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Grandmultiparity: The Reasons Women Give for High Parity in South-South Nigeria

Grandmultiparity: The Reasons Women Give for High Parity in South-South Nigeria

When disaggregated, our data indicates that mistake (30.9%) was the leading reason given by the respondents for grand multiparity. This was much higher than 18.4% reported by other researchers [8]. This was followed by the desire for specific gender 22.0% which is comparable to 19.7% reported in a comparable study [11]. Replacement of dead children accounted for 4.5% of the reasons for high parity in our study unlike 15.4-28.8% reported by other researchers [5, 11]. About a quarter of the respondents cited the desire for more children as the reasons for high parity in our data. This is comparable to a report [5] and lower than 33.3% reported in another study [11]. From our data the cultural drive of desire for specific offspring gender; more often male children and large family size was responsible for 46% of the reasons for high parity in this study. This compares favorably with the reports by Adeniran et al in Ilorin that cited culture related factors of desire for large families and specific gender

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Cesarean section in a high parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes

Cesarean section in a high parity community in Saudi Arabia: clinical indications and obstetric outcomes

present study, more than half of the elective CSs (54.3%) were prompted by a previous CS. This finding was simi- lar to the results of other studies in Saudi Arabia [27,30]. The reluctance to permit a trial of labor after previous CS is likely due to a variety of reasons. First, maternal preference likely plays a large part, with CS being regarded as a safe and convenient procedure. Second, the clinician is also likely to regard the CS as a routine, safe, and convenient alternative [31]. There is little work currently available examining the reasons for the clinician's or mother's choice in this area, particularly in communities with high parity, such as the one included in this study, in which more than a quarter (27.3%) of the patients were grand multiparous, with five or more births.

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Effect of high parity on occurrence of anemia in pregnancy: a cohort study

Effect of high parity on occurrence of anemia in pregnancy: a cohort study

Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Oman on 1939 pregnancies among 479 parous female participants with available pregnancy records in a community trial. We collected information from participants, the community trial, and health records of each pregnancy. Throughout the follow-up period, we enumerated 684 AIP cases of which 289 (42.2%) were incident cases. High parity (HP, ≥ 5 pregnancies) accounted for 48.7% of total pregnancies. Two sets of regression analyses were conducted: the first restricted to incident cases only, and the second inclusive of all cases. The relation with parity as a dichotomy and as multiple categories was examined for each set; multi-level logistic regression (MLLR) was employed to produce adjusted models.

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Effect of high parity on occurrence of some fetal growth indices: a cohort study

Effect of high parity on occurrence of some fetal growth indices: a cohort study

Abstract: The objective of this retrospective cohort study was to explore the potential causal relation between parity and fetal growth indices, including low birth weight (LBW), macrosomia, and prematurity. The study was nested on a community trial in a city in Oman. The study analyzed 1939 pregnancies among 479 participants. Of these, 944 pregnancies (48.7%) were high parity ($5). Obtained newborns with outcomes of interest were as follows: 191 LBW, 34 macrosomic, and 69 premature. Associations were measured using multilevel logistic regression modeling. Compared to low parity (LP, defined as ,5), high parity was found to be associated with less risk of LBW (relative risk [RR] = 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.44–1.1) and prematurity (RR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.54–1.27), but greater risk of macrosomia (RR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.4). This study provides evidence that with increasing parity, risks of LBW and prematurity decrease, while risk of macrosomia increases.

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Determinants of Cervical Cancer in Indian context

Determinants of Cervical Cancer in Indian context

As per the population-based Cancer registries, cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India still every year in India, 122,844 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 67,477 women die from the disease. India has a population of 432.2 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cancer. India also has the highest age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer in South Asia. We have attempted to review the available scientific literature for all the potential factors that may determine the development of cervical cancer in an Indian woman. Factors such as bio-social characteristics, reproductive, sexual habits and personal habits of both female and male partners, social customs, nutrition, genital hygiene, family history of cervical cancer and history of associated co-morbid conditions have been explored. There are several reasons cited for increasing incidence of cervical cancer cases and associated mortality such as high parity, poor socio-economic status, poor genital hygiene, associated sexually transmitted infection, active and passive smoking, lack of condom usage, obesity, family history and various social factors. Certain factors role in the development of cervical cancer is still dubious such as co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, micronutrient deficiency and long-term oral contraceptive pills use. A multipronged approach is needed to address this problem. Timely screening especially of the women who are identified with these risk factors and risk factor prevention through behaviour changes is the need of the hour. KEYWORDS: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, India, risk factors, epidemiology

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Determinants of Focused Antenatal Care Uptake among Women in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

Determinants of Focused Antenatal Care Uptake among Women in Tharaka Nithi County, Kenya

Recommendations. (1) This study found that about half of the samples have low uptake of focused antenatal care. In addi- tion to the current strategies for improving maternal health, it is recommended that Kenyan Ministry of health and county governments increases the awareness of focused antenatal care among women of reproductive age. (2) This study found that an increase in the level of education increases the uptake of focused antenatal care. It is therefore recommended that the relevant government ministries and nongovernmental organisations should increase the education of girls (future mothers). (3) This study found that an increase in house- hold income and securing formal employment improves the uptake of focused antenatal care. It is therefore recommended that the relevant government agencies should put in place strategies to increase the household incomes and stimulate formal employment. (4) This study found that an increase in parity lowers the uptake of focused antenatal care. This study therefore recommends to ministry of health targeting women with high parity during sensitization on focused antenatal care. (5) Marital status was found to influence the uptake of

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Determinants of Cervical Cancer in Indian context

Determinants of Cervical Cancer in Indian context

As per the population-based Cancer registries, cervical cancer is on the declining trend in India still every year in India, 122,844 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer and 67,477 women die from the disease. India has a population of 432.2 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cancer. India also has the highest age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer in South Asia. We have attempted to review the available scientific literature for all the potential factors that may determine the development of cervical cancer in an Indian woman. Factors such as bio-social characteristics, reproductive, sexual habits and personal habits of both female and male partners, social customs, nutrition, genital hygiene, family history of cervical cancer and history of associated co-morbid conditions have been explored. There are several reasons cited for increasing incidence of cervical cancer cases and associated mortality such as high parity, poor socio-economic status, poor genital hygiene, associated sexually transmitted infection, active and passive smoking, lack of condom usage, obesity, family history and various social factors. Certain factors role in the development of cervical cancer is still dubious such as co-infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, micronutrient deficiency and long-term oral contraceptive pills use. A multipronged approach is needed to address this problem. Timely screening especially of the women who are identified with these risk factors and risk factor prevention through behaviour changes is the need of the hour. KEYWORDS: cervical cancer, HPV, screening, India, risk factors, epidemiology

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Determinants of Maternal Mortality in North Eastern Nigeria: A Population Based Study

Determinants of Maternal Mortality in North Eastern Nigeria: A Population Based Study

Similarly, about half of the respondents had their first pregnancy before 20 years of age, but no statistical significant difference was found between age at first pregnancy and pregnancy complications ( ᵡ 2 = 19.4, df18, P>.05 in Urban Borno, ᵡ 2 = 11.2, df10, P>.05 in Rural Borno, α =0.05). Although, utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services were relatively high, but 17% (urban) and 29% (rural) of the women were found not to be attending ANC. Home delivery was also a common feature constituting 39% for urban Borno and 49% for rural Borno. A statistically significant relationship was found between level of education and maternal health/mortality in both urban and rural areas (P<.05). Accordingly, ethnicity is significantly associated with maternal health seeking behavior in Urban Borno (P<.05), as high parity was found to increase pregnancy complications in rural Borno state (P<.05).

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Factors associated with antenatal and delivery care in Sudan: analysis of the 2010 Sudan household survey

Factors associated with antenatal and delivery care in Sudan: analysis of the 2010 Sudan household survey

women with high parity tend to rely on their experience from previous pregnancies and do not feel the need for antenatal checks, believing they already know what to expect during pregnancy and childbirth. We observed a similar parity effect for the place of delivery, with our re- sults showing that multi-parity was associated with home delivery. Other studies have reported similar re- sults, with higher levels of service use reported for the first and lower order births when compared with higher order births [3, 7]. Unfortunate experiences in hospitals, quicker childbirth in multiparous women or having had an uncomplicated first delivery might explain why some multiparous women deliver at home. In contrast, as the first birth is known to be more difficult and a woman usually has no previous experience of delivery, they might be more likely to seek professional help and ad- vice. In addition, women with several small children may experience greater difficulty in attending facilities for both ANC and child birth, because of the need to ar- range child care [3, 7, 10].

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Factors for improving reproductive performance of sows and herd productivity in commercial breeding herds

Factors for improving reproductive performance of sows and herd productivity in commercial breeding herds

There are sow-level and farm-level risk factors for suboptimal reproductive performance of sows. The sow- level factors include both ordinary factors and perform- ance factors. The ordinary factors include low or high parity, high temperature, decreased lactation feed intake, increased lactation length and a farrowing event, whereas the performance factors are prolonged WMI, returns, few PBA, light birth weight or low preweaning growth rate, foster-in or nurse sow practices, early or late age at first-mating and farrowing stillborn piglets. The herd-level factors include female pigs being fed in breeding herds that have low efficiency, late insemin- ation, high within-herd variability, limited numbers of farrowing spaces, fluctuating age structure and poor semen quality. It is useful for veterinarians to know about the factors affecting sow reproductive perform- ance in order to maximize a sow ’ s potential and to optimize their client ’ s breeding herd productivity. How- ever, in order to empower farm data analysis it is neces- sary to ensure correct data recording, data collection and data integrity checks.

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Volume 41 - Article 46 | Pages 1289–1314

Volume 41 - Article 46 | Pages 1289–1314

Compared to countries in other subregions of sub-Saharan Africa, Sahelian countries present distinct reproductive regimes consisting of early marriage, low desires to stop childbearing, and low contraceptive prevalence (Casterline and Agyei-Mensah 2017; Hertrich 2017; Tabutin and Schoumaker 2004). Despite these patterns, this study shows that countries of the Sahel are not an exception anymore in regard to the increasing lengths of birth intervals (Moultrie, Sayi, and Timæus 2012; Towriss and Timæus 2018). As shown above, the lengthening of birth intervals is also found in countries with high and stable total fertility rates. The cases of Niger and Mali over the recent years, as well as Burkina Faso during the 1970s and 1980s, illustrate that a lengthening of the birth intervals can indeed be associated with higher fertility levels, higher fertility desires, and low percentages of women expressing attitudes consistent with family-size limitation (Bongaarts and Casterline 2012; Moultrie, Sayi, and Timæus 2012).

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Rural and urban differences in blood pressure and pregnancy-induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ghana

Rural and urban differences in blood pressure and pregnancy-induced hypertension among pregnant women in Ghana

The prevalence of PIH was higher in urban women than in rural women (3.1% versus 0.4%, p = 0.014). The mean systolic BP (p < 0.001) and diastolic BP (p < 0.001) levels were also higher in urban Ghana than in rural Ghana (Figures 1 and 2) and in all age groups although the differences were more pronounced for diastolic BP than for systolic BP (p = 0.031) (Figures 3 and 4). Among urban women, diastolic BP (p = 0.015), and systolic BP to some extent (p = 0.084) increased with age. Among rural women, however, there were no relationship between BP and age (Figures 3 and 4). In a simple linear regression ana- lysis, urban residence, BMI, family history, high educa- tion and white collar jobs were related to high systolic BP (Table 2). By contrast, parity was inversely related to low systolic BP. For diastolic BP, urban residence, age, BMI, heart rate, family history of hypertension, high education levels and white-collar jobs were posi- tively related to high BP while parity was inversely re- lated to BP. In multiple linear regression analyses, BMI and heart rate were the only factors that were independ- ently related to high systolic BP; and only urban residence and BMI were independently related to diastolic BP (Table 2).

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Term prom: active versus expectant management

Term prom: active versus expectant management

the amniotic cavity and the endocervical canal and vagina. 1 Prelabor rupture of membranes is a matter of major concern for all obstetricians as it is associated with high fetal morbidity and mortality and maternal morbidity and mortality sometimes. The majority (90 %) of Prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) occurs in women who are at term (Zamzami, 2005), and PROM at term occurs in 8 per cent of all births (Hannah et. al., 1996). In the majority of patients at term, labor will occur spontaneously within the first 24 hours following amniorrhexis. PROM occurs when intrauterine pressure overcomes membrane resistance. This happens as a result of weakening of membrane either congenital or acquired (smoking and vitamin C deficiency), or because of damaging factors, either mechanical (amniocentesis or amnioscopy) or physical–chemical damage by infection (Trichomonas, group B Streptococci, bacterial vaginosis, etc.). Failure of mechanical support such as cervical dilatation can lead to PROM, favoring bacterial contamination as well. 1 Interestingly, at term, PROM can be a physiological variation rather than a pathological event. 5 The major question regarding ISSN: 0976-3376 Vol. 08, Issue, 02, pp.4244-4254, February, 2017 Asian Journal of Science and Technology

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Groovy Parity Games

Groovy Parity Games

The algorithm receives as input a parity game, and returns a dominion (a winning region) of a certain player. The algorithm is only called with vertices of the parity game that are not yet in any returned dominion. Once every vertex is part of a dominion, the winning regions of both players are known, meaning that the parity game is solved. The algorithm itself relies on the computation of attractors. In the algorithm, attractors are computed for vertices with a certain priority, starting with the highest priorities. Vertices in an attractor will temporarily be removed from the subgame, meaning that they will not be attracted to other attractors. If an attractor is a globally closed region for a certain player (meaning that the player can keep the token in the region, and the other player cannot move the token out of the region), this means that a dominion for a specific player is found, causing the algorithm to return. If, on the other hand, a locally closed region for a certain player is found (meaning that the player can keep the token in the region, and the other player can only move the token out of the region to a vertex not in the subgame), that region is merged with the lowest priority escape region (meaning the region with the lowest priority where the other player can move the token from the attractor), and all of the lower priority regions are reset. Note that there always is at least one locally closed region, as the region with the lowest priority is always locally closed.

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Identification of Candida Species in the Clinical Laboratory: A Review of Conventional, Commercial and Molecular Techniques

Identification of Candida Species in the Clinical Laboratory: A Review of Conventional, Commercial and Molecular Techniques

Haam JH et al evaluated the association between serum leptin, adiponectin, and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin levels and BMD according to menopause and central obesity status in Korean women. Their cross-sectional study comprised 255 women undergoing examinations at the CHA Bundang Medical Center. Participants were divided according to menopause, and central obesity status. They measured serum adipokine levels and BMD using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dual- energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. After adjusting for age,

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Article: Productive and reproductive performances of Brown Bengal goat (Hilly goat) at research farm level

Article: Productive and reproductive performances of Brown Bengal goat (Hilly goat) at research farm level

The result of the gestation length (GL) is shown in Table 2. The results of GL was non significant and the GL was 148.52 ± 1.06 days. Talukder et al. (2010) studied that the gestation length of Brown Bengal goat was 149.24 ± 2.37 days. Talukder et al. (2008) found that the gestation length of Black Bengal goat was 143.22 ± 0.64 days. Jalil et al. (2003) found that the GL of Black Bengal goat was 142.45 ± 0.95 days. Similar type results (144 ± 1.75 days) of GL of Black Bengal goat was also described by Chowdhury and Faruque (2001) . Although, GL was non signicnat (P<0.05) of hilly goat but ranges was higher than that of Black Bengal goats. There were no specific trends of GL was observed according up to 3 rd parity and similar results was also found Talukder et al. (2010).

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Spatial and social disparities in educational status: a case of mayurbhanj district in odisha, india

Spatial and social disparities in educational status: a case of mayurbhanj district in odisha, india

(previously known as ‘Orissa’) is one of the important states in Eastern part of India. It occupies a special position in the tribal map of India. Out of 30 districts 9 are considered as tribal district (according to Location Quotient value) and tal population (41,947,358) a significant share (22.1%) goes to tribal people (8,145,081). According to 2011 Census the literacy rate of the state is 73.45% which is almost same as of literacy rate of India (74.04%). Though previous researches show that in case of education there are significant disparities in the state among the districts. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the spatial disparity in education at block levels in terms of caste and gender in s this district has the second highest proportion of STs (56.6 per cent) and highest concentration of schedule tribe population (Location Quotient value is 2.56). The overall objective of this study is to obtain a better understanding of disparities and variations in educational status in Mayurbhanj, Odisha. This study includes: (1) an analysis of present educational regional educational disparities; (3) identification of probable factors remedial measures required to overcome the problems of educational development. To measure the disparities we have used (i) Disparity index in literacy with efficient of Equality in Education, (iii) Gender Parity Student ratio. Maps have been prepared on the above-

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Down the Borel hierarchy: Solving Muller games via safety games

Down the Borel hierarchy: Solving Muller games via safety games

Our idea of turning a Muller game into a safety game can be generalized to other types of winning conditions. We define a novel notion of reduction from infinite games to safety games which not only subsumes our construction but generalizes several constructions found in the literature. Based on work on small progress measures for solving parity games [16], Bernet, Janin, and Walukiewicz showed how to determine the winning regions in a parity game and a winning strategy for one player by reducing it to a safety game [8]. Furthermore, Schewe and Finkbeiner [17] as well as Filiot, Jin, and Raskin [18] used a translation from co-B¨ uchi games to safety games in their work on bounded synthesis and LTL realizability, respectively. We present further examples and show that our

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The Quest for Parity

The Quest for Parity

The National Urban League has set a goal of parity by the year 2000. To measure how far we are from that goal, we conducted a research study that measured the distance between whites and Blacks in key areas of life — employment, health, housing, and other key indicators.

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Problem and Evaluation of Higher Education Institution in Rural Areas of India

Problem and Evaluation of Higher Education Institution in Rural Areas of India

The most important problem in the higher education system in India is the lack of quality of the institutions in rural areas. The quantitative expansion is not adequate is not adequate. The inequalities among the institution located in rural area and urban area are quite remarkable. The institutions of higher education located in rural and socio-economic backward areas are lacking in the implementation of best practices in higher education and quality. There are number of colleges located in remote, rural, backward and hilly areas, striving to achieve excellence. In these colleges the student’s enrolment is from the socio-economic backward families. Most of the students are first generation learners of higher education. More the 70% of the students are scholarship holders as they are belonging to socio-economic backward families. There are no criteria for admission in the college, can enroll his name. The colleges are bound to enroll them, because they were established for these economically, socially and educationally weaker section the society. In the assessment and accreditation by NACC, such colleges get poor grades only because of the high dropout rates. The high dropout rate of the students in such colleges is a most important problem, which is to be solved.

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