Android mobile operatingsystem is based on the Linux kernel and is developed by Google. Androidoperatingsystem is primarily designed for smart phones and tablets. Since Android is an open source it has become the fastest growing mobile operatingsystem For Android, based on results from several research firms, using current market statistics and popularity among developers and end-users.
Abstract: Android is an open source and Linux based operatingsystem for mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers which is increasingly used worldwide. Android was developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies. This paper gives you basic idea about Android programming for its development and will also take you through some advance concepts related to Android application development. We study about how Android Developer Challenge announcing that a new release of the SDK firstly. Applications are usually developed in Java programming language using the Android Software Development Kit (SDK), but other development environments are also available. Android software development is the process by which new applications are created for Androidoperatingsystem. There are different tools used for the development of AndroidOperatingsystem and their applications.
obile has become a vital communication tool which everyone prefers to possess and carry along. This technology has laid a foundation to overcome the traditional desktop based approach of obtaining information. Mark Weiser the father of Pervasive Computing in his paper entitled, ‘The Computers of 21st Century, ‘envisioned that, “The technology would weave into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it, “this is the his vision and has come true in this current 21stcentury. Following the vision of Mark Weiser, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University in a project Aura demonstrated that, human distractions could be minimized by Ubiquitous systems which will have to be proactive in anticipating the demands, thus self-tunable so as to give a better response to the future hassles. The ability to sense and process a context forms as a fundamental requirement for a system to be proactive. Hence, designing a context -aware application would pave way to satisfy the future growing requirements of user. Most promising type of contextual information is the proximity selection known as Location Based Service (LBS). Tracking location of a mobile device accurately has been a challenging research topic for decades. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) is a top priority technology used for locating a device position accurately. Methodology for tracking can be done using a GPS receiver which is an additional hardware integrated in most of mobile equipment. We have used GPS as the approach idea for location tracking. The platform used for development is AndroidOperatingSystem, as described  is
Abstract— Today, games have become an integral part of mobile phones. As it measure the power of a phone with its power to run games with high quality graphics. Most phones pose one of the Android, Windows Mobile or iOS systems. Among them, Android has attracted more programmers as it is open source and continuous improvement. As a result, more applications and games are produced for it, which leads to more popularity among buyers. One of the concerns of game developers has been selecting a powerful game engine in line with their needs. In this article we first introduce Androidoperatingsystem and its features, we then examine the content of game. Necessity of using game engine is mentioned in this paper in next stage, and some game engine are studied in this paper as JMonkey, libgdx, AndEngine, in terms of characteristics, strengths and weaknesses, and performance of each one. Finally, a conclusion is presented for selecting appropriate Android game engine. Keywords: Androidoperatingsystem, game engine, java, mobile, Linux, middleware
The key concept present in any operatingsystem which allows the system to support multitasking, multiprocessing, etc. is Task Scheduling . Task Scheduling is the core which refers to the way the different processes are allowed to share the common CPU. Scheduler and dispatcher are the softwares which help to carry out this assignment . Androidoperatingsystem uses O (1) scheduling algorithm as it is based on Linux Kernel 2.6. Therefore the scheduler is names as Completely Fair Scheduler as the processes can schedule within a constant amount of time, regardless of how many processes are running on the operatingsystem , .
Android was started by android Inc. But, purchased by Google in 2005.Android is an Open source operating system.Android is based on Linux kernel.Rooting is the term used when it is associated with Android. It is the process that allows users of cellphones or other devices to gain privileged control within Android’s Linux system.Android Open Source Project (AOSP) is responsible for managing maintainable and development.Due to its open source nature, There are more than 100000 apps which can be found on Android Market (online app store run by Google).AndroidOperatingSystem versions are 1.1,1.5 (Cupcake), 1.6 (Donut), 2.0 / 2.1 (Eclair), 2.2 (Froyo), 2.3 (Gingerbread) and 3.0 (Honeycomb) (which will be launched in early 2011).Android os can be run on cellphone, netbook, tablet PC’s, Dell streak, samsung galaxy tab, etc.,. It means it can run on any hardware which supports it. First phone to run on Android OS was HTC Dream. World’s First TV running on Android is Scandinavia launched by People of Lava. Google’s Smartphone running on Android are Nexus One manufactured by HTC and Nexus S manufactured by Samsung.
In recent years mankind has witnessed a revolution in the smart phone industry and emerging growth in the usage of mobile applications that range from entertainment and educational apps to simple games, health care apps and more. Database technology, which is widely used in the business applications, has evolved from primitive file processing to the development of database management systems with query and transaction processing. As consumers Internet activities were shifted from the web to mobile, new opportunities to interact with products are becoming prominent. Mobile JCOET application is targeted for Android device (i.e. an open source and Linux- based OperatingSystem for mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers developed by the Open Handset Alliance, led by Google, and other companies) which helps the users in finding the various information regarding college. This application will be used by the college students, staff and their parents. The application used here composed of an Android 4.2.2 version which runs faster and have small footprint. The embedded database MySQL is used to store the information available in a particular category. Android allows users to customize their home screens with shortcuts to applications and widgets. The Android programs have an extension of .apk which is to be installed in the Smartphones. Android programs are built in C, C++, or Java programming languages but the UI is perpetually made using Java. Androidoperatingsystem is a stack of software components which is roughly divided into five sections namely Linux Kernel, Libraries, Android Runtime, Application framework and finally Application layer through which user will interact.
interaction experience. Smart Voice Assistant can benefit large number of users with universal eyes free and hands- free voice control of their mobile devices. Its framework may help to shape future voice control devices. Speech recognition technology is a key technology which will provide a new way of human interaction with machine or tools .The advantage of voice commands over multi-touch when interacting with a screen non-visually is that it does not require targets to be located and thus avoids the problems with pointing .It saves time. This system provides the blind people with a function text to speech if they want to receive contents of the document stored in a mobile .Androidoperatingsystem based robot platform and smart phone operated control and monitoring system are introduced. This provides ease of operation .As the system uses Smart phone so that the accuracy is increased. The Reading of SMS, E-mail, and News can be possible by the blind people also.
Paper  explains the optical character recognition using neural network for Bangla characters. The paper gives an object oriented modeling framework of a Kohonen based character recognition system. The paper provides an insight into the regional language, the challenges faced and the feature extraction method, which is used for the character detection. The paper helps to learn the implementation of OCR to Indian regional languages, as the number of characters including vowels, consonants and complicated letters are very much similar to most of the other Indian languages.
After banking malware is distributed and executed on the victim’s PC, it normally stays in the background unobtrusively until the victim visits an online banking site in the browser. Most banking malware have an ability to intercept submitted credentials by logging the user's keystrokes, which are then sent to cybercriminals who defraud the bank later using these stolen credentials. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) published a fraud scheme in October 2010, which described how cybercriminals commit fraud using one of the infamous malware - Zeus (figure below). Zeus, also refered as ZeuS, or Zbot is a Trojan horse malware package that runs on versions of Microsoft Windows. While it can be used to carry out many malicious and criminal tasks, it is often used to steal banking information by man-in-the-browser keystroke logging and form grabbing. Although Zeus is not Android malware, it was heavily used in Android
Attack model: These are examples of overtly malicious applications; however, DroidData can also be used to detect accidental or benign data leaks. When looking at applications that are maliciously attempting to steal data, the tool stands up to current available malware. Most malware are able to function be- cause of excessive permissions granted by unknowing users, and our application tracks the resulting data leaks . This remains true even if the attacker changes the installation environment of the application inputs . DroidData is based on the assumption that the malware operates within the Android secu- rity framework without exploiting it, which is consistent with current malware . We also assume that the attacker does not use implicit flows to transmit data, which we discuss further in section VII. The first code snippet presents a scenario where these attack conditions are met. The user has granted too many permissions to an application that poses as a simple kitchen timer, but requests permissions such as network connectivity, access to device and account infor- mation, and location details. It works within the Android framework because it does request these permissions in the manifest and they are legitimately granted
operating systems the main user-facing software platform is supplemented by a second low- level proprietary real-time operatingsystem which operates the radio and other hardware. Research has shown that these low-level systems may contain a range of security vulnerabilities permitting malicious base stations to gain high levels of control over the mobile device.
language is also supported since its version 1.4, which can also be used exclusively although with a restricted set of Android APIs. The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools, including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. Initially, Google’s supported integrated development environment (IDE) was Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plug-in; in December 2014, Google released Android Studio, based on IntelliJ IDEA, as its primary IDE for Android application development. Other development tools are available, including a native development kit (NDK) for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks. In January 2014, Google unveiled an framework based on Apache Cordova for porting Chrome HTML 5 web applications to Android, wrapped in a native application shell.
Saracino et al.  have defined the malware types on the basis of their behavioral class. The proposed scheme identifies the misbehavior performed by each malware type by correlating the features extracted at four different levels: package level, application level, user level and kernel level. At kernel level, it monitors and hijacks the system calls. At application level, it monitors the critical APIs to detect the malicious behaviors. User activities are monitored at user level and malicious events are detected when the user is idle or not interacting the device. At the fourth level, named as package level, proposed system identifies if the application under observation is risky or not, on the basis of permissions requested by the app and market information. MADAM per- forms App Risk Assessment statically where App evaluator analyzes the app’s metadata, collected locally and remotely from the app market, finds if the app is risky or not and gen- erates the list of suspicious Apps. Static features analyzed to assess the app’s risk level are: permissions in the manifest file, market place from where the app is downloaded, no of down- loads of this app, developer’s reputation and user ratings. Once the riskiness of application is identified, it is added to the app suspicious list for monitoring at runtime for malicious behavior detection. Global monitoring block includes system call monitor, user activity monitor, message monitor, activ- ity logger and classifier. System call monitor intercepts the system calls related to file operations and networks access. Message monitor hijacks the API calls sendTextMessage() and sendDataMessage() while the user activity monitor iden- tifies if the user is active or idle through the Android APIs. The user is considered to be active if the screen is on and user is actively interacting with it or the screen is off and the phone call is ongoing. The action logger collects the features from three monitors and generates a feature
Adobe Flash support. (Gingerbread) that refined the programme, improved the soft keyboard and copy/paste options, and supplementary support for close to Field Communication. (Honeycomb) a tablet-oriented unleashes that supports larger screen devices and introduces several new programme options, and support multi core processors and hardware acceleration for graphics. The Honeycomb SDK has been discharged and therefore the initial device that includes this version, the Motorola Xoom pill, went on sale in Feb 2011. Google has chosen to withhold the event ASCII text file, that calls into question the "openness" of this automaton unleash. Google claims this can be done to eliminate makers golf stroke a tablet-specific OS on phones, very like the previous time of year, wherever pill makers place a non- tablet optimized phone OS (Android a pair of.x) on their Tablets leading to unhealthy user experiences. (Ice Cream), a mix of cake and Honeycomb into a "cohesive whole. This version had new options supplementary to the Smartphone’s like exposure enhancements, offline email looking out, biometric authentication unlock, network knowledge, and usage observation. SSL: The Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and its successor, Trans-port Layer Security (TLS), area unit cryptanalytic protocols that were introduced to safeguard network communication from eavesdropping and change of state. to determine a secure affiliation, a consumer should firmly gain access to the general public key of the server. In most client/server setups, the server obtains associate degree X.509 certificate that contains the server's public key and is signed by a Certificate Authority (CA). once the consumer connects to the server, the certificate is transferred to the consumer. The consumer should then validate the certificate. However, validation checks
One method used to increase user control over their device, while still retaining full compatibility with all applications is the technique of allowing users to set constraints upon the application’s use of permissions at install time. This was demonstrated by Nauman, Khan and Zhang in  with their Apex framework’s Poly installer, which contributed a modified Android installer environment, allowing for the selection of permissions. This approach of install-time granularity is con- venient (as users are already familiar with being prompted for permissions at install time), although it does naturally require its modifications to be made to the Androidoperatingsystem, which may hinder wider adoption. Likewise, the SAINT  proposal introduced a modified install-time interface and pro- cedure for the granting and denying of permissions, as part of the installer.
Android's kernel was derived from Linux but has been altered by Google outside the main Linux kernel tree. Android does not have a native X Window System nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries, and this makes it difficult to port existing GNU/Linux applications or libraries to Android. However, support for the X Window System is possible. Google no longer maintains the code they previously contributed to the Linux kernel as part of their Android effort, creating a separate version or fork of Linux. This was due to a disagreement about new features Google felt were necessary (some related to security of mobile applications).The code which is no longer maintained was deleted in January 2010 from the Linux codebase. Google announced in April 2010 that they will hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community. However, as of January 2011, points of contention still exist between Google and the Linux kernel team: Google tried to push upstream some Android-specific power management code in 2009, which is still rejected today. Android (operatingsystem) 12 Furthermore, Greg Kroch-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the -stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux. Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android team was getting fed up with the process," because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android.
A Distributed operatingsystem is software over collection of communicating, networked, independent and with physically separate computational nodes. Each of the individual nodes holds one specific software subset of the global aggregate operatingsystem. Each of the subset is a composite of the two specific service provisioners. The first is a universal minimal kernel, or microkernel, which directly controls that particular node’s hardware. The Second is higher-level collection of a system management component which coordinates node's individual and the collaborative activities. These components consider microkernel functions and support user applications.
Distributed means data is stored and processed on multiple locations. Distributed OperatingSystem is a model where distributed applications are running on multiple computers linked by communications. A distributed operatingsystem is an extension of the network operatingsystem that supports higher levels of communication and integration of the machines on the network .It is a software over a collection of independent, networked, communicating, and physically separate computational nodes.  Each individual node holds a specific software subset of the global aggregate operatingsystem. Each subset is a composite of two distinct service provisioners.  The first is a ubiquitous minimal kernel, or microkernel, that directly controls that node’s hardware. Second is a higher-level collection of system management components that coordinate the node's individual and collaborative activities. These components abstract microkernel functions and support user applications.
The separation of policy and mechanism is important for ﬂexibility. Policies are likely to change across places or over time. In the worst case, each change in policy would require a change in the underlying mechanism. A general mechanism insensitive to changes in policy would be more desirable. A change in policy would then require redeﬁnition of only certain parameters of the system. For instance, consider a mechanism for giving priority to certain types of programs over others. If the mechanism is properly separated from policy, it can be used either to support a policy decision that I/O -intensive programs should have priority over CPU -intensive ones or to support the opposite policy. Microkernel-based operating systems (Section 2.7.3) take the separation of mechanism and policy to one extreme by implementing a basic set of primitive building blocks. These blocks are almost policy free, allowing more advanced mechanisms and policies to be added via user-created kernel modules or user programs themselves. As an example, consider the history of UNIX . At ﬁrst, it had a time-sharing scheduler. In the latest version of Solaris, scheduling is controlled by loadable tables. Depending on the table currently loaded, the system can be time sharing, batch processing, real time, fair share, or any combination. Making the scheduling mechanism general purpose allows vast policy changes to be made with a single load-new-table command. At the other extreme is a system such as Windows, in which both mechanism and policy are encoded in the system to enforce a global look and feel. All applications have similar interfaces, because the interface itself is built into the kernel and system libraries. The Mac OS X operatingsystem has similar functionality.