Our approach to the question of modality in short-term mem- ory derives from a radically different approach to short-term mem- ory itself. Bluntly, we regard short-termmemory as a perceptual- motor task setting, in the same way that, for example, the goal- directed manual apprehension and manipulation of a solid object may be regarded as a perceptual-motor task setting. In the latter case, the task involves processes that render object-oriented visual perceptual representations that may provide control programs for the manual interaction with the object in order to accomplish the task-specific goals. In the case of short-term serial recall, the object of concern is the sequence of verbal material presented for repro- duction, and the motor system adopted for manipulation of this object is the articulatory control system involved in the production of speech. Overall performance in the setting is an outcome of per- ceptual and motor processes and the interactions between them. From this perspective, modality of presentation comes into play with respect to object formation processes as they operate in visual and auditory presentation, and how the perceptual representations so formed afford, to greater or lesser degrees, facile manipulation of those objects and their constituents in the speech motor system. Key to this account are both the nature and the consequences of perceptual object formation. While objects are fundamental func- tional units for both vision and audition, there are important differ- ences between modality in how they are formed. As a generalization, processes of auditory object formation play out with respect to the temporal dimension, where extended acoustic events are grouped together over time, on the basis of gestalt-like properties of similarity and continuity of frequency, timbre, rhythm, and so on (e.g., Bregman, 1990). Visual object formation can also be characterized in terms of gestalt grouping cues, but
However, it remains to be demonstrated that DVN disrupts performance on visual working memory tasks other than those that involve imagery mnemonics. Whereas studies of irrelevant speech effects in verbal working memory used verbal memory span or serial recall tasks, DVN effects have only been reported in visual imagery rather than short-termmemory tasks. Baddeley conceptualised the visuo-spatial sketchpad as “a temporary visuo-spatial store … that is capable of retaining and manipulating images” (1986, p. 143) and Logie, Zucco and Baddeley (1990) confirmed that visuo-spatial imagery and short-termmemory tasks compete for modality-specific resources. However, subsequent research has questioned the assumption that identical processes underlie imagery and short-termmemory (see Pearson, 2001, for discussion). For example, Morton and Morris (1995) reported a patient, MG, who showed a dissociation between normal spatial short-termmemory (Corsi blocks) and impaired image transformation (e.g., mental rotation). It is therefore important to demonstrate effects of DVN on visual short-termmemory before drawing general conclusions about interference with working memory.
The information in this factsheet will help you understand more about short- termmemory loss and cancer. We hope it answers some of your questions about this symptom, what causes it, what are the signs and how it can be helped. If you have any other questions or concerns, please ask your doctor or call the National Cancer Helpline on 1800 200 700.
Short-termmemory (STM), as measured by immediate recall or recognition of previously presented items, is related to a range of cognitive tasks such as learning to read, reading complex text and arithmetic skills (see Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993). One of the sources of evidence for this relationship comes from research with special populations. For example, numerous studies have shown that developmental dyslexies have poor memory spans (e.g., Jorm, 1983; Snowling, 1991). However, the direction of causality between STM skill and performance on cognitive tasks is not yet clear. Memory span may have a direct effect on reading skill, alternatively reading may affect memory span. It is also possible that there is a reciprocal relationship between the two skills or that this relationship is mediated by a third independent factor, such as phonological awareness (see Goswami & Bryant, 1990). Moreover, the inter relationships may differ at different ages and different levels of skill. Despite the debate in this area, the fact that a relationship does exist between STM and a range of cognitive skills makes the study of STM an important area of research. By establishing the nature o f STM functioning in children, the possibility of specifying the precise relationship between STM and other cognitive skills is enhanced.
We tested recognition memory in two different settings. The first setting was comprised of naïve participants that saw the pictures only once, so that contamination from long-termmemory was minimized, but the analysis had to be carried out on pooled data. In the second setting single participants saw the pictures’ set repeatedly, thus there was buildup of long-termmemory for the seen pictures that contaminated performance, but we could analyze individual subjects’ data. The ability to probe differences between single subject and group analysis is important, given the possibility of artifacts induced by averaging across subjects. It is also interesting to test what effect, if any, does long-termmemory contamination produce on short- termmemory performance.
It has recently been proposed that face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM; Weigelt, Koldewyn, & Kanwisher, 2012). Where face recognition difficulties are seen in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), tasks often require participants to retain faces in memory (Arkush, Smith-Collins, Fiorentini, & Skuse, 2013; Boucher & Lewis, 1992; Hedley, Brewer, & Young, 2011; Weigelt, Koldewyn, & Kanwisher, 2013). Introducing a delay of a few seconds between target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance (Weigelt et al., 2012). Nevertheless, participants with ASD often demonstrate broadly typical face perception, exhibiting inversion effects (Scherf, Behrmann, Minshew, & Luna, 2008), behavioural markers of holistic representation (Nishimura, Rutherford, & Maurer, 2008), and intact memory for non-face stimuli (Arkush et al., 2013; Boucher & Lewis, 1992; Weigelt, Koldewyn, & Kanwisher, 2013).
Three experiments examined verbal short-termmemory in comparison and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) participants. Experiment 1 involved forward and backward digit recall. Experiment 2 used a standard immediate serial recall task where, contrary to the digit- span task, items (words) were not repeated from list to list. Hence, this task called more heavily on item memory. Experiment 3 tested short-term order memory with an order recognition test: each word list was repeated with or without the position of two adjacent items swapped. The ASD group showed poorer performance in all three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that group differences were due to memory for the order of the items, not to memory for the items themselves. Confirming these findings, the results of Experiment 3 showed that the ASD group had more difficulty detecting a change in the temporal sequence of the items.
In everyday life, the transfer of sensory input to the visual system is often interrupted by events such as eye blinks and saccades, or by full or partial occlusions from irrelevant information. To maintain and integrate relevant visual information across those interruptions, and to draw on this information to guide behaviours, we need a temporary buffer known as visual short-termmemory (VSTM) (Philips, 1974), or visual working memory (Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). VSTM is vital for nearly all cognitive activities. For example, when driving a car, we must incessantly look at our surroundings and remember relevant information, such as the location of the other vehicles on the road to avoid collisions, or the traffic signs to guide driving behaviours. When reading comic strips, we must look at and remember one drawing at a time while we read the short text that relates to it. In any social contacts, such as team sports, conversations, or simply walking in town with our mates for instance, we must encode and remember the identities and the whereabouts of the people around us to properly interact.
In a cued-recall experiment there are two time scales of interest for this paper: the storage time (the time after the stimulus has been presented) and the search time needed to find the recalled item. Our finding is that the time it takes to find the structured memory increases substantially with the storage time suggests but does not prove that both search and storage starts in the same geographical place. It is consistent with a shortterm storage starting out at the starting point of the search process and slowly moving out from that point in a spherical fashion.
topics and trace decay has been heavily criticised, at least for verbal memory (e.g. Lewandowsky et al., 2009). For non-verbal stimuli, the present study has uncovered that time-based forgetting in short-termmemory is 1) not explicable by a wandering attention account, 2) not due to a lingering contribution from sensory memory, and 3) not caused by proactive interference from stimuli on previous trials, even when there is a high level of similarity between tones on successive trials. The decline in performance at extended retention intervals therefore seems to be most consistent with memory trace decay, yet this time-based forgetting also appears to be very slow, unfolding over periods of half a minute, even in the presence of a mask. Yet a recent study, not dissimilar to our Experiment 2, has provided evidence against temporal decay. Horoufchin, Phillipp, and Koch (2011) examined performance in a perceptual judgment task in which a cue (a dollar sign or yellow squares) indicated the response type for one of two concurrent tasks. What was varied over four experiments was control over successive durations of the interval from the response on one trial to the cue on the next (the response- cue interval or RCI), with the presumed “decay” being the prior activation of the task "set" or preparedness from the previous trial. On the basis of their data they concluded that “task -set activation does not decay as a mere function
Our model aims to address both limitations. Our solution is to modify the standard LSTM structure by replacing the memory cell with a memory net- work (Weston et al., 2015). The resulting Long Short-TermMemory-Network (LSTMN) stores the contextual representation of each input token with a unique memory slot and the size of the memory grows with time until an upper bound of the memory span is reached. This design enables the LSTM to reason about relations between tokens with a neural attention layer and then perform non-Markov state updates. Although it is feasible to apply both write and read operations to the memories with attention, we concentrate on the latter. We conceptualize the read operation as attentively linking the current to- ken to previous memories and selecting useful con- tent when processing it. Although not the focus of this work, the significance of the write operation can be analogously justified as a way of incremen- tally updating previous memories, e.g., to correct wrong interpretations when processing garden path sentences (Ferreira and Henderson, 1991).
First, shorttermmemory errors in free recall are introduced by the search. That search of shorttermmemory should introduce errors makes sense. We know that the search appears to be random (Murdock & Okada, 1970) and a search mechanism of random excitation (or amplification like in Posner, 1994, ) to see which shortterm memories are most quickly reactivated is plausible.
For those interested, I am a physicist by training and thus do things differently than psychologists. In physics, experiments and theory are typically separated; a physicist usually does one or the other, not both – there is too much competition for one person to be able to do both. Theorists can further be divided into fundamentalists and phenomenologists. The former link experimental data to fundamental theories (string theory is an example) and the latter link various experimental data to other experimental data until there is enough information for the fundamentalists to take over. The memory field does not have enough information for fundamental theories (we do not know how shorttermmemory works on the cellular level let alone the genetic level) and thus I am a phenomenologist. Rather than starting with a hypothesis and then testing it, I examine experimental data and look for patterns that can be related and explained by theory with as few parameters as possible. It is important that the number of parameters is minimal: one can always fit data with many parameters and the more parameters needed the less real information is in the model itself. Note that my approach is consonant with the findings of McCaffrey (2012) that progress in psychology experiments is done by noticing obscure features and Gupta et al (2012) that creativity is based on avoiding high-frequency solutions.
Stack Long Short-TermMemory (StackL- STM) is useful for various applications such as parsing and string-to-tree neural machine translation, but it is also known to be notori- ously difficult to parallelize for GPU training due to the fact that the computations are de- pendent on discrete operations. In this paper, we tackle this problem by utilizing state access patterns of StackLSTM to homogenize compu- tations with regard to different discrete opera- tions. Our parsing experiments show that the method scales up almost linearly with increas- ing batch size, and our parallelized PyTorch implementation trains significantly faster com- pared to the Dynet C++ implementation.
The purpose of this thesis was to determine the effect of similarity of movement on motor short-termmemory. There were three independent variables analyzed! retention interval similiarity and prior movements. The experimental task was a linear slide movement and performance was measured by four dependent variables: absolute and algebraic error for both speed and distance recall. Thirty male, physical education students from the University of Windsor were subjects. The results were analyzed separately for each dependent variable by means of a three factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on the last two factors. Newman-Keuls and .simple effects secondary analyses were calculated for the significant main effects and interactions.
no strategy use. Those with mental ages over 6 years showed significant visual similarity effects and significant word length effects (see Figure 3), broadly consistent with dual coding as found by Palmer (2000). This small, but significant interaction between mental age and picture type is indicative of developmental progressions in memory coding within the MA and ID groups. Note that there was no main effect of group (span scores were equivalent between the two groups as already noted) and there were no interactions between picture type and ID status to suggest that patterns of performance differed in the ID and MA groups. Mental age appeared to be a more important determinant of memory coding stage than ID status. Nor was there any evidence for a discrete visual coding stage. There was not enough data to test this latter point thoroughly in the current study, although it should be pointed out that previous reports of visual similarity effects in 5-year-olds have used methods involving verbal recall and/or a left to right spatial array of face-down pictures after presentation. The spatial array method may encourage visual confusions if children are using the array as a “spatial cue” (looking at the spatial location of individual pictures and trying to visualise them). Here, visual coding had to be initiated without the aid of spatial location cues provided by an array of face down cards.