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The Theory and Practice of Online Learning

The Theory and Practice of Online Learning

In the ideal case, this choice of LMS is based on the needs of the course, without worrying about costs, the availability of qualified staff, or any limitations to using existing systems. The real case, however, is often more complicated: one is either constrained to a single solution based on previous institutional or company decisions (which some would think of as ideal), or one’s choice is limited (as it should be) by practi- calities, such as the costs of adopting yet another proprietary LMS or the human resources needed and other implications of building or adapting an open-source LMS. Each new solution adds considerable pressure on back-end systems, especially services such as the technical helpdesk and training, and can have a negative impact on both the stu- dents’ and teacher’s experience having to adapt to each LMS. Lastly, there is a lock-in factor: the costs of changing systems is very high, mainly due to the organizational relearning required to switch, and although much effort is being made to develop standards for online learning that will better enable interoperability and reusability of online content, the promise has not yet been met (Friesen, 2004).
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Locus of control and online learning

Locus of control and online learning

It cannot be denied that the Internet should play an integral role in education. Its application was introduced in 1969 when a number of United States universities established the first electronic connections that initiated the net. Today, more and more learning takes place in an online environment (McFadzean, 2001a). Online learning is part of the biggest change in the way our species learn since the invention of the chalkboard or perhaps even the alphabet (Horton, 2000). Barriers of space and time have been removed by the development of computers and electronic communication media, and knowledge can be obtained and delivered anytime anywhere. John Chambers, CEO at Cisco, has prophesied that the net’s “next big killer application” will be education and that the scale of network traffic generated by online education will make today’s exchange of e-mail messages look like a rounding error (Worthington Smith, Rockey, Siebert & Hartley, 2001).
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Trends in the Design of E-Learning and Online Learning

Trends in the Design of E-Learning and Online Learning

“synthesize the theories, methods, and findings of both qualitative and quantitative” (Ke, 2009, p. 6) studies related to the design of e-learning and online learning. A qualitative meta-analysis “is an approach towards formulating a complete depiction of the subject” (Ke, 2009, p.6). As part of the analysis, literature was selected based on its relevance to design. Once selected, the studies were numbered, alphabetized and read. Each study was re-read and annotated, focusing specifically on the data, findings, conclusions and implications that related directly to e-learning and online course design considerations (Creswell, 2012). Components were identified from each study and then grouped into common subthemes. Notes were analyzed to identify common themes and findings and topics that occur and reoccur in the studies.
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A publication of The Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities. The Foundation of Online Learning for Students with Disabilities

A publication of The Center on Online Learning and Students with Disabilities. The Foundation of Online Learning for Students with Disabilities

(a) A text equivalent for every non- text element shall be provided (e.g., via “alt”, “longdesc”, or in element content). This means that every graphic, image, chart, map or other non-text element is provided with accompanying descriptive text—an es- sential accommodation for non-sighted stu- dents who may use a screenreader to navi- gate the product using spoken audio feedback. Similarly, criterion (b) requires synchronized equiv- alents—closed captions for video or other visually- oriented presentations in order to provide a non- sighted student with access that is equivalent to that of a sighted student (and simultaneously implies that simply providing a transcript of a video is not an acceptable equivalent). By providing a complete and accurate VPAT for instructional materials and delivery systems used in online learning a product vendor or developer can significantly aid the in- formed decision-making of their SEA or LEA-based customers. By requiring a VPAT from a vendor or instructional materials producer, LEA or SEA- based purchasers can document due diligence in their efforts to comply with existing civil rights and education law—a win/win scenario for all involved. besT PRaCTiCes vPaT examPles The open-source Canvas learning Management system by Instructure, the commercial LMS De- sire2Learn and BlackBoard 9.1 were awarded the nonvisual accessibility web certification by the National Federation of the Blind (NFB NVA certification). This designation focuses on a product’s compatibility with screenreader soft- ware commonly used by non-sighted individu- als, and emphasizes that certified products al- low person who are blind or have low-vision to: •Access information in narratives, databases, forms, charts, maps, and essential information conveyed via graphical presentations without visual assistance •Complete transactions that have been identi-
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Double Updating Online Learning

Double Updating Online Learning

Motivated by the above observations, we propose a new strategy for online learning that explic- itly addresses this problem. It is designed to dynamically tune the weights of support vectors in order to improve the classification performance. In some trials of online learning, besides assign- ing a weight to the misclassified example, the proposed online learning algorithm also updates the weight for one of the existing support vectors, referred to as auxiliary example. We refer to the proposed approach as Double Updating Online Learning (Zhao et al., 2009), or DUOL for short. The key challenge in the proposed online learning approach is to decide which existing support vector should be selected for updating weight. An intuitive choice is to select the existing support vector that “conflicts” with the new misclassified example, that is the existing support vector which on the one hand shares similar input pattern as the new example and on the other hand belongs to a class different from that of the new example. In order to quantitatively analyze the impact of updating the weight for such an existing support vector, we employ an analysis that is based on the work of online convex programming by incremental dual ascent (Shalev-Shwartz and Singer, 2006, 2007). Our analysis shows that under certain conditions, the proposed online learning algorithm can significantly reduce the mistake bound of the existing online algorithms. Besides binary classi- fication, we extend the double updating online learning algorithm to multi-class learning. Extensive experiments show promising performance of the proposed online learning algorithm compared to the state-of-the-art algorithms for online learning.
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Online learning: transcending the physical

Online learning: transcending the physical

The internet has increased the opportunity for flexible approaches to learning in the education environment. Many tertiary institutions have responded to these opportunities by offering online courses or moving into online learning as an adjunct to traditional modes of course provision. The increasing ease of access to internet technology and the creation of a number of learning management systems, such as WebCT and Blackboard, have led to internet components, such as bulletin boards or discussion forums, being often regarded as standard features in university courses. Educators use the discussion forums to promote interaction among course participants based on the belief that interaction is essential for effective learning (Collis, 1996). These assumptions are embedded in a constructivist educational perspective, a perspective that has increasing support in contemporary educational literature (Palloff & Pratt, 1999; Laurillard, 2002). Palloff and Pratt (1999, p. 15) claim that “in the online classroom, it is the relationships and interactions among people through which knowledge is primarily generated”.
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Online Learning

Online Learning

Successful learning requires that students be motivated to achieve the desired learning goals. The increasing popularity and number of online programs and course in higher education require continued attention to the design of instructional environments to enhance students‟ learning. However, not all students can develop an effective path that is beneficial to learning on their own. As there is a continuing debate about effective design of online learning environments and effective teaching methods. As handheld devices are becoming popular and widely used, educators could use them as a primary channel to deliver knowledge.
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Online Learning in Tensor Space

Online Learning in Tensor Space

In this paper, we reformulated the traditional lin- ear vector-space models as tensor-space models, and proposed an online learning algorithm named Tensor-MIRA. A tensor-space model is a com- pact representation of data, and via rank-1 ten- sor approximation, the weight tensor can be made highly structured hence the number of parame- ters to be trained is significantly reduced. This can be regarded as a form of model regular- ization.Therefore, compared with the traditional vector-space models, learning in the tensor space is very effective when a large feature set is defined, but only small amount of training data is available. Our experimental results corroborated this argu- ment.
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Online Learning on the Rise

Online Learning on the Rise

Once they are registered, new students must take a Macomb online tutorial that focuses on online learning aspects and management techniques and acquaints them with features of the system used by the college to electronically deliver courses. Sometimes, students need basics. Mott Community College in Flint found that some students weren't prepared with necessary computer skills and launched a prep class that covers "what every student needed to know at a minimum to be successful in an online course," said Cheryl Shelton, Mott's chief technology officer.

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How To Improve Online Learning

How To Improve Online Learning

College of Humanities and Social and Behavioral Studies - Asynchronous learning method was employed in this college which involves students communicating with team members or professors at a particular time. The use of discussion forum was very effective and useful for interactive discussions during teamwork. (CHSBS2, 2006). The assessment tools used are exams, group projects, individual projects, quizzes, research papers and assignment. Extensive use of email and web based discussion forum was the major communication ties between professors and students. (CHSBS1, 2006). The communication issue faced by students was due to delayed response between participants and connectivity problems experienced. A major aspect of the program involves interacting with people and development of communication skills this can’t be built effectively by online learning.
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Theory and Practice of Online Learning

Theory and Practice of Online Learning

The real situation, of course, is much less rational. Online learning initiatives often spring from the experimentation of an individual educator or a small group of educators and technologists who sometimes have no clear idea of what benefit (if any) the experiment will bring to the learning experience, but who are well intentioned nonetheless. The addition of a new functionality, new content, or a new tool sometimes does not add value and is ignored by students, but in other cases, a simple enhancement can reap great educational and other rewards for all concerned, and sometimes in unanticipated ways. The degree to which an organi- zation (department, faculty, company, or institution) wants to foster and allow experimentation, versus keeping tight control over a single online learning system, will be driven by its mission, mandate, core values, and financial resources. There are interesting case studies of how institutions have adopted various strategies, in- tentionally or not, along this centralization/decentralization spec- trum [see International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 1(2) (2001)]. The decision is a very important one, however, because it will determine how the online learning system is to be designed, developed, resourced, and governed.
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Authentic activities and online learning

Authentic activities and online learning

Abstract: There has been a renewed interest in the role of student activities within course units as constructivist philosophy and advances in technology impact on educational design and practice. This paper proposes ten characteristics of authentic activities, based on a substantial body of educational theory and research, which can assist teachers to design more authentic activities for online learning environments. The paper includes a short review of the literature, together with the list of characteristics attributed to appropriate authors and theorists. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the affordances of Internet technologies can facilitate the operationalisation of authentic activities in online courses of study.
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Online Learning: A Continuum of Opportunity

Online Learning: A Continuum of Opportunity

Professional development and teacher training should be a central part of any plan to implement online learning. As students are increasingly faced with a variety of new online learning options, teachers will need to expand their skills to take advantage of these tools. These skills will extend beyond technical knowledge and will involve new pedagogical approaches that challenge previous notions of student engagement, assessment, group interaction, and student/teacher dialogue. Professional development models that take advantage of the participatory cultures enabled by online networking and that ask teachers to experience online learning as students will best prepare teachers to facilitate online learning. Critical Questions
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Online learning: increasing learning opportunities

Online learning: increasing learning opportunities

http://ijaedu.ocerintjournals.org 187 universities must provide high quality education to win the attention of students. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a relatively recent online learning phenomenon. A MOOC is a free course delivered through the net to a large number of students and they were first introduced in 2008 by Dave Cormier [45]. The existing wave began in 2011 by the University of Stanford [46]. Over the last five years, many prestigious universities have introduced MOOCs (e.g., Harvard, Stanford, MIT, Berkeley), with many more investigating the feasibility of this mode of education [47]. MOOCs have received a considerable attention from the media and press coverage which might have altered perceptions of higher education subjects and other online offerings. According to a recent report released by Allen and Seaman [14], 2.6 percent of higher education institutions currently have a MOOC, while another 9.4 percent report MOOCs are in the planning stages. Through MOOCs, universities attempt to reach a wide and diverse range of learners who otherwise may not have the chance to set foot on a university or college or may not care about credits. Yuan and Powell [45] define two key features for MOOCs contrary to traditional university online courses: a) open and free access to education; and b) scalability (support for an indefinite number of participants).
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ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEM

ONLINE LEARNING SYSTEM

The Online Learning System provides you, as a Candidate, with the ability to complete the theory section of the Bronze Medallion/Certificate II in Public Safety or Surf Rescue Course at your own pace, in your own environment. The system can be accessed anywhere there is a computer with web access.

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Online Learning in Biology: An Investigation into Designing Online Learning Resources

Online Learning in Biology: An Investigation into Designing Online Learning Resources

The research study described in Chapter 3 aimed to examine the importance of feedback in online learning activities across novice and advanced students. Overall advanced students appeared to be able to use elaborative feedback more effectively than novice students, though this could also be a result of the complexity of the material in the activity. The second study looked at how updating the user interface of online simulations affected student understanding of two evolutionary models. The result of the analyses showed that students performed roughly the same after completing old versus updated simulations. However, additional studies looking at these specific activities will need to be done to determine if the trends discussed above hold true for other
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Online Learning App

Online Learning App

Abstract: Education is moving towards global openness and accessibility facilitated by new learning environments and tools based on technologies that have become key drivers in educational innovation. This is the general setting where MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses), the recent breakthrough in the field of education, are flourishing. Online Learning App is an android app that help you to Learn easily. I have developed an android app because Acc. To survey 50% of teenagers, access internet though mobile and android has 815 market shares of mobile market. In this you can learn technologies as well as discuss your doubts with your other mates. The user Register then login and explore the best video lectures as well as the help of his/her mates. I have used a Server for storing the details of users and also the whole data of chatting between users. This app helps us to fulfill our basic need as teaching- learning is ongoing process. It also helps parents by making single search they can find a technology to explore there. This app also helps the parents to monitor their ward’s progress. At last this app is all about helping today’s students towards the knowledge of different technologies and language
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Is there a template for online learning?

Is there a template for online learning?

We propose that templates need to be reconsidered and re-categorised based on their purpose. A template for crafting engaging online learning experiences needs to provide a framework for the thinking processes of those involved in the development and building of the course, as well as the thinking to be engaged by the learner. Further investigation of neuroeducational concepts underpinning student learning processes is needed. Refinement of the metacognitive process described by Zull (2011) as: random action → discovery → joy → intentional action → integration → images → symbol → forming memories → predicting → experiential change—is a pattern creating process. The human brain makes sense of life by finding patterns and order (G. Caine, Caine, & Crowell, 1999). It categorizes, finding similarities and differences and comparing and isolating features. In order to conduct this patterning activity, the human brain must have situations to test, to compare, and to resolve. “Learning is required when an entrenched pattern is challenged or disrupted and new answers are needed” (p. 30). Personal reflection based on practical experience is an important step in the metacognitive process, which enables the continuous reorganisation of information within the individual mind. The mysterious process of changing data (experience) into new knowledge is still unexplained (Norden, 2007; Zull, 2011). While we know the brain goes through a series of actions—experiencing, discovering, feeling, reasoning, and decision- making; we do not know precisely how it all comes together. Yet, we do know that the brain requires immersive experiences to build richly integrated neuronal networks. With further research we may be able to find strategies that assist faculty unfamiliar with learning design concepts to more easily move their focus from information packets to learning sequences.
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Large Scale Online Learning.

Large Scale Online Learning.

Online algorithms operate by repetitively drawing a fresh random example and adjusting the parameters on the basis of this single example only. Online algo- rithms can quickly process a large number of examples. On the other hand, they usually are not able to fully optimize the cost function defined on these examples. • Batch algorithms avoid this issue by completely optimizing the cost function de- fined on a set of training examples. On the other hand, such algorithms cannot process as many examples because they must iterate several times over the train- ing set to achieve the optimum.
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Collaboration Tools in Online Learning

Collaboration Tools in Online Learning

One of the oldest and most powerful collaboration tools is electronic mail or E-mail. "A broader range of activities is possible when many-to-many communication is tied to E-mail writing. For example, with a class bulletin board or E-mail discussion list, students can collaboratively work in pairs, small groups, or the whole class throughout the entire week. The asynchronous nature of E-mail makes it suitable for more complex writing and problem-solving tasks than could be accomplished via synchronous discussion in a class" [4]. E-mail is usually available in every OLE and most online students have one or more E-mail accounts. A disadvantage to E-mail is its lack of organization and the likelihood of information overload occurring when multiple topics or large groups are involved [6]. In spite of its limitations, E-mail is an excellent choice for communicating private information and short collaborative projects involving small group sizes.
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