacations. Cooper et al's (1996) meta-analyses of 13 American studies indicated that overall achievement test scores declined by about one month over the summer vacation. However, the decline in reading was less than for mathematics and while scores for reading comprehension decreased, scores for vocabulary and reading recognition increased. Importantly, this study indicates that social class is an important indicator of the extent to which a child experiences a reading dip over the summer. As Alexander and Entwhisle's (2007) analysis of Baltimore children's reading scores over the summer vacations in primary school also shows, children from low-income families experience a larger overall decline in reading scores than children from highe -income families. The difference is particularly striking for reading recogniition where children for higher-income families were found to make gains but children from low-income families experienced a dip (Cooper et al., 1996). The authors of both of these studies point to the greater availability of books in higher-income families as a potential explanation for their findings.There is also some qualitative work which suggests that regression or stagnation of learning may occur during transition and may be due to secondary teachers underestimating the capabilities of Year Seven students (Galton, Gray and Ruddock 1999 & 2000; Kirkpatrick, 1992). Further research suggests 16% of transition students feel unprepared for secondary school but only 3% of students remain worried about secondary school in the term after their transition (Evangalou et al., 2008). As indicated above, the TextNow Transition Programme is an adapted version of the Unitas TextNow programme. Therefore, the evaluation is set within three early phases of development as outlined by Campbell et al. (2007):
The findings of this trial are in line with the few other RCTs of book gifting programmes that have been reported, which have found a limited number of significant effects. These studies have tended to examine changes to parental attitudes and the few identified effects have been small in size. In this study, there were, however, promising signs regarding the improvement of children's attitudes towards reading, particularly for children from non-FSM households. Therefore, there is potential that this programme, with refinement, could improve reading attitudes which could then act as a catalyst to encourage children to engage with linked activities or programmes that focus more directly on improving reading comprehension outcomes. For example, meta-cognition and self-regulation programmes have been found to be low cost and highly effective ways to develop comprehension and thinking skills (EEF, 2014 - http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit/meta-cognitive-and- self-regulation-strategies/), which could build on the improved reading attitudes provided by an effective book gifting programme. Adopting such an approach would depend on: (a) ascertaining the effectiveness of a refined version of the Summer Active Reading programme through a further fully powered trial; (b) studies looking at the added value of linking interventions that target both reading attitudes and comprehension outcomes; and (c) a full assessment of cost-effectiveness of the Summer Active Reading programme.
First, the process evaluation indicates that, in some schools, class teacher involvement in Switch-on was limited. While part of the appeal of Switch-on as an intervention is that it is TA-led, evidence from the literature indicates that one-to-one catch up interventions should be ‘additional but explicitly linked to normal teaching and that teachers should monitor progress to ensure tutoring is beneficial’ (Higgins et al., 2014, p. 10). This suggests that even if TAs deliver the intervention, class teachers should be involved to ensure that the intervention is embedded in a wider literacy strategy for the child. The fact that class teachers were not systematically included in the planning and delivery of Switch-on in schools could therefore have undermined the achievement of outcomes. This is a challenge common to many one-to-one interventions that require children to leave the classroom. The previous efficacy trial highlighted the challenge of scheduling the intervention within the school timetable as a barrier to successful implementation. This remained a challenge in the current effectiveness trial and the inconsistent involvement of class teachers appears to have exacerbated timetabling difficulties. Second, the literature identifies having a strong champion at a senior level as a success factor (for example, Tanner et al., 2015) for effectively implementing literacy interventions. Evidence from the process evaluation suggests that the engagement of senior level staff was inconsistent across participating schools. This meant resource and timetabling issues were not always resolved adequately, which affected schools’ ability to deliver the intervention effectively.
To estimate the effects for the subgroup of treatment students who complied with their treatment assignment, the Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) analysis was performed. Comparison is made of the average outcome of treatment pupils who complied with control children who would have complied if given the treatment (Nicholls, undated; Dunn, 2010). Compliance is defined as completion of the first writing exercise (as defined by the developers) because theoretically the first writing exercise is supposed to be the most impactful (Cohen and Sherman, 2014; Cohen et al., 2012; Garcia and Cohen, 2012) as it is expected to trigger a recursive adaptive response to a threatening environment in a feedback loop. For example, if a student performs/behaves better as a result of the first activity, their self-confidence may improve and their teacher may have higher expectations of them. This could lead to better performance and the process perpetuates itself. The second and third exercises are meant to provide the boost to this process. It is more difficult to trigger a positive response later in the year once expectations set in. Therefore, it is important that pupils complete the first writing exercise.
data derived from the NPD meant that there was zero school attrition. Second, given that improvements in academic attainment are viewed as a distal outcome of PATHS, a case could be made that our trial design was not of sufficient length to allow measurable improvements in attainment to be triggered. However, this view is incongruent with the findings of the aforementioned PATHS trial by Schonfeld et al. (2014) that reported improvements in both reading and maths over an equivalent period of time (albeit the attainment of a basic level of proficiency as opposed to the degree of change in test scores reported in this study). Furthermore, the three recent meta-analyses of universal SEL interventions (Durlak et al., 2011; Sklad et al., 2012; Wigelsworth, Lendrum and Oldfield, in press) each reported meaningful improvements in academic attainment for interventions over much shorter periods of time (for example, 77% of the interventions reported by Durlak et al. (2011) lasted less than one year). A third and more plausible limitation relates to the low dosage rates identified in our IPE (as a reminder, our data indicated that teachers were implementing PATHS at an average of half the recommended frequency—one lesson per week). Although this is not a limitation of our research design per se, it could be argued that the apparent failure of PATHS to improve children’s academic attainment in this trial was attributable to implementation failure. To draw an analogy from pharmacology, for the intervention to trigger distal changes in outcomes such as attainment, there may be a ‘minimum effective dose’ (MED) (Liu, 2010) that PATHS schools failed to reach. The SEL theory of change outlined earlier would seem to support this—children presumably need a certain level of consistent exposure in order to produce the kind of meaningful changes in their social and emotional skills (such as being better able to manage their behaviour, understand their emotions
Education Endowment Foundation 10 Once schools had identified children eligible for the intervention, opt-out consent (see Appendix C) was sought from parents through the schools for children to take the InCAS maths assessment, and for the school to share pupils’ background information (which includes details such as date of birth, gender, ethnicity, free school meal status, and English as an additional language) with the evaluation team (Durham University) and the assessment provider (Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring). A Memorandum of Understanding was signed by all parties involved in the trial agreeing to comply with the requirements of the trial and with data security and data protection guidelines (see Appendix D). The evaluation was conducted in accordance with the British Educational Research Association’s ethical guidelines and Durham University’s ethics committee research guidelines. These guidelines ensure that all pupil and assessment data is treated in the strictest confidence and that no individuals or schools are identified or identifiable. All results are reported in aggregated form. The data is anonymised and shared by Durham University with the Education Endowment Foundation data archive. Ethical approval was granted by the Durham University Ethics Committee on 18 January 2016. Project team
The materials/resources are excellent and it is a well thought out and designed programme. Its limited use to us at the moment is more a reflection of where we are at the moment as a school in terms of our computing ability. The many problems and difficulties we encountered are not really a criticism of ScratchMaths but in our experience this year we found it to be extremely demanding on time teachers spent preparing lessons (going through projects to ensure their own subject knowledge was up to scratch - no pun intended - creating individual files with children's names (I experimented with a few offline/online versions and this was not ideal but the least troublesome), the programme got way too difficult for all but one of my pupils and most sessions regrettably turned into more a case of me giving instructions and children following rather than children learning and discovering for themselves and the sessions were dramatically more computing focused as opposed to mathematics focused. (Y6 survey respondent)
The curriculum for the basic peer specialist training uses a recovery-oriented philosophy that is neither diagnosis nor treatment specific. The curriculum strives to teach participants how to provide peer support services to enhance the wellness and recovery of the peers they serve by developing the following over- arching competencies:
The purpose of the project was to provide a research-based model of dyadic therapy services with a sample of high-risk infants, toddlers and their families during the critical first few years of life in order to promote bonding and attachment, positive interactions, and secure relationships between the child and mother (or primary caregivers). Because children under the age of three are the fastest growing segment of children entering the foster care system, the population targeted for the pilot project were children under the age of three years who were at risk for out-of-home placement due to abuse or neglect or children who had already been placed in foster care but parental rights had not yet been terminated.
At the same time, we heard from many school- age young people who were not involved in the riots. Even though they were often sympathetic to those who did take part, when we asked them why they themselves had not got involved, they usually cited their parents – either because they had been brought up with clear values which enabled them to make good choices or simply because their parents had made sure they were safely at home during the disturbances. This indicates that strong, principled parenting can be effective in helping children to stay out of trouble. However, there are children, some as young as 11 who committed crimes during the riots and some ended up in custody. The evidence on what happens in later life to young offenders suggests that the life chances of those children could be seriously damaged by their actions during the riots. As a panel, we want to discuss further what can be done to ensure that all children get the right support, control and guidance from parents or guardians to give them the best possible chance of making the most of their lives. We would also like to understand more about the circumstances that lead to children ending up in prison and to examine what could have been done earlier in these children’s lives to help them stay out of trouble.
collaborative, culturally sensitive, knowledgeable, and cost-effective. To best serve patients and families affected by ASD, the clinician caring for children and youth with ASD should be familiar with issues related to diagnosis, co-occurring medical and behavioral conditions, and the impact of ASD on the family to provide a medical home for these patients. Actively addressing capacity building to care for children and youth with ASD requires initiatives directed at provider education and practice quality improvement and public health, educational, and social programs to support families in their journey from diagnosis to service provision to the transition to adult care.
Background: Regular physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health benefits. However, the decreasing level of PA and increasing screen-time among Czech children and youth has been well documented in the last two decades. To build effective intervention and prevention programs, it is necessary to review all available sources of evidence. Objective: The aim is to summarize the results of the first Czech Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth based on a synthesis of the most recently available evidence. Methods: The Report Card included 10 indicators. To inform the indicator grades, a multi-level search strategy was used to find all relevant sources that provide published/unpublished data collected from 2013 through 2018. The data were synthesised, and a set of standardized benchmarks was used to assign grades. Final grades were assigned upon consensus of all members of the national research work group. Results: We retrieved 724 records from database searches and 81 records identified through other sources. A total of 40 records were identified as eligible for data extraction. Overall PA in Czech chil- dren and youth was observed to be insufficient to support fitness and health, with high rates of excessive screen-time and low numbers of children and youth spending time in unstructured/unorganized play. On the other hand, some grades indicated promising foundations to build on in future. They are represented, for instance, by a relatively high number of children and youth participating in organized sports and/or PA programs, or generally PA-friendly setting (e.g., family and peers, school, and built environment). Conclusions: There is ample evidence that Czech children and youth are insufficiently active, and the prevalence of physical inactivity and excessive screen-time has increased in both sexes during the last two decades. Thus, PA in childhood and adolescence should be promoted intensively and effective intervention and prevention programs are needed.
Not uncommonly, safeguarders did not meet with the child, because s/he was too young or it was seen as unhelpful for the child to meet yet another person involved in the case. However, when seeing children was appropriate, safeguarders believed they were able to spend more time than social workers on ascertaining the child’s views. Social workers, in contrast, tended to think safeguarders spent too little time with the children to fully capture or understand their views.
Based on their capabilities and needs, students participate in mainstream classes at Echo Horizon School. We monitor their progress carefully and provide assistance, as needed, to ensure success. The teachers and staff of Echo Center and Echo Horizon School strive to foster in each child a sense of personal worth and respect for others. Young DHH children entering our program have many opportunities for social interaction with hearing peers.
"Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand." Chinese proverb WISH adheres to the idea that children learn best by utilizing the principles of the constructivist theory. Constructivism emphasizes an internal-oriented approach in which by asserting one's knowledge, as well as participating in the learning process itself, learning is constructed by learner's interpretation of their own experiences. Learners benefit from working collaboratively in groups so that they can hear different
Few PEP participants report making lasting business contacts with American businessmen. There are two reasons for this: 1) there is a language barrier in that PEP people generally do not speak English, and 2) PEP people do not spend a long period of time at any one business. PEP people are much more likely to maintain contact with host families – two thirds have contacted their host families at least once since returning to Russia. This being the case CCI should continue explicitly matching PEP people to host families in which someone is employed in a similar or allied business field. As noted above, the PEP people were much more likely to have made useful contacts with fellow Russian businessmen during the exchange.
The aim of the intervention was to raise levels of engagement and attainment across English, maths, and science in primary schools by improving the quality of teacher and pupil talk in the classroom. The approach, termed ‘ dialogic teaching ’ , emphasises dialogue through which pupils learn to reason, discuss, argue, and explain in order to develop their higher order thinking as well as their articulacy. The intervention was developed and delivered by a team from the Cambridge Primary Review Trust (CPRT) and the University of York. Year 5 teachers in 38 schools, and a teacher mentor from each school, received resources and training from the delivery team, and then implemented the intervention over the course of the autumn and spring terms in the 2015/2016 school year. Following the intervention, pupils were tested in English, mathematics, and science. This efficacy trial compared the 38 schools (2,492 pupils) in which the intervention took place with 38 control schools (2,466 pupils). During the intervention, the evaluation team also carried out a survey and interviews with a sample of teachers, mentors, and heads, plus case-study visits to three intervention schools.
The process evaluation highlighted that some schools had previously been exposed to the related Teacher Effectiveness Enhancement Programme (TEEP) intervention and there were differences in how EFA was received between these and other schools. Additional exploratory analysis was therefore undertaken for schools which had not previously been exposed to the TEEP intervention. SSAT provided a list of schools that had been involved in TEEP in the years 2011 to 2016. This comprised 12 in the treatment group and four in the control group. This intervention built on the same collaborative and experimental approach as EFA though the strategies were less similar as Assessment for Learning (AfL) only accounted for one strand of the TEEP cycle. While many practices and interventions may influence the delivery and impact of EFA, the process evaluation found that previous involvement in TEEP strongly influenced the delivery of EFA as lead teachers tended to implement the EFA programme according to their previous experiences and practices with TEEP, and often presented the programme as a continuation of TEEP. This impact was picked up organically during evaluation visits, and only afterwards were SSAT asked to supply information about previous TEEP involvement. The impact was more apparent than the impact of any other interventions or existing approaches.