The Healthcare Unit located in Chennai with nearly 1500 personals are working in the Hospital. The electricity needs of this office are mainly meet by the supply from two Main Substation in the hot of the city provided by the TNEB, it is supplement by 5 diesel generator unit during emergencies/total supply failure. This building prominence in the network as a redundancy and it became essential to ensure the electricalsafety of the building. The personal and the equipment’s housed in it at its best, the equipment and health safety risks is measured by conducting safety audit to
Power loss is an important issue for electrical networks, so voltage level of transmission line is raised to decrease power loss of long transmission and distribution lines. Transmission and distribution of high voltage are made by using overhead and underground cable lines. High voltage creates some insulation problems, and these problems affect electricalsafety. Especially, providing of electricalsafety of overhead lines is major problem in cities or crowded areas. Hence, underground cable lines are used instead of overhead lines in indoor, indoor areas, city centre, the crowded neighbourhoods and between buildings because high voltage underground cable has an insulation layer, so electrical insulation level of underground cable line is more than overhead line in narrow spaces. Also, insulation layer is cowered by metallic sheath to protect insulation layer against to environmental damages. In Fig. 1, a high voltage underground cable is shown .
The analysis of the English Housing Survey showed that on average social landlords perform well in comparison with both owner occupiers and private landlords. The social rented sector has a lower proportion of properties that require electrical repairs than the other tenures, and are far more likely to have modern electricalsafety devices present. This level of performance has been undertaken in challenging circumstances, with rent reductions and reduced income in addition to greater expenditures such as managing the fall out of recent welfare reforms. Compliance has also risen up the sector’s agenda, and there is an argument that as the social rented sector is already regulated and scrutinised in a way that the privately rented sector isn’t, that this level of oversight might indicate that there was little need for greater obligations. This view is contested, however (see Carr et al., 2017), and recent regulatory downgrades over gas safety and the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire have left an uncertain focus on tenant safety and tenant involvement.
ABSTRACT- Electrical energy required special attention because of its hidden inherent hazard which can be fatal to the user as exposure to electrical hazard has very high severity or consequences. Evolution & control of risks from electrical hazards is mandatory requirement for safe operation & use of electrical equipment. It is therefore necessary that the user takes care of safety to a great extent by obeying electricalsafety and its regulatory statutory requirements on highest priority bases & avoid the risk associated with the activity by adopting all hierarchy of control measures. Most of electrical accidents are avoidable and occur as a result of carelessness, lack of training, poor workmanship or due to faulty equipment. Electricalsafety related work practices should be followed to protect workers from the hazards of electrocution through training, procedures such as lockout/ tag out and the use of personal protective equipment. The need for higher reliable power system demands makes serious consideration for electrical protection system which includes controlling & designing of equipment. Many of the features for electrical equipment safety are inherent in the original design. It is believed that adhering to the safety measures suggested for the different mechanical & electrical related works will greatly reduced the number of injuries to personnel at the work site. The aim of the paper is to promote awareness in the electricalsafety by identifying and analyzing root causes of electrical accidents.
Abstract: In order to achieve the required high level of electricalsafety in electro-medical equipment. To develop standards and guidelines to control their design as well as their use in hospitals and other health care delivery settings. It is highly essential that periodic preventive maintenance and electricalsafety checks on all electro-medical equipment in use be carried out and records of these be maintained. International standard for routine testing of medical equipments at hospitals and clinics is International Electro technical Commission (IEC) 62353. This paper deals with the design and development of an indigenous Medical ElectricalSafety Analyzer, which will conduct safety tests as per this standard. The safety tests like Earth bond test, Leakage current and Insulation tests to be conducted as per the standard are also discussed.
Methods: This research can be applied to all types and brands of smartphones. The testing was carried out using three different types and brands of smartphones in three conditions: dark rooms, bright room and open spaces for three times for each smartphone. It examines the suitability of displaying asset objects such as Infusion Device Analyzer (IDA-1), ElectricalSafety Analyzer (ISA) and Piranha radiology high voltage tester with target objects using existing inventory labels also Barbarian with the target a book cover with the distance 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 cm.
on-site reviews – which, for the EU, went against the spirit of the MRA - and began asking a fee in October 2000, given the cost burden of the process. In fact, there are signs that there was little actual co-operation at all in the joint sectoral committee. Perhaps, with a greater degree of willingness and co-operative spirit, the EU CABs could have been capable without any effort to submit applications in English! On the other hand, section VI of the electricalsafety annex says clearly that “… CABs from the EC shall be designated by the EC authorities …” and “OSHA shall rely on the EC designating authorities… for conducting on-site reviews at the respective Member States’ CABs”. The upshot was that OSHA rejected a number of applications on the basis of languages and incompleteness, typically issues that could have been addressed in a properly functioning sectoral committee. This refusal was threatening not only this specific sectoral MRA, and indirectly that of telecoms equipment (as electricalsafety plays a role), but the entire MRA for reasons of ‘imbalance’ and a lack of trust. The designation of European CABs by OSHA was of course critical, given the regulatory regime for electrical goods in the US. But the acrimony ran much deeper because both the Commission and European industry felt strongly that the heavy approval system of OSHA was an unnecessarily burdensome and (by virtue of the low risks of these goods) unjustified barrier to market access. After all, the EU experience showed that using SDoCs worked well and this was usually cheaper whereas time-to-market was much less problematic. Strictly spoken, all this is no issue in a MRA, which by definition takes the two regulatory regimes as given, and solely focuses on avoiding duplicative conformity assessment. However, the WTO TBT Agreement rules that, if TBTs are unnecessarily burdensome and unjustified, they are forbidden and ought to be replaced by a justified and less burdensome regulatory regime. For EU industry, having – at the time - a structural trade surplus despite the market access barriers, even a successful resolution of the designation-of-CABs by OSHA would have been considered only as a minor success. Business opportunities would be much greater if self- certification of low-voltage electrical goods 21 would be allowed by OSHA, just as it was in the
Additionally, from the findings of this research and previous studies, there appears to be general agreement that VR can have a strong motivational impact on users. This research suggests that this leads to a greater learning effect that evolves into a potentially greater understanding of the concept or task in hand. One could conclude from this that through the use of a well designed VR model, users will be more competent in the area under study and the net effect in this instance will be to enhance electricalsafety in the built environment. However it must be noted that if the usability of the system is poor and the instructional content and tasks are flawed the ability of the system to achieve its objective will be significantly diminished. Therefore, in order to widely deploy VR for electricalsafety and design, developers need to appreciate the challenges of utilising VR technology for instruction rather than relying on the novelty of the technology.
In this paper, the electricalsafety characteristics of electric cables in nuclear plant fire were performed by flammability tests and CFD analysis. In the flammability tests, the electric power and control cable specimens of the polyethylene sheathed cables were applied. These cables were same as which had been used in the established nuclear plants.
During the ramping-up period, the current intensity was increased until reaching a pain score of 5 on the NRS scale or until reaching the maximum current allowed, a current intensity of 4 (Figure 2). Overall, patients appeared to require a higher current intensity to reach a pain score of 5 on the NRS scale; six out of the 16 patients (Subjects 1, 2, 4, 7, 8 and 9) reached the maxi- mum current intensity on both visits for the continuous electrical stimulation as compared to one NHV (Subject 4). Figure 2 also illustrates the visit-to-visit reproducibil- ity of the current required to achieve a pain score of 5 on the NRS scale during the titration period. Current values were very similar for both visits to the exception of one subject in each group (healthy subject 11 and chronic pain subject 5). Healthy subject 16 had to have the current lowered from 25 min onwards on their first visit because their pain reached a score of 6.
Engine dynamometer is a dynamometer that coupled directly to an engine that has been removed from a vehicle and it been used to measures power and torque directly from the engine crankshaft or flywheel. Engine dynamometer is usually placed in the test cell which has sufficient system to support engine dynamometer when running. A standard test cell is equipped the engine dynamometer with various system such as ventilation system, cooling system, control console and data acquisition system, fire and safety precaution system, fuel system, electrical system and engine exhaust system.
The inability to dorsiflex the ankle during the swing phase of the gait cycle, known as foot drop, can contribute to gait problems, such as reduced walking speed [4, 5]. Many studies have shown that the use of an ankle-foot orthosis, which specifically corrects foot drop, improves gait velocity in stroke survivors [6–9]. Currently available orthoses and assistive gait devices (e.g. walkers and func- tional electrical stimulation [FES] devices) have not been shown to provide lasting effects after removal [10, 11]. Therefore, novel therapies that provide substantial, long- term gait improvement for stroke survivors are urgently needed.
Radio frequency (RF) is a rate of oscillation in the range of around 3 KHz to 300 GHz, which corresponds to the frequency of radio waves, and the alternating currents which carry radio signals. RF usually refers to electrical rather than mechanical oscillations; however, mechanical RF systems do exist (see mechanical filter and RF MEMS). To receive radio signals an antenna must be used. However, since the antenna picks up thousands of radio signals at a time, a radio tuner is necessary to tune into a particular frequency (or frequency range. Another method to isolate a particular radio frequency is by over sampling (which gets a wide range of frequencies) and picking out the frequencies of interest, as done in software defined radio. In the developed device, a transmitter part is attached at the kid so that in order for the signal to be sent to the receiver which is attached to the guardian.
The principle of ohm heating is that electrical energy in the form of heat is dispersed by an electrical conductor . Electrical energy flowed into food is converted into thermal energy. The electrical resistance of food, known as the Joule effect, causes volumetric heating . This heating has very high efficiencies (> 90%). Because it can ignore the principle of conventional thermal transfer, i.e., heat transfer via temperature gradients or hot surfaces from the environment to medium . It results in uniform and rapid heating due to the reactor fluctuation of electrical fields, thus increasing the dynamic motion of charged species and solution dipole moments . The generated energy is directly proportional to the electric quadratic area used and the conductivity of the heating material .
Abstract: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), specifically functional electrical stimulation (FES) that compensates for voluntary motion, and therapeutic electrical stimulation (TES) aimed at muscle strengthening and recovery from paralysis are widely used in stroke rehabilitation. The electrical stimulation of muscle contraction should be synchronized with intended motion to restore paralysis. Therefore, NMES devices, which monitor electromyogram (EMG) or electroencephalogram (EEG) changes with motor intention and use them as a trig- ger, have been developed. Devices that modify the current intensity of NMES, based on EMG or EEG, have also been proposed. Given the diversity in devices and stimulation methods of NMES, the aim of the current review was to introduce some commercial FES and TES devices and application methods, which depend on the condition of the patient with stroke, including the degree of paralysis.
Secondly, a shift to accommodate the nature of youth aquatic activity, as suggested above, might not be effective unless it also addresses the many weaknesses identified in the practical water safety skills base among youth. The widespread lack of swimming ability found among certain sectors of the youth in this study suggests that current efforts to provide New Zealanders with rudimentary skills to survive sudden immersion in deep water are inadequate. This is apparent particularly among Pasifika and Asian students, and those attending low-decile schools. Special assistance to low-decile schools via the provision of subsidies for swimming and water safety lessons would address issues of inequitable educational opportunity identified in this study. Such programmes might be made available either via commercial swim schools or public schools. In addition, mandatory instruction of CPR, available to all students before the end of compulsory schooling (16 years of age), may be a productive way of addressing the generally poor skill levels reported among students, especially since students are likely to continue to engage in unsupervised aquatic activity. Furthermore, to ensure that such a critical lifesaving skill is taught properly, CPR training may be taught best by qualified personnel and fully funded to ensure equity of access. This is a condition clearly not evident at present given that more students from low-decile schools have no knowledge of CPR compared with students from mid- or high-decile schools.
Tissue dielectric properties (e.g. electrical permittivity (EP)) span a wide range of values [4,5]. Particularly, malignant tumors have been shown to have substantially different EP from healthy breast tissue [6-9]. These differences stem from tissue structural alterations associated with cancer biology. Research has shown that higher dielectric properties of malignant breast tissues is due to their higher than normal water and ions concentration  and lower than normal fat content . While higher concentration of ions and salt in the tissue intra and extra cellular matrix leads to a higher conductivity and permittivity at all frequencies , lower concentration or lack of adipose elevates its dielectric properties. This is consistent with the breast’s lower dielectric properties of adipose tissue compared to those of fibroglandular and connective tissues [4,5]. Another source of dielectric properties elevation is higher cell density which is a well- known feature characterising cancerous tissue . This implies that dielectric properties imaging can potentially produce high contrast images with rich diagnostic information, hence it holds a good promise for breast cancer early detection and diagnosis. As such, accurate dielectric measurement of healthy and pathological breast tissues can help further development of dielectric property imaging techniques as having reliable EC and EP data pertaining to various breast tissues is essential for effective interpretation of EC and EP images.