Abstract— We present an efficientroute discovery mechanism to enhance the performance and multicast efficiency of On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP). The framework is called limited flooding ODMRP, improves multicasting mechanism by efficiently managing flooding mechanism based on delay characteristics of the contributing nodes. Only the nodes that satisfy the delay requirements can flood the Join-Query messages is the algorithm. The Limited Flooding ODMRP algorithm compares with original ODMRP and RODMRP with respect to Average End to End Delay, Packet Overhead and Packet Delivery Ratio, Energy consumed, Number of alive nodes, Number of dead nodes. Simulation results reveal that limited flooding ODMRP performs better under various simulation scenarios as compared to original ODMRP and RODMRP.
Abstract: The research is aimed at creating an effective and efficientroute planning algorithm for an autonomous car with sensors and cameras that work together. Despite several research attempts in the realm of path planning the process nevertheless suffers from inefficiencies such as owing to Pot holes, Heavy rain, parking space needed, etc. We propose a hybrid algorithm to plan the shortest and cost efficient path/route from source location of a car to the destination location traversing through intermediate routes. The method focuses on collision avoidance in case of obstacles with prior knowledge of occurrence. Hence the algorithm gives the optimal path with respect to the efficient distance (cost) between two successive nodes in the traversal path. We propose to combine several popular algorithms for path planning such as Dijkstra’s algorithm, Euclidean distance, Approximation algorithm and A* algorithm. Considering the advantages and limitation of them with jotting down key areas of particular algorithm and its use, we arrive at solution with a flow graph.
The present two-step procedure involving condensation between 2-aminothiophenol and aliphatic aldehydes in the presence of 4Å molecular sieves followed by oxidation of the obtained 2-alkyl- 2,3-dihydrobenzo[d]thiazoles using pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) supported on silica gel as oxidizing agent provides a simple and efficientroute to 2-alkylbenzothiazoles.
Route planning in general involves the process of selecting a set of roads connecting source and destination with some constraints involved such as fastest, shortest or most fuel efficientroute to destination. Each of these constraint imposes different ways of selecting one or more metrics based on which the route planning algorithm decides the best route. The typical metric stored in route planning instrument such as a GPS is travel time. Dividing a given road segment’s length by posted speed of that segment produces travel time of the respective segment. While travel time provides the fastest route to destination, an even simpler metric – travel distance which is the actual length of road segments - can provide shortest route to destination. Routing planning that considers travel cost makes fuel efficientroute calculation that can include additional metric such as road slope, length of idle time during transit etc. . Route planning can also consider easiness of driving as described in  that factors in driver’s preference for number of signals, number of turns and road width of the planned route. Advanced route planning may also consider statistical traffic patterns possibly involving historical data analysis along with current probe data to estimate future travel time .
There are many factors impacting performance of a routing algorithm, such as routing metric and route recovery mechanism. Routing metric, that is the standard to choose next hop, is studied in another research work of ours . This paper focuses on the route recovery mechanism of HWMP in NANs. Combined research on routing metric and route recovery mechanism, a new routing algorithm, highly reliable and efficient-route-recovery routing algorithm, called HR-HWMP, is proposed in this paper.Some simulations have been done to evaluate the performance of HR-HWMP using NS-3.The simulationresults show that the performance in the packet transmission rate and network throughput has improved. When the number of nodes is greater than 40, the packet transmission rate is about 95%.
Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send the important data. A major challenge that a routing protocol designed for ad hoc wireless networks faces is resource constraints. Energy efficiency is a major issue of concern in wireless an ad hoc networks as mobile nodes rely on batteries, which are limited sources of energy, and, in many environments, it is quite a cumbersome task to replace or recharge them. Despite the progress made in battery technology, the lifetime of battery powered devices continues to be key challenge and requires additional research on efficient design of platforms, protocols, and systems. Nodes within an ad hoc network generally rely on batteries (or exhaustive energy sources) for power. Since these energy sources have a limited lifetime, power availability is one of the most important constraints for the operation of the ad hoc network. There are different sources of power consumption in a mobile node. Communication is one of the main sources of energy consumption. Since the rate of battery performance improvement is rather slow currently, and in the absence of breakthroughs in this field, other measured have to be taken to achieve the goal of getting more performance out of the currently available battery resources.
As mentioned earlier, in the above simulations, we have assumed the hop lengths to be i.i.d. Rayleigh random variables. As the number of hops increases, we are then more likely to experience large deviations in the hop lengths across the route, which after optimization will result in a higher performance gain. However, Figure 1 also shows that all performance gain curves saturate as the hop number grows greater than 10. The reason is that, as the number of hops increases, though we generally deviate more from a uniform distribution of the hop length, at the same time there is also a larger probability of having a noticeable number of hops which will have approximately the same length, which actually contribute very little to the overall performance improvement. The relative gain is thus becoming more stable. In the next section, we will be able to quantify this e ﬀ ect more exactly, through a single parameter quantifying the maximum possible gain.
We do not necessarily argue that one route-aware scheme is superior to the others, but rather leave that decision to ap- plication designers (although we spend more space on RAS- MAC with TDMA). Depending on the choices of the un- derlying MAC schemes and various parameters to control, each design choice offers different design tradeoffs. For in- stance, RASMAC with SMAC gives a good set of design choices and little startup overhead. It is also less suscep- tible to clock drift and switching overhead. However, its lack of topology dependency may sometimes lead to ineffi- cient energy consumption. On the other hand, RASMAC with TDMA gives more choices under lower energy budget. However, its startup cost for TDMA choices that best suit their own needs given their resource endowment. This paper simply provides various tools for them to evaluate different choices.
In an optimal route query there are a given set of spatial points. These spatial points are associated with a categorical information. The categorical information may include a beach and then a park. The optimal route query finds the shortest path that starts from the query point. This then covers a user specified set of categories(eg., beach, restaurant, hotel).The user may specify partial order constraints among the different categories .The partial order constraints is nothing but a beach must be visited before restaurant. In the previous work it focused on only total order constraints for all the categories to be visited. In a general scenario, the known solution that reduces the problem is to multiple total order optimal route queries. In this paper we propose a naive approach that incurs a significant amount of repeated computations. But these repeated computations is not scalable to large datasets. To overcome these difficulties we propose a novel solution to the general optimal route query based on two different methodologies. These two methodologies are known as Forward Search and Backward Search. In addition to this the proposed methods answer a variant of the optimal route queries. By which the route only needs to cover a subset of the given categories. Extensive experiments are done using both real and synthetic datasets. These confirm that the proposed solution are efficient and practical .This is better that existing methods by large margins.
An algorithm based on ladder diffusion and ACO(Ant colony optimization) is proposed to solve the major pointing issues of power consumption and transmission routing problems in wireless sensor network scenarios. The defined ladder diffusion algorithm is employed to route paths for data relay and trans- mission majorly in wireless sensor networks, also with a tendency to reduce both power consumption and time required for processing to create and maintain the routing tables and also avoiding the generation of circle routes in parallel. Another advantage is, to ensure the safety and reliability of data transmission in WSN, their algorithm also provides backup routes to avoid wasted power consumptions and processing time when rebuilding and maintain the routing table in case part of sensor nodes are missing. According to the experimental results, the proposed algorithm not only reduces power consumption by 52.36%, but also increases data forwarding efficiency by 61.11% as compared to the directed diffusion algorithm. This decrease is because the algorithm properly assigns the transmission routes to balance the load on every sensor node .
carbonyl compounds to give pentaerythritol acetals which are useful in many fields. They can be applied as plasticizers and vulcanizers of various polymeric materials, as raw materials for production of valuable resins and lacquers, as physiologically active substances , defoamers for washing solution containing anionic surfactant, in motor oils, lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids . In the present endeavour, M(IV) Phosphotungstates [M(IV)PWs], mixed materials of the class of TMBA salts such as Zr(IV) Phosphotungstate (ZrPW), Ti(IV) Phosphotungstate (TiPW) and Sn(IV) Phosphotungstate (SnPW) possessing inherent acidity have been synthesized by sol-gel route. Looking to the potential utility of supported HPAs and for comparison of catalytic performance, we have supported 12-Tungstophosphoric acid (12-TPA) onto ZrO 2 , TiO 2 and SnO 2 by
In the above method, the exchange of information only performs at the intersections, thus it is less efficient to obtain traffic information in the following condition: (1) When the traffic jam occurs, the average speed on the road is reduced, so that the vehicle will spend more time traveling to the intersection. Thus, the information spreading speed of congestion roads is also reduced. (2) If some records in the map are not updated for a long time, it reduces the effectiveness of the path planning. In particular, in the roads with low vehicular density, the information diffusion rate is relatively slow. However, these roads should be more preferred because lower vehicular density means higher driving speed. Therefore, when the information of a road is outdated, we tend to speed up the access to its information. (3) As encountering a temporary condition, such as car accident and construction, it reduces the average speed of this road. Therefore, to speed up the transmission of traffic information, we let the vehicles on that road proactively send a warning message to inform vehicles on the other roads.
The selection of optimal paths to the destination node from the source node considers the shortest hop count. The selected paths for the data transmission are sorted. The minimum hop count path is selected as a primary route to the destination node. Other nodes act as the secondary paths to the destination node. The minimum hop maximum power routing can significantly reduce the energy consumption during the data transmission. In order to determine and save the node battery power, some modifications are introduced in the existing On-Demand protocols. Mostly the node power is increased with the network size and the network mobility. It maximizes the network lifetime by minimizing the power consumption during the source to destination route establishment to transfer both real time and non real traffic by providing energy efficient and less congested path between a source and destination pair.
Routes are generally created and maintained by two different phases, namely: route discovery and route maintenance . Route discovery usually occurs on-demand by flooding an RREQ (Route Request) through the network, i.e., when a node has data to send, it broadcasts an RREQ. When a route is found , the destination returns an RREP (Route Reply), which contains the route information (either the hop-by-hop information or complete addresses from the source to the destination) traversed by the RREQ.
Moreover, addressing route learning as a chunking process links such learning with other basic processes of the cognitive system, such as development of expert knowledge (e.g., Simon & Barenfeld, 1969), category learning (e.g., Goldstone, 2000; Knowlton & Squire, 1996), working memory (e.g., Miller, 1956), motor control (e.g., Rosenbaum, Hindorff, & Munro, 1987; Rosenbaum, Kenny, & Derr, 1983) and control of complex and dynamic situations (Vallacher & Wegner, 1987). Such a link suggests that in route unitization, like other forms of chunking, participants cease to make use of smaller units (Perlman, et al. 2010) e.g., making a specific left turn following a previous right turn. That is, after unitization develops, such item-specific route information would no longer play a role when traversing the route. Others maintain that representation of smaller units actually may disappear or decay (see also e.g., Giroux, & Rey, 2009; Perruchet, Vinter, Pacteau, & Gallego, 2002; Perlman et al., 2015; Pothos & Wolff, 2006). In any case, these studies agree that item specific
Tagging routes provides a mechanism to both identify and filter those routes further along in the routing domain. A route retains its tag as it passes from router to router. Thus, if a route is tagged when redistributed into RIP on RouterC, that same route can be selectively filtered once it is advertised to RouterD.
1) PEFT: We develop a new link state routing protocol PEFT (Penalizing Exponential Flow splitting), that splits traffic over multiple paths with an exponential penalty on longer paths.PEFT achieves optimal TE and demonstrating that link-weight computation for PEFT is highly efficient. We observe a 15% increase in the efficiency of capacity utilization by PEFT over OSPF. Furthermore, an exponential traffic-splitting penalty is the only penalty that can lead to this optimality result. The corresponding best link weights for PEFT can be efficiently computed. Optimal traffic distribution is realized by dividing an arbitrary fraction of traffic over many paths. This can be supported by the forwarding mechanism in multiprotocol label switching (MPLS) .It achieves the optimal solution.