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RESEARCH OF ENGINEERING TRAFFIC IN COMPUTER UZ NETWORK USING MPLS TE TECHNOLOGY

RESEARCH OF ENGINEERING TRAFFIC IN COMPUTER UZ NETWORK USING MPLS TE TECHNOLOGY

Мета. На залізничному транспорті України необхідним є використання комп’ютерних мереж різних технологій: Ethernet, Token Bus, Token Ring, FDDI та інших. В об’єднаннях комп’ютерних мереж на залізни- чному транспорті доцільним є використання технології швидкої комутації пакетів у багатопротокольних мережах MPLS (MultiProtocol Label Switching), що заснована на використанні міток. Мережі з комутацією пакетів повинні передавати різні види трафіку із заданою якістю обслуговування. Метою дослідженя є роз- робка методики визначення послідовності призначення потоків для розглянутого фрагменту комп’ютерної мережі Укрзалізниці (УЗ). Методика. При оптимізації управління трафіком в мережах MPLS важливу роль відіграє технологія інжинірингу трафіка (Traffic Engineering, TE). Основний механізм TE в MPLS – викорис- тання односпрямованих тунелів (MPLS TE tunnel) для завдання шляху проходження певного трафіку. Скла- дена математична модель задачі інжинірингу трафіка в комп’ютерній мережі УЗ за технологією MPLS TE. Комп’ютерна мережа УЗ представлена зваженим орієнтованим графом, вершинами якого є маршрутизатори комп’ютерної мережі, а кожна дуга моделює зв’язок між вузлами. В якості критерію оптимізації виступає мінімальне значення максимального коефіцієнту використання ТЕ-тунелів. Результати. Знайдено шість варіантів призначення потоків , визначена раціональна послідовність потоків, при якій значення максима- льного коефіцієнту використання ТЕ-тунелів розглянутого спрощеного фрагменту комп’ютерної мережі УЗ не перевищує 0,5. Наукова новизна. Запропоновано методику рішення задачі інжинірингу трафіка в бага- топротокольній комп’ютерній мережі УЗ за технологією MPLS ТЕ; для різних класів будується свій шлях у залежності від смуги пропускання та завантаження каналу. Практична значимість. Встановлена можли- вість визначення значення максимального коефіцієнта використання ТЕ-тунелів у комп’ютерних мережах УЗ на основі розробленої програмної моделі «TraffEng». Вхідні параметри моделі: кількість маршрутизато- рів, пропускна здатність каналів, кількість потоків, середня швидкість потоків. В якості результату роботи моделі «TraffEng» подаються варіанти вибору ТЕ-тунелів із відповідними значеннями максимальних коефі- цієнтів їх використання.
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Method of Distribution Network Resources after Restoration, the Networks MPLS TE Use of Various Telecommunications Technologies to Construct Backbone Networks

Method of Distribution Network Resources after Restoration, the Networks MPLS TE Use of Various Telecommunications Technologies to Construct Backbone Networks

The information distributing in modern practical communication network is in either packets or in data streams forms as shown in [5] [6] and [7]. The dis- tribution of the flow path involves selection of a specific unit for a couple of the recipient. Per packet transmission makes better use of available network re- sources. However, using this method may change packet sequence consistency, increased delays in the collection messages and, ultimately, the quality of service degradation. Practice shows that the method is a more rational distribution of traffic. This lowers the load on the device that serves the traffic, and, in general, there is no problem of packet reordering [6] [7]. This method is used in many modern technologies, including in Multi-Protocol Label Switching (MPLS) as a method for optimal load balancing across multiple independent paths for MPLS-TE networks, consisting of consistent application of the optimal shortest path selection procedures. As the selection criterion of the path integral criterion is used, parameters such as the combined capacity of the path and the maximum delay path are taken into account.
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Performance Comparison of MPLS TE Networks with Traditional Networks

Performance Comparison of MPLS TE Networks with Traditional Networks

Traffic Engineering is that component of network engineering which addresses the consequence pertaining to performance rating and optimization of IP networks [9] [10]. The term traffic engineering is broadly utilized as part of the voice communications over telephone. TE aims that the traffic is estimated and investigated. At that point a statistical model is applied to the movement of traffic in order to arrive at a prediction and make estimations. On the off chance that the foreseen movement design does not coordinate well with the network resources the network executive rebuilds the activity design. Such choices can be made to accomplish a more ideal utilization of their own assets or to diminish costs by choosing a less expensive transit carrier. MPLS TE is an answer for IP steering issue as MPLS TE gives proficient spreading all through the system, maintaining a strategic distance from underutilized and over-utilized links [11]. It additionally considers the configured(static) data transfer capacity of connections(bandwidth). It considers link properties (like delay, jitter) and adjusts naturally to changing data transfer capacity and connection qualities. Moreover, traffic is bounded to source based routing in traffic engineered networks as opposed to destination based routing in conventional IP routes.
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A Mathematical Model for Managing the Distribution of Information Flows for MPLS TE Networks under Critical Conditions

A Mathematical Model for Managing the Distribution of Information Flows for MPLS TE Networks under Critical Conditions

DOI: 10.4236/cn.2018.102003 32 Communications and Network In [1], mathematical model was proposed for Multi-Protocol Label Switching for Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) to improve the Quality of Service (QoS) pro- viding the mathematical limits when optimum traffic distribution is assumed. In [2], the optimum number of routing paths was investigated for MPLS-TE, as a result, the optimum number of the shortest independent paths was theoretically determined, while in [3], the parameters to develop the routing performance are investigated.

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Performance Evaluation of MPLS TE Signal Protocols with Different Audio Codecs for Voice Application

Performance Evaluation of MPLS TE Signal Protocols with Different Audio Codecs for Voice Application

utilization, a description in detail for coder-decoders (Codecs), codec complexity and the bandwidth requirements for VoIP calls. Codecs are especially important on low-speed serial links where every bit of bandwidth is needed and utilized to ensure network reliability. Analyzing and optimizing voice traffic over data networks have been a major challenge to researchers and developers, many techniques have been proposed based on analyses from real word and simulated traffic. Mahesh Kr. Porwal, Anjulata Yadav & S. V. Charhate. in [5] have made a comparative analysis of MPLS over Non-MPLS networks and showed that MPLS have a better performance over IP networks, through this paper a comparison study has been made on MPLS signaling protocols (CR-LDP, RSVP and RSVP-TE) with Traffic Engineering by explaining their functionality and classification. The Simulation of MPLS and Non-MPLS network is done; performance is compared by with consideration of the constraints such as packet loss, throughput and end-to-end delay on the network traffic. Ravi Shankar Ramakrishnan & P. Vinod kumar. in [6] analyzed three commonly used codecs using peer-to-peer network scenario. The paper presents OPNET simulator and they were considered only in Latency, Jitter and Packet loss. They were able to present from the results that G.711 is an ideal solution for PSTN networks with PCM scheme. G.723 is used for voice and video conferencing however provides lower voice quality. Music or tones such as DTMF cannot be transmitted reliably with G.723 codec. G.729 is mostly used in VoIP applications for its low bandwidth requirement that’s why this type is mostly common on the WAN connections and to transport voice calls between multisite branches. Md. Arifur Rahman, Ahmedul Haque Kabir. in [7] they calculated the minimum number of VoIP calls that can be created in an enterprise IP network. The paper presents OPNET simulator designing of the real-world network model. The model is designed with respect to the engineering factors needed to be reflected when implementing VoIP application in the IP network. Simulation is done based on IP network model to calculate the number of calls that can be conserved. Umber Iqbal ,Younas Javed, Saad Rehman in [8] , their Simulation experiments, they observed that SIP module provides and reduced congestion over access networks. Reyadh Shaker Naoum et al.in paper [2] a simulation were performed and compared for a multisite office network for G.723 VOIP communication traffic applied on two network infrastructure models: one for IP and the other for MPLS.
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MPLS Traffic Engineering in ISP Network

MPLS Traffic Engineering in ISP Network

In constraint based routing a shortest path is selected if it satisfies a particular set of constraints. The constraints are minimum bandwidth, link attributes and administrative weight, setup and hold priority values etc. [2] MPLS TE uses constraint shortest path first algorithm (CSPF) to build LSP tunnels. CSPF is an extension of SPF [6] and it looks not only on the cost values but also on the constraints to select the best path according to the resource requirements.

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MPLS Recovery Schemes: An Experimental Evaluation

MPLS Recovery Schemes: An Experimental Evaluation

In Internet backbone, Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) [1], [2] plays an important role for providing quality of service (QoS). Fast recovery is one of the key features of MPLS Traffic Engineering (MPLS-TE) in case of failure of link or node of working path. The MPLS-TE supports end-to-end services requiring QoS, network resource optimization and fast recovery [3], [4], [5]. MPLS-based recovery can be segregated as global repair and local repair (local recovery) [6]. Global repair establishes an end-to-end recovery path which is link and node disjoint with its respective working path and ingress router is responsible for switching the traffic to the recovery path. Protecting against a failure of a link or node on the working path is the main purpose of the local repair (local recovery) [6]. In local repair the immediate upstream node of the fault or failure link is responsible for switching the traffic to the recovery path.
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Analyzing the usage of Network Resources using MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)

Analyzing the usage of Network Resources using MPLS Traffic Engineering (TE)

Comparison of performance metric of IP model and MPLS-TE networks is done. Performance Parameters that are compared involves end to end delay, throughput (packet send and receive), FTP response time. It is clearly noted that MPLS-TE performance is better as compared to IP network model. In the situation of heavy load such as high traffic, the MPLS-TE performance is again better. In 1st scenario such as in IP network model, packets are forwarded employing OSPF, hence all packets are sent through shortest route and no other route was taken. While in 2nd scenario such as in MPLS-TE network model LSPs are built, the edge router LER1 is taken as the source router and the edge router LER2 is taken as destination router of the LSPs.
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Implementation of Traffic Engineering in MPLS Networks by Creating TE Tunnels Using Resource Reservation Protocol and Load balancing the Traffic

Implementation of Traffic Engineering in MPLS Networks by Creating TE Tunnels Using Resource Reservation Protocol and Load balancing the Traffic

TE with IP was mostly implemented by manipulation of interface cost when multiple paths existed between two endpoints in the network. In addition, static routes enabled traffic steering along a specific path to a destination. The inspiration behind MPLS TE is Constraint Based Routing (CBR), which takes into account the possibility of multiple paths between a specific source/destination pair in a network. With CBR, the operation of an IP network is enhanced so the least cost routing can be implemented as well as variables to find paths from a source to destination. CBR requires an IGP, like OSPF or IS-IS, for its operation. CBR is the backbone of the TE tunnel definition and is defined on the ingress routers to the MPLS domain when implementing MPLS TE. Resource availability and link status information are calculated using a constrained SPF calculation in which factors such as the bandwidth, policies, and topology are taken into consideration to define probable paths from a source to destination.
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Path based p cycle for resilient MPLS network design : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Telecommunications and Networking, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

Path based p cycle for resilient MPLS network design : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Engineering in Telecommunications and Networking, Massey University, Wellington, New Zealand

time, usually one mesh for real-time applications, e.g., video, voice traffic, and one mesh for ordinary data traffic. In our studies, we intend to investigate networks without differential services, which is equal to dealing with target networks that only support a single service type. Still, there is a technique that can incur multiple LSPs between a pair of nodes. The characteristic of load balancing is precisely to forward the traffic from a source to a destination across multiple paths. As an extra capability, conventional protocols, like OSPF or IS-IS, support equal load balancing. Load balancing over equal cost paths is comprehensible for the reason that it can achieve less link load without extra cost. With regard to MPLS, both equal and unequal load balancing can be performed, no matter whether the multiple paths have identical cost or not, especially for traffic engineering purposes. It can be concluded that the ability to route a demand over several paths simultaneously, is desired and might be required necessarily in MPLS-TE (MPLS Traffic Engineering) networks. Even so, if the network is provisioned with far more than enough capacity, a single working LSP for each demand would be more beneficial from an operational prospect. Such a contradiction exists in all types of networks, and lasts for a long time. It is also described as the choice between bifurcated or non-bifurcated (working) flows. We found it hard to decide intuitively which would outperform the other.
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Performance Evaluation of Traffic Engineering Signal Protocols in IPV6 MPLS Networks

Performance Evaluation of Traffic Engineering Signal Protocols in IPV6 MPLS Networks

tion Internet Protocol (IP) based backbone networks [4]. MPLS networks can offer the Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees that data transport services like frame relay (FR) or Asynchronous Transfer Mode Switching (ATM) give, without requiring the use of any dedicated lines. MPLS was devised to convert the Internet and IP back- bones from best effort data networks to business-class transport mediums capable of handling traditional real time services [5]. The initial trust was to deliver much needed traffic engineering capabilities and QoS enhance- ments to the generic IP cloud. The availability of traffic engineering has helped MPLS reach critical mass in term of service provider mind share and resulting MPLS de- ployments. Advantages accrue primarily to the carriers, User benefits include lower cost in most cases, greater control over networks, and more detailed QoS. The con- straint-based routing label distributions protocol (CR- LDP) and the resource reservation protocol (RSVP) are the signaling algorithms used for traffic engineering. In this paper, a comparative study of the performance MPLS TE signal protocols is presented. The paper also shows the performance enhancement of MPLS networks over conventional IP networks. MPLS is improved net- work performance for multimedia type application in heavy load traffic environment. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, a brief reference to related works has been presented. Section 3 describes traditional IP network and MPLS network operation along with the important terms associated with MPLS. In Section 4, traffic engineering signal protocols of MPLS
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Economic fluctuations in 2013-14: Review on Indian Economic Conditions

Economic fluctuations in 2013-14: Review on Indian Economic Conditions

A reliable end packet delivery is always one of the basic requirements of a user as well as network. When the data is transferred over the network there are many major causes that can result packet loss, such as Congestion over the network. Any kind of active or the passive attack over the network can make packet loss while transferring the data. Because of this there is requirement of some methodology that can reduce the packet loss and return reliable data transmission over the network. The proposed work will be the enhancement of a secure and efficient technology called MPLS. In this proposed work we are presenting the concept of backup paths to recover the data loss over the network. Once the loss occurs or detected. It needs not to travel the whole path again. The system will generate the route by analyzing the neighbouring nodes. The presented work is
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MPLS & QoS in Virtual Environments

MPLS & QoS in Virtual Environments

The rise of high performance computing has seen a shift of services from locally managed Data Centers, to centralized globally redundant Data Centers (Cloud Computing). The scale of operation and churn required for cloud computing has in turn led to the rise of faster and programmable network pathing, via SDN & NFV. Cloud compute resources are accessible to individual researchers, as well as larger organizations. Cloud computing relies heavily on virtualization and abstraction of resources. The interconnect between these resources is more complex than ever, due to the need to seamlessly move from virtual to physical to hybrid networks and resources. MPLS as a technology is robust and has been used as transport for decades with a good track record. QoS has been available within most protocols to ensure service levels are maintained. The integration of MPLS, QoS and virtual environments is a space of increasing interest. It would allow for the seamless movement of traffic from end to end without the need for specialized hardware or vendor lock-in.
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Verification of MPLS traffic engineering techniques

Verification of MPLS traffic engineering techniques

In tenrs of the maximum packet loss statistics as shown in Figure 5, in group 39, MPLS MaxResidual still can perform without experiencing packet loss, whilst OSPF and MPLS MinCost exhibi[r]

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Source Driven MPLS Multicast

Source Driven MPLS Multicast

the egress node in SDMM strips off the label, and gets the packet replicated by the number.. of destinations the egress node has in its LIB for the FEC, and writes each destination.[r]

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A SURVEYON MPLS BASED TRAFFIC ENGINEERING MECHANISM

A SURVEYON MPLS BASED TRAFFIC ENGINEERING MECHANISM

In this paper we have presented A survey on multiple fault tolerance in MPLS network. We created a network topology and proposed protocol on it and compare it with rerouting fault recovery protocol. Rerouting fault recovery protocol uses rerouting domain for fault tolerance and it computes recovery path on demand after the occurrence of the fault whereas proposed fault recovery algorithm is from protection switching domain in which recovery paths are pre- computed. We observed proposed fault recovery protocol took less time to switch over the traffic to the recovery path as compare to rerouting fault recovery protocol. Total time that rerouting fault recovery protocol took to recover from a particular fault is time for sending FIS to the ingress plustime to computing backup path and sending traffic on it. In proposed fault recovery protocol total time is just to send FIS to ingress then ingress will automatically transfer the traffic to the backup path because it has already stored backup paths.This paper also presents the usefulness of the TOTEMtoolbox. It gives an overview of the answers the toolbox can provide to some important questions a network operator may have. Using the toolbox, an operator can for example see whether his network is well-engineered or not, evaluate the impact of hot-potato routing on the traffic matrix, comparea wide range of IP and MPLS solutions and choose the best in this large set, or see whether the network is enough provisioned to support failures or not.
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Traffic Engineering through MPLS in Service Provider Networks

Traffic Engineering through MPLS in Service Provider Networks

MPLS was originally designed to make IP routers are as fast as ATM switches for handling traffic. Just as in any other technology.MPLS has a specialized terminology all its own. An MPLS domain is the collection of routers running MPLS under the control of a single Administrator. An LSP (label- switched path) is a one-way (unidirectional) Flow of traffic, carrying packets from beginning to end. Packets must enterThe LSP at the beginning (ingress) of the path, and can only exit the LSP At the end (egress). Packets cannot be injected into an LSP at an intermediate hop. Generally, an LSP remains within a single MPLS domain. That is, the Entrance and exit of the LSP, and all routers in between, are ultimately in control of the same administrative authority. This ensures that MPLS LSP Traffic engineering is not done haphazardly or at cross purposes but is implemented in a coordinated fashion.
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Review on QoS Improvement with MPLS Mechanism in NGN

Review on QoS Improvement with MPLS Mechanism in NGN

Label lookup and label switching in MPLS were faster than a routing table because they could take place directly within the switched fabric and not the CPU. The entry and exit points of an MPLS network are called label edge routers (LER), which, respectively, push MPLS label onto an incoming packet and pop it off the outgoing packet. Routers that perform routing based only on the label are called label switch routers (LSR). In some applications, the packet presented to the LER already may have a label, so that the new LER pushes a second label onto the packet. Labels are distributed between LERs and LSRs using the “Label Distribution Protocol” (LDP). Label Switch Routers in an MPLS network regularly exchange label and reach ability information with each other using standardized procedures in order to build a complete picture of the network they can then use to forward packets. Label Switch Paths (LSPs) are established by the network operator for a variety of purposes, such as to create network-based IP virtual private networks or to route traffic along specified paths through the network.
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An Investigation of Forwarding in the  MPLS support for Differentiated Services.

An Investigation of Forwarding in the MPLS support for Differentiated Services.

This packet is received when the pervious hop of the packet does not belong to MPLS domain or doest not have an LSP set for this path. Whenever such a packet arrives at a DiffServ LSR, it is treated based on the DiffServ configuration for it i.e. it is classified based on the appropriate classifier and given the appropriate PHB. If a LSP is not set for the packet, then it is similar to only DiffServ being configured. However if a LSP is set a MPLS label is pre-pended to the packet. The EXP value for the label alone, currently, maps the DiffServ Code Point information, as only E-LSPs are being supported. To support L-LSPs, the label value would have to be considered while mapping. Also the incoming label map (ILM) also should contain a field that specifies whether the entry specifies an E –LSP or an L-LSP.
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Teleprotection signalling over an IP/MPLS network

Teleprotection signalling over an IP/MPLS network

 IP/MPLS: Is a set of tools and mechanisms allowing a packetised network (connectionless, end-to-end network) to be transformed into a point-to-point, connection orientated network wherein packets are a directed based on a label header rather than network addresses. The use of the 20bit label rather than a network address allows MPLS to operate between layers 2 and 3 allowing it to operate directly on Ethernet traffic and over routers in the packet based network supporting traffic in both LANs and WANs. MPLS includes a set of tools that allow traffic shaping and engineering (ensuring quality of service is maintained) and guaranteed bandwidth for services through reservation protocols (Alcatel-Lucent – Deploying IP/MPLS Comms, 2012). CIGRE have noted that several investigated have demonstrated that an MPLS based network utilizing the above characteristic can be engineering in such a way as to meet the stringent requirements imposed in protection systems.
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