ABSTRACT: It is very important in solar power systems to use the technic of MaximumPowerPoint Tracking (MPPT) because it does not need the large no. of solar panels to obtain the required output solar energy that means it reduces the cost by using less no. of solar panels. Several different MPPT methods have been proposed, but there has been no comprehensive comparison in between the results obtained by that methods of MPPT algorithms, depending on efficiency and intensity under environmental conditions. This task is performed with the help of MaximumPowerPointTracker(MPPT): it has a function to maximizes the power output of a PV system for environmental conditions of radiation and temperature, thus enhancing the efficiency.
When examined from the characteristics of V-I, photovoltaic has nonlinear characteristics and changes to radiation and temperature. In general, there is a peak point called MaximumPowerPoint (MPP) where at that point photovoltaic works at maximum efficiency. The location of the MPP is unknown, but can be searched. Therefore the MaximumPowerPointTracker (MPPT) algorithm is required to keep the working point of the solar cell to remain at the MPP point [12-14]. Many MPPT methods have been developed. Hill-climbing method is widely applied to MPPT controllers because of its simplicity and easy implementation [15-16].
A bunch of factors including the limited fossil resources and rising of fossil fuel price have caused moving to create new structure that is based on providing energy security and protecting the environment. One of the alternatives is the fuel cell (FC). Maximumpowerpointtracker has an important role in increasing the efficiency of the FC systems. One of the difficulties in maximumpowerpoint tracking methods is rapid changes in operating conditions which affects the maximumpowerpoint (MPP) of FC. The main contribution of this paper is presentation of a robust and reliable maximumpowerpoint tracking (MPPT) method for tracking of MPP of FC under fast variation of operating conditions. The proposed method is based on eagle strategy. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed method, simulations are performed in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The proposed method is compared with perturb and observe (P&O) and fuzzy MPPT methods. The results show that eagle strategy based MPPT approach can track the MPP of fuel cell better than P&O and fuzzy MPPT. The main features of the proposed approach are high speed and high accuracy in MPP tracking of FC in any contingency.
ABSTRACT—This paper propose a maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) for subwatt photovoltaic (PV) module. This provides maximum output power by tracking continuously the maximumpowerpoint (MPP), which depends on the temperature and an irradiance condition and is used in wireless sensor network (WSN). Dynamic power management technique is used to reduce the power consumption of the PV module and the system is dynamically reconfigured to activate the minimum number of modules. An ultra low power microcontroller is used to implement MPPT algorithm for low processing time and low circuit complexity. A perturb and observe maximumpowerpoint tracking (P&O MPPT) is used for low cost implementation. The pulse frequency modulation (PFM) technique is used for low power level which adjusts the switching activity of available power and this leads to reduce its efficiency at higher ripple current. This can be solved by implementation of current limiter for high switching frequency. The simulation studies have been carried out by NI Multisim TM 12.0.
Abstract: A new fuzzy maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) for photovoltaic systems is proposed. Fuzzy controller input parameters dP dI , D ( dP dI ) and variation of duty cycle ( D DC ) are used to generate the optimal MPPT converter duty cycle, such that solar panel maximumpower is generated under different operating conditions. A photovoltaic system including a solar panel, a fuzzy MPP tracker and a resistive load is designed, simulated and constructed. The fuzzy MPP tracker includes a buck dc/dc converter, fuzzy controller and interfacing circuits. Theoretical and experimental results are used to indicate the advantages and limitations of the proposed technique.
In recent years renewable energy i.e. wind and solar energy has received worldwide attention. The determination of the photovoltaic system is dependent on various factors mostly to cost, complexity and efficiency. One of the most interesting areas among the various research area in solar photovoltaic (PV) system is extracting maximumpower from solar PV system. The maximumpowerpoint tracking (MPPT) is the control algorithm that adjusts the power interfaces automatically and produces the most power available. In this study, multiple maximumpowerpoint techniques for solar PV systems are presented. The MPPT methods are discussed as follows: tracking speed, algorithm complexity, dynamic tracking under partial shading condition and hardware implementation. A significant corresponding table has been presented at the end of this paper to simplify the classification of the different methods for practicing engineers as well as for new researchers.
A simple MPPT based on perturb and observe algorithm was designed and built for connecting a PV module to the DC load for optimizing the load power and enhancing the PV energy utilization. The MPPT uses a step-down converter with input and output filters. The input filter is a pure capacitance while the output one is L- C circuit. A PWM driving circuit was used to drive power NPN transistor via changing the duty ratio of the driving signal according to the perturbation technique. ADDA card was used for data acquisition and for generating the control signal from its DA card according to the perturb and observe algorithm. Two identical PV modules were connected to the same DC loads (with and without MPPT) for comparison purposes. The results showed that MPPT increases the PV module power, increases the total system efficiency and maintains more operating hours especially in early morning and late afternoon hours. The proposed MPPT is very simple, as it requires no more complicated hardware and uses only the ADDA card that already used for data acquisition.
The MPPT technique proposed differs from other strategies ,  and  in that the duty cycle of the switching of the DC/DC buck converter is optimally calculated on-line. The algorithm of the three-point weights comparison is run periodically by perturbing the solar array terminal voltage and comparing the PV output power on three points of the V-P curve. The three points are the current operation point (A), a point, B, perturbed from point A, and a point C, with doubly perturbed in the opposite direction from point B. Figure 12 depicts the three possible cases. In these cases, for the points A and B, if the power corresponding to the point B is greater than or equal to that of point A, the status is assigned a positive weighting. Otherwise, the status is assigned a negative weighting. Amongst the three measured points, if two are positively weighted, the duty cycle of the converter should be increased. On the contrary, when two are negatively weighted, the duty cycle of the converter should be decreased. In the other cases with one positive and one negative weighting, the MPP is reached or the solar radiation has changed rapidly and the duty cycle is not to be changed. Figure 12 shows the idea of the MPP detection algorithm.
In this paper a deterministic particle swarm optimization technique has been explained to enhance tracking capability for maximumpowerpoint of photo voltaic system under uniform irradiation condition. The main objective is to eliminate the random number in the accelerations factor of the conventional PSO velocity equation. Maximum change in velocity is restricted to a particular value in such a manner in order not to miss potential peak of P-V curve. MPPT tracking is very simple and quick as compared to conventional PSO. Only inertia weight needs to be tuned so it reduces the tracking time and thereby increasing the response of this method. To establish the concept, the algorithm is implemented on a boost converter. Simulation results indicate that the method performs to detect MPP of PV module with high speed of tracking and accuracy under uniform irradiation conditions.
The existing fossil fuel resources are limited and have a significant adverse impact on the environment by raising the level of CO2 in the atmosphere and contributing to global warming. Global wind power installations increased by 35,467 MW in 2013, bringing total installed capacity up to 318,117 MW . Thus wind energy growth rate from year to year is consistently increasing showing its promising and reliable nature compared to other renewable sources . Due to continuous changing nature of the wind it is essential to determine the optimal generator speed that ensures maximum energy yield regardless of wind speeds. A lot of research on capturing the largest wind energy is done. The most common control strategy is MaximumPowerPoint Tracking control (MPPT) in which maximum wind energy can be captured by controlling the output error (specified by algorithm) of the wind generator speed, when the wind speed changes. Kinetic energy carried by air in the form of wind velocity is called as aerodynamic power and serves as actual input for wind energy conversion system (WECS). A WECS differs from a conventional power system as wind speed varies continually throughout the day and makes output of WECS very fluctuating in contrast to conventional fixed input power plants. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy present in the wind into mechanical power that runs a generator to produce clean electricity. In fixed speed wind turbine generator output is fed directly to the electrical grid but in variable speed wind turbine the generator output is first controlled by power electronic equipments and then fed to the grid so as to match grid frequency and other parameters. Variable speed wind turbine has adjustable speed shaft ensuring maximumpower
DISTRIBUTED Generations Technologies (DGs) are making good progress in today’s energy industry. Solar for both heat and electricity production is one of the most preferred generations, due to its availability almost all over the world. However taking advantage of the free energy that the Sun offers remains an issue. Solar cell efficiency in converting photons of light into electrical energy is very low and generated power is characterized by frequent fluctuations as it depends on environmental factors such as sunlight, temperature etc. One of the solutions to this drawback is maximumpowerpoint tracking that helps to extract maximumpower possible from a PV module. A number of methods have been developed and implemented by researchers for MPPT. These methods include; the Constant Voltage (CV), Short Current Pulse (SCP), Open Circuit Voltage (OCV), Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IC), and Hill Climbing,. The Perturb and Observe and the incremental conductance are the most used techniques, due to two factors namely their cost effectiveness, and their easy implementation. However their performance in tracking maximumpowerpoint have some limitations especially in cases of rapid change in irradiance and temperature levels.
ABSTRACT: A novel high step-up converter is proposed for a frontend solar photovoltaic system. Through a voltage multiplier module an asymmetrical interleaved high step-up converter obtains high step up gain without operating at an extreme duty ratio. The voltage multiplier module is composed of a conventional boost converter and coupled inductors. An extra conventional boost converter is integrated into the first phase to achieve a considerably higher voltage conversion ratio. The two-phase configuration not only reduces the current stress through each power switch, but also constrains the input current ripple, which decreases the conduction losses of metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In addition the proposed converter functions as an active clamp circuit which alleviates large voltage spikes across the power switches. Thus, the low voltage rated MOSFETs can be adopted for reductions of conduction losses and cost. Efficiency improves because the energy stored in leakage inductances is recycled to the output terminal. Finally, the prototype circuit with a 40V input voltage, 380V output and 1000W output power is operated to verify its performance. The highest efficiency is 96.8%.
R ESUME : Le suiveur du point de puissance maximale (MPPT : MaximumPowerPointTracker) joue un rôle très important pour l'obtention de la puissance maximale d'un panneau solaire, car il permet d'assurer un fonctionnement optimal d'un système photovoltaïque, quelles que soient les conditions de variations d’ensoleillement et de température. Dans ce sens, nous présentons dans ce papier, une technique pour l'amélioration et l'optimisation des performances de contrôle d'un système, composé d'un panneau photovoltaïque, d'un hacheur série et d'une charge. Ce contrôle est effectué en mettant en œuvre deux techniques de poursuite du point de puissance maximale (MPP): l'une à base du contrôle par la logique floue de type Takagi-Sugeno ("Flou TS") et l'autre employant l'algorithme "Perturber et Observer" ("P&O": Perturb and Observ). Des simulations des différentes parties du système sont développées sous Matlab/Simulink, permettant ainsi une comparaison entre les performances des deux contrôleurs étudiés ; "P&O" et "Flou TS". Les deux algorithmes de commande MPPT associées à ces techniques sont testés, sous les conditions météorologiques de la ville d'Agadir située au sud du Maroc. Les résultats ainsi obtenus, sous différentes conditions de fonctionnement, montrent une nette amélioration des performances de contrôle MPPT d'un système photovoltaïque en utilisant le contrôleur à base de la logique floue.
Solar cells convert sun light into electricity, but have the major drawbacks of high initial cost, low photo-conversion efficiency and intermittency. The current-voltage characteristics of the solar cells depend on solar insolation level and temperature, which lead to the variation of the maximumpowerpoint (MPP). Herein, to improve photovoltaic (PV) system efficiency, and increase the lifetime of the battery, a microcontroller-based battery charge controller with maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) is designed for harvesting the maximumpower available from the PV system under given insolation and temperature conditions. Among different MPPT techniques, perturb and observe (P&O) technique gives excellent results and thus is used. This work involves the design of MPPT charge controller using DC/DC buck converter and microcontroller. A prototype MPPT charge controller is tested with a 200 W PV panel and lead acid battery. The results show that the designed MPPT controller improves the efficiency of the PV panel when compared to conventional charge controllers.
ABSTRACT: This paper is going to cover three maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) control algorithms of solar system, namely; Perturb and Observe (P&O), Incremental Conductance (IC) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) algorithms. The three methods have been studied in details by the MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation took into account the insolation and temperature variation. The PV arrays model is interconnected with the DC-DC boost converter that works based on the output pulses of MPPT block to make the PV system operates at MPP. The simulation results for the three methods show good results in all studied cases with the observation that the FL method offers better efficiency than the others two methods.
Abstract—The characteristics output of solar panels are nonlinear and change with the environmental factors, so we need a controller named maximumpowerpointtracker MPPT to extract the maximumpower at the terminals of photovoltaic generator. In this study we present the two most popular controllers refers to traditional approach based on the perturbation & observation (P&O) methods and incremental conductance (INC). Then we explore a new intelligent controller based on fuzzy logic. The obtained results under various conditions of functioning have shown the good tracking and rapid response to change in different meteorological conditions of intelligent controller compare with the conventional one.
A photovoltaic (PV) system, which generates electric power purely from solar energy is an important solution towards future-generation smart grid planning, pollution reduction and sustainable global energy saving [1–3]. However, difficulties arise for such a system while the power output varies with different circumstantial conditions. A maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) is the most realistic strategy to widely apply PV systems to existing power grid designs. Although there are a number of MPPT strategies available in the literature, an efficient and effective MPPT algorithm design is still required to optimize PV system performance [4,5].
Photovoltaic (PV) sources plays an important role in the world’s energy portfolio and in future it will become one of the biggest contributor to the electricity generation among all renewable energy, candidates by 2040 it will become truly a clean, emission-free renewable electrical generation technology with high reliability. The task of a maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) in a photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion system is to continuously track the maximumpower with the help of current and voltage so that it draws maximumpower from the solar array irrespective of weather or load conditions.
The basic principle of the proposed vehicle is the energy drawn from the solar panel that is used to charge a battery which in turn runs the motor of the vehicle. A maximumpowerpointtracker (MPPT) is used as an interface between the solar panel and the battery to obtain the required voltage and to extract maximumpower from PV. The BLDC motor is preferred over DC motor because of high efficiency, low maintenance, long life, low weight and compact construction. The conventional DC motor is relatively more expensive and needs maintenance due to the brushes and commutator, whereas, BLDC motor has a rotor and a stator, which is connected to a power electronic switching circuit. This paper focuses on the modelling of solar cell, battery and implements a MPPT device for the solar vehicle driven by BLDC motor.