# Net interest margin

## Top PDF Net interest margin: ### Analyzing the Determinants of Net Interest Margin of Banks in Pakistan

Financial intermediation is very important for economic growth. According to financial expert, Pakistan requires a secure and well-organized banking system. Despite the fact, that Pakistan has built some progress because deregulation of its banking industry, bank margins remain certainly sky- scraping. Financial institutions have different ways to measure its performance. One of the most basic is net interest margin. It is calculated for a period of time, quarterly or a yearly, and is expressed as a proportion. Bank interest margin is also known as the net yield on interest earning assets. It is often confused that the Net interest margin and spread is the same perception while spread is the difference between lending and borrowing rates without earning assets. Interest margin is used to find out the profitability of a bank by investing and lending activities over a period of time. If generated interest income from the investing yield is low it means that the cost charged (interest expenses) are greater than interest income generated by investing assets. High net interest margin does not a mean high profitability if difference between interest income and interest expenses is high than people do not invest in banking industry and prefer to keep their saving in their home which shows the inefficiency of banks. ### An Examination of the Net Interest Margin Aas Determinants of Banks’ Profitability in the Kosovo Banking System

Table 1 shows descriptive statistics with number of observation, minimum, maximum, mean value and standard deviation for the total period of data. As it can be seen from the table above, Net interest margin ratio has mean value of .034 or 3.4 percent which is ranked as a moderate average. The standard deviation is .016 or 1.6 percent which is not far from mean average and show moderate variability. Capital ratio has the lowest mean value of .072 or 7.2 percent, which shows moderate variability, and the moderate standard deviation of .006 or 0.6 percent. This shows that the data are consistent because the standard deviation value is not much far from the mean value. Liquid ratio has mean value of .237 or 23.7 percent. The minimum and maximum value is .169, respectively .326 (16.9 percent respectively 32.6 percent) which shows that banking system of Kosovo is liquid. Loan to deposit ratio has a mean value .778 or 77.8 percent with standard deviation of .0477 or 4.7 percent. These result shows that banking system in Kosovo is using their funds in a satisfied level for providing loan to their costumer, which reflect with a higher interest income. Provision for loan losses to total net income has a mean value of .286 or 28.6 percent of total net income, with standard deviation of .176 or 17.6%. Non-interest income to total income has a mean value of .201 or 20.1% of total income, with standard deviation of 0.176 or 1.7 percent. According to these we can conclude that non-interest income contribute to total income in average of 20.1% of total income. ### Factors Affecting Net Interest Margin of Commercial Banks in Malaysia

In this study, there are 10 financial ratios selected namely, profitability ratio, Aset Quality Ratio, Size, Net Interest Margin, Leverage, Liquidity Ratio, Loan Growth Ratio, Market ratio in industry, Inflation rate and also bank interest rate. To identify the determinants influencing net interest margin of commercial bank, this study has chosen multiple regression analysis. Secondly, this study also the effects of credit risk on net interset margin. ### Determination of net interest margin drivers for selected financial institutions in South Africa : a comparison with other capital markets

A number of studies, underpinned by the theoretical frameworks discussed, have examined the determinants of bank net interest margins and profitability across various markets. Hanweck and Ryu (2005:7), in their study to determine the sensitivity of bank net interest margins and profitability to credit, interest rate and term structure shocks across bank product specialisation, observed that the models’ fundamental assumption is that the NIMs should be maximised for the benefit of the shareholders. Almost all models developed by various researchers and authors consider how internal factors (a bank’s specific characteristics) and/or external factors (financial industry and economic environment) impact on the margins and how to maximise them. The most prominent of the empirical models that have been developed over time which form the basis for the study of net interest margins are the Firm Theoretic model and the Dealer model. The objective of both models is to derive an optimal net interest margin for a bank in a given competitive environment (Hanweck and Ryu, 2005:7). ### Determinants of Net Interest Margin: A Case Study of Bank XYZ in Indonesia

Several studies have also been done related to level of net interest margin in Indonesia, including Dermiguc - Kunt and Huizinga (1998) which found that the average banking margin Indonesia period 1988-1995 was 3.6%, higher than other ASEAN countries such as Singapore ( 2.2%) and Malaysia (2.7 %). Research conducted Lin et al (2012) also give results that in the period 1997 to 2005 the average value of bank's net interest margin in amount of 6.36% in Indonesia is the highest value among other Asian countries that become the research sample.The high value of the net interest margin becomes an important issue that must be resolved by banks in Indonesia. Research has been proved as well as providing a comparison of net interest margin in Indonesia and other countries. This result requires banks in Indonesia to be able to work more efficient and produces better performance to create better quality in banking industry. ### Factors Impacting Bank Net Interest Margin and the Role of Monetary Policy: Evidence from Turkey

In this study, we investigate factors affecting net interest margin (NIM) of commercial banks in Turkey. Especially, our results highlight the relation between unconventional monetary policy shocks and bank margins. To this end, first, we conduct an identification analysis about which parameters of asymmetric interest corridor framework are important in explaining variations in NIM. Using industry- level data, we show that there exists a pass through from BIST interbank overnight repo/reverse repo market rate and weighted average cost of funding (WACF) to bank loan and deposit rates. As a result of reduced-form Vector Autoregression (VAR) analysis we find the existence of a transmission mechanism from BIST rate and WACF to commercial loan rate, consumer loan rate and deposit rate. Same pass through to loan and deposit rates is also shown in individual bank level with the Panel Vector Autoregression (Panel VAR) analysis in the case of 16 commercial banks in Turkey during the period 2011Q1-2016Q1. After the identification analysis, we examine the relationship between NIM and policy rates through System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) techniques by controlling bank specific, industry related and macroeconomic factors. We find that a change in the monetary policy rate has significant and positive impact on NIM. Among bank-specific factors, equity ratio and operating expenses are found to be significantly affecting NIM during the sample period. Our empirical findings also stress the significance of lag values of NIM. Estimations conducted with standardized variables indicate that economic significance of lag values and bank specific variables are larger than that of policy. ### Impact of Net Stable Funding Ratio Regulations on Net Interest Margin: A Multi-Country Comparative Analysis

The global financial crunch became a source of great turmoil for the banking institutions of developed countries. By making comparison among the collapses of global financial giants of developed economies, there was less number of bank crashes in developing economies. Hence, the emerging economies follow the catching up process of 2007-2008 global financial crises. This paper seeks to presents the first inclusive evaluation of the Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR) and estimates the ratio for the developed and developing economies by making a sharp comparison. In this research study, various strategies are observed for those financial institutions whose value is less than the threshold level, thus to meet NSFR and assess about impact these changes bring on Net Interest Margin a financial institution. The financial crisis of 2007–2009 witnessed that in various countries the displacement of wholesale funding markets of banks was the core reason for the sufferance of shortages of liquidity. The financial institutions were unable to overturn their debts as they financed long-term assets with debt of short –term thus making these banks most exposed to risk (Acharya and Merrouche, 2013; Huang and Ratnovski, 2011; Afonso et al., 2011; Diamond and Rajan, 2009; Gorton, 2009; Brunnermeier and Markus, 2009). However, NSFR deal with funding risk and is devised to endorse structural amendments developing profiles of risks for banks attend to be more stable by funding in longer-term assets. Banks which do not meet the NSFR require condensing assets entailing stable funding along with an increase in sources of stable funding. This empirical study draws attention to the tradeoffs between liquidity reforms, financial institution risk and profitability by making comparison among developing and developed countries. The NSFR is devised to promote banks for holding more high-quality of liquid assets and use stable sources to boost its funding. Such changes will enhance the buoyancy of banks in the periods of stress. ### The effect of capital adequacy ratio, net interest margin and non-performing loans on bank profitability : the case of Indonesia

It can be seen that CAR and NIM variables (in lag form) have positive effects on the dependent variable ROA and both are significant at 5% significance level, while variable NPL (in lag form) has a significant negative effect on banking profitability. It is shown, by the regression equation obtained, that the variables having the strongest positive effect and being significant on banking profitability (ROA) are net interest margin (NIM) with regression coefficient of 0.202 and non-performing loans (NPL) with regression coefficient of -0.270 while capital adequacy ratio (CAR) with regression coefficient of 0.001 but not significant. ### Bank net interest margin forecasting and capital adequacy stress testing by machine learning techniques

The 2007-09 financial crisis revealed that the investors in the financial market were more concerned about the future as opposed to the current capital adequacies for banks. Stress testing promises to complement the regulatory capital adequacy regimes, which assess a bank’s current capital adequacy, with the ability to assess its future capital adequacy based on the projected asset-losses and incomes from the forecasting models from regulators and banks. The effectiveness of stress-test rests on its ability to inform the financial market, which depends on whether or not the market has confidence in the model-projected asset-losses and incomes for banks. Post-crisis studies found that the stress-test results are uninformative and receive insignificant market reactions; others question its validity on the grounds of the poor forecast accuracies using linear regression models which forecast the banking-industry incomes measured by Aggregate Net Interest Margin. Instead, our study focuses on NIM forecasting at an individual bank’s level and employs both linear regression and non-linear Machine Learning techniques. First, we present both the linear and non-linear Machine Learning regression techniques used in our study. Then, based on out-of-sample tests and literature-recommended forecasting techniques, we compare the NIM forecast accuracies by 162 models based on 11 different regression techniques, finding that some Machine Learning techniques as well as some linear ones can achieve significantly higher accuracies than the random-walk benchmark, which invalidates the grounds used by the literature to challenge the validity of stress-test. Last, our results from forecast accuracy comparisons are either consistent with or complement those from existing forecasting literature. We believe that the paper is the first systematic study on forecasting bank-specific NIM by Machine Learning Techniques; also, it is a first systematic study on forecast accuracy comparison including both linear and non-linear Machine Learning techniques using financial data for a critical real-world problem; it is a multi-step forecasting example involving iterative forecasting, rolling-origins, recalibration with forecast accuracy measure being scale-independent; robust regression proved to be beneficial for forecasting in presence of outliers. It concludes with policy suggestions and future research directions. Keywords: Machine Learning; time series forecasting; forecast accuracy; bank capital; stress testing; net interest margin; systemic risk. ### The Effect of Bank Capital Buffer on Bank Risk and Net Interest Margin: Evidence from the US

regulators in Basel-III. The results show that the interest margin rate is increasing with the passage of time by implementing conservative capital buffer condition on commercial banks in the short run, other things held constant. These results also reflect that as the banks increase their capital buffer, their funds remain unused, which leads to a decrease in profits. However, the expenses remain constant, which leads to an increase in the net interest margin as suggested in the mean-variance framework. The subgroups dummies are used to inspect the effect of well, adequately, under, significantly under and critically undercapitalized commercial banks. The results show that the influence of capital buffer on the net interest margin is not similar in all subgroups. The influence of critically undercapitalized banks is different to charge net interest margin as compared to other groups in the short run, ceteris paribus. The results show that there is a positive relationship between bank risk and the net interest margin. According to the economic theory, the higher the risk is, the higher the return will be, other things remain. The findings show that the relationship between common equity buffer and net interest margin is positive, which indicates that as the common equity buffer of banks increases, the bank net interest margin also increases, other things remain similar. The impact of common equity buffer is negative in the case of critically undercapitalized banks, which indicates that the banks which have a capital problem cannot charge higher interest margin, other things remain constant. In other words, the negative association between net interest margin and common equity buffer may be owing to the availability of limited borrowers caused by lack of confidence lead by the bank poor condition in the market. The effect of common equity buffer on the total risk is positive and significant in case of well, adequately, and under capital banks. The findings show that tier one capital has a positive impact on net interest margin, which indicates that by increasing capital buffer, the profitability decrease. The banks want to earn their target profits by making limited loans for which they charge higher interest margin. The findings provide valuable information for decision makers, regulators and bankers. ### Measuring Interest Rate Risk Considering Key Factors Affecting the Net Interest Margin (NIM) Ratio of Commercial Banks in Bangladesh

Apart from the credit risk and quality of management, degree of risk aversion and opportunity cost of holding liquid reserve of banks followed by dora and ocbr respectively are also found statistically significant in explaining the variation of net interest margin ratio followed by nim being dependent variable to show the changes in net interest income of banks as per the output revealed by Fixed effect regression model. The degree of risk aversion measured by capital ratio calculated with dividing equity capital by total assets of bank is found positively related with net interest margin as banks increase the NIM to cover the higher cost of equity financing compared to debt financing. In addition, Opportunity cost of holding bank’s reserve measured by dividing cash due from other banks by total assets is found inversely related with net interest margin ratio as higher liquid reserve increases the opportunity cost for banks and thus reduces the profitability of banks measured by NIM. On the contrary, all other variables are found statistically insignificant in explaining the variation of net interest margin of bank. The overall R square value of 0.6047 divulges that 60.47% variability in net interest margin has been explained by the fitted regression model estimated by Fixed effect method. The F - value of 7.84 is also found statistically significant ### Bank Net Interest Margin Forecasting and Capital Adequacy Stress Testing by Machine Learning Techniques

The 2007-09 financial crisis revealed that the investors in the financial market were more con- cerned about the future as opposed to the current capital adequacies for banks. Stress testing promises to complement the regulatory capital adequacy regimes, which assess a bank’s current capital ad- equacy, with the ability to assess its future capital adequacy based on the projected asset-losses and incomes from the forecasting models from regulators and banks. The e ff ectiveness of stress-test rests on its ability to inform the financial market, which depends on whether or not the market has confi- dence in the model-projected asset-losses and incomes for banks. Post-crisis studies found that the stress-test results are uninformative and receive insignificant market reactions; others question its validity on the grounds of the poor forecast accuracies using linear regression models which fore- cast the banking-industry incomes measured by Aggregate Net Interest Margin. Instead, our study focuses on NIM forecasting at an individual bank’s level and employs both linear regression and non-linear Machine Learning techniques. First, we present both the linear and non-linear Machine Learning regression techniques used in our study. Then, based on out-of-sample tests and literature- recommended forecasting techniques, we compare the NIM forecast accuracies by 162 models based on 11 di ff erent regression techniques, finding that some Machine Learning techniques as well as some linear ones can achieve significantly higher accuracies than the random-walk benchmark, which in- validates the grounds used by the literature to challenge the validity of stress-test. Last, our results from forecast accuracy comparisons are either consistent with or complement those from existing forecasting literature. We believe that the paper is the first systematic study on forecasting bank- specific NIM by Machine Learning Techniques; also, it is a first systematic study on forecast accuracy comparison including both linear and non-linear Machine Learning techniques using financial data for a critical real-world problem; it is a multi-step forecasting example involving iterative forecast- ing, rolling-origins, recalibration with forecast accuracy measure being scale-independent; robust regression proved to be beneficial for forecasting in presence of outliers. It concludes with policy suggestions and future research directions. Keywords: Machine Learning; time series forecasting; forecast accuracy; bank capital; stress testing; net interest margin; systemic risk. ### Analysis of the Effect of Capital, Net Interest Margin, Credit Risk and Profitability in the Implementation of Banking Intermediation

The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the implementation of banking intermediation include Capital, Net Interest Margin, Credit Risk and Profitability. The methods used are descriptive and verificative, with secondary data from financial statements all over 26 Indonesian Regional Development Banks as a research object’s units. Data analysis technique is the multiple linear regression, hypothesis testing while using t - test to examine the effect of partial variables and test - F to examine the effect of variables simultaneously with a significance level of 5 %. Based on the results it is concluded that partial NIM and ROA have positive and significant effects on LDR. NPL has positive effect but no significant effect to LDR. While the CAR has negative effect but no significant effect to LDR. Simultaneously CAR, NIM, NPL and ROA significantly influence the level of influence of LDR with 40.5 % while the remaining 59.5% thought to be influenced by other variables not examined in this study. ### Factors Affecting the Net Interest Margin of Commercial Bank of Ethiopia

Abstract- This paper analyzes the factors affecting the commercial bank of Ethiopia’s (CBE’s) net interest margins during 2005 to 2014, a period characterized by increasing the bank’s net interest margin. The pooled ordinary multiple regression models are used to estimate the results without compromising the classical linear regression assumptions. In line with findings in the previous literature, this paper finds that capital adequacy (risk aversion), credit risk, operating costs, degree of competition (Lerner index) and deposit growth rate are the most important drivers of CBE’s net interest margins. Almost all variables in the model indicates a positive and highly significant association ship with net interest margins, and are found to be the most important bank specific factors that determine the net interest margin of the bank, CBE. The results of the study also suggests that high concentration led to lower competition, and thereby increase the net interest margins of banks, especially the dominant bank like CBE in case of Ethiopia. All in all, the results suggests that there has to be a measure to be taken by the sector to reduce the banks concentration ratio, operating costs, risk premium on credits, and increase the level of capital to offer competitive interest margins and fairly shared growth rates in deposits among others. In doing so, this paper conclude that further structural reforms and merger or consolidation enter alia may lower CBE’s net interest margins and share the market potentially fairly to other private banks operating in the industry. ### Influencing Factors of Net Interest Margin in Turkish Banking Sector

The aim of this paper is to define the influencing factors of net interest margin in Turkish banking sector. Within this scope, the effects of 14 explanatory variables on net interest margin were analyzed. Moreover, quarterly data for the period between 2003 and 2014 was used in this study. After that, we created a model by using multivariate adaptive regression splines method so as to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that net interest margin is negatively related with non-interest income, non-performing loans, total assets and exchange rates. According to these results, it was determined that banks should focus on the quality of the assets in order to increase net interest margin. In addition to this situation, volatility in exchange rates should also be taken into the consideration by the banks for this situation. ### Determinants of Bank Net Interest Margin: Case of Tunisia

Accordingly, the size –net interest margin relationship is expected to be non linear ( Ali et al. 2011). On the other hand, Naceur (2003) says that big banks tend to lower margins as a result of economies of scale. Besides, Ho and Saunders (1981), Maudos and Solos (2009) find a positive relationship because the larger the transaction, the larger the potential loss will be. Funcagova and Poghosyan (2009), Maudos and Fernando De Guevara (2004), Angbazo (1997), among others, report a negative association between bank size and interest margins, pointing to the cost reduction attributed to economies of scale. ### The Effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio, Loan to Deposit Ratio, Operating-Income Ratio, Non Performing Loans, Net Interest Margin on Banking Financial Performance

4 interest costs funding with the total cost of loan interest. In the banking world it is called Net Interest Margin. This ratio is used to measure the ability of bank management to manage productive assets to generate net interest income. Net interest income is derived from interest income less interest expense. This ratio shows the ability of banks to obtain operating income from funds placed in loans. The higher the NIM shows the more effective the bank is in placing productive assets in the form of credit. ### The Effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non Performing Loan (NPL), Operational Efficiency (BOPO), Net Interest Margin (NIM), and Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), on Return on Assets (ROA)

This study aimed to examine the effect of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non- Performing Loan (NPL), Operating Efficiency (BOPO), Net Interest Margin (NIM), and Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) on Return on Assets (ROA).The population used in this study was Private Foreign Exchange National Bank in Indonesia that listed on Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2013-2016. By using Purposive Sampling method, it could be obtained 44 samples of 15 banking companies which observed in 2013-2016. The analysis technique employed was Panel Data Regression. Research findings indicated that Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non-Performing Loan (NPL), Operational Efficiency (BOPO), Net Interest Margin (NIM), and Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) simultaneously had effect on Return on Assets (ROA). Then, partial test of each variables were CAR and LDR had not significant effect on ROA, while NPL, BOPO, and NIM have significant effect on ROA. ### Determinants of Net Interest Margin in Selected Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

Log of total asset as a measure of bank size has postive and singinficant effect on net interest margin at 1% as revealed in table 4 (cofficient 0.575930 and p value 0.0048). This indicates that a 1% increase in bank size will increase net interest marigin by 57.59 centsand vice versa. The standared error of bank size is highest than other variables (0.198476) which shows that the bank size of Ethiopian commercial banks is deviated according to their total assets and positive sign indicates that the banks realizing economies of scale have better net interest margin. This means banks can allocate fixed costs over a greater asset base, thereby reducing their average costs or reduce risk by diversifying operations across product lines, sectors, and regions to promote their profitability. The same result is found by Almarzoqi and Naceur (2015) 10 