particles. Initially is considered that each particle or physical body that is in the physical world has a representative Lat- tice in the **Paraquantum** world. From this consideration is made a study of the phenomena of **Paraquantum** Entangle- ment modeling the interaction between particles based in fundamental concepts of the **Paraquantum** **Logic**. The mathe- matical relationships of representative Lattices of the **Paraquantum** **Logic** originate models with values that are identi- fied with some physical constants. In this work these **paraquantum** values are identified with the Universal constant of Gravity, proposed by Newton, and the constant K, that relates the Interaction Force in charged particles in the Cou- lomb’s Law. The results showed that the **Paraquantum** Logical Model elaborated starting from the fundamental con- cepts of the **Paraquantum** **Logic** (P QL ) is adequate to support theories based in a **Paraquantum** Universe built by an infi-

15 Read more

Under certain conditions the results obtained from the LPA2v model changed through leaps or unexpected va- riations [5]. With that it is verified that the application of its foundations presents results strongly connected to the ones found in modeling of phenomena studied in quan- tum mechanics (see [5-7]). Because of this behavior, with fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Anno- tated **Logic** with annotation of two values (PAL2v), was created the **Paraquantum** **Logic** (P QL ). Through the para-

15 Read more

The analysis of the spectrum of radiation of the atom through the **Paraquantum** **Logic** shows a constant nu- meric value obtained by the relationship among the va- lues of the layers of the Lattice. Due to being a constant value that appears in the structure of the **Paraquantum** Universe it will be denominated of “**Paraquantum** Struc- ture Constant”, whose symbol will be α ψ .

22 Read more

several conditions to make a comparative study of the Hydrogen atom using Bohr’s model. This study can be made directly with the energy levels of the **Paraquantum** correlation states through the equation that deals with quantities. So, each time that there is an increase of En- ergy defined by the **Paraquantum** Factor of Quantization h ψ , there will be two transitions of the electron that will

22 Read more

From Equation (55) we can consider that the paraq- uantum Planck’s constant multiplied by the frequency of the Observable Variable is a fraction of the quantization of the Inertial or Irradiant Energy of the Fundamental **Paraquantum** Logical Model. So, for the **Paraquantum** Logical Model we can express this fraction or quantize- tion of the Inertial or Irradiant Energy, such as:

17 Read more

**Paraquantum**/Relativistic Energy with adjustments that allowed calculating values similar to those of Dark Energy and Dark Matter observed recently. It turns out that the equation for the relativistic Energy presented in this work is unifying, because it can be used in calculations in the Newtonian universe and also in the Relativis- tic universe. Results demonstrate that the application of **Paraquantum** **Logic** demonstrates a great efficiency to answer questions related to Dark Energy and Dark Matter. The expansion of the **Paraquantum**/Relativistic Ener- gy Equation presented in this work shows that there are intrinsic parts in future works that may lead to elucida- tion of other constants and physical quantities, such as gravitation and cosmological constant.

16 Read more

In this paper, we present an equationing method based on non-classical logics applied to resolution of problems which involves phenomena of physical science. A non-classical **logic** denominated of the **Paraquantum** **Logic** (PQL), which is based on the fundamental concepts of the Paraconsistent Annotated **logic** with annotation of two values (PAL2v), is used. The formalizations of the PQL concepts, which are represented by a lattice with four vertices, lead us to consider **Paraquantum** logical states ψ which are propagated by means of variations of the evidence Degrees extracted from measurements performed on the Observable Variables of the physical world. The studies on the lattice of PQL give us equations that quantify values of physical largenesses from where we obtain the effects of the propagation of the **Paraquantum** logical states ψ. The PQL lattice with such features can be extensively studied and we obtain a Paraquan- tum Logical Model with the capacity of contraction or expansion which can represent any physical universe. In this paper the **Paraquantum** Logical Model is applied to the Newton Laws where we obtain equations and verify the action of an expansion factor the PQL lattice called **Paraquantum** Gamma Factor γ Pψ and its correlation with another important

22 Read more

In Section 2, we present the fundamental principles of paraconsistent annotated **logic** with annotation of two values (PAL2v) for applications in physical phenomena, called **paraquantum** **logic** (PQL), from which a **logic** model is derived. In Section 3, we show the study and interpretation of Young’s experience and the relation of equations on the phenomena of wave interferences. As a result, we obtain equations of PQL evidence degree and a **paraquantum** logical model for quantum. In Section 4, we study the quantum **paraquantum** logical model in one spatial dimension using quantum me- chanics concepts. In Section 5, we elaborate conclusions about the obtained model. In Part II, we test this model in relation to Schrödinger’s equation values and compare values using both probability theory and Bonferroni inequality.

38 Read more

In this paper we use a non-classical **logic** called **ParaQuantum** **Logic** (PQL) which is based on the founda- tions of the Paraconsistent Annotated **logic** with annotation of two values (PAL2v). The formalizations of the PQL concepts, which is represented by a lattice with four vertices, leads us to consider **Paraquantum** logical states ψ which are propagated by means of variations of the evidence Degrees extracted from measurements performed on the Observable Variables of the physical world. In this work we introduce the **Paraquantum** Gamma Factor γ Pψ which is an expansion factor on the PQL lattice that act in the physical world and is cor-

15 Read more

based on uncertain or contradictory information [9,10]. In these applications of the PAL2v there was the need of some restrictions on the algorithms because in certain conditions the model presented values which were gen- erated through jumps or unexpected variations. Results of more recent research showed us that the restrictions were imposed on the PAL2v because it has features in its basic structure such that the results obtained can be iden- tified with phenomena watched in the study of quantum mechanics [11-14]. In this paper these special features of the PAL2v are studied in the form of variations of values from the concepts of the **Paraquantum** **logic** P QL where

13 Read more

Static CMOS performs much better than pass-transistor **logic** styles if low power is of concerned. Pass-transistor **logic** has proved to be an attractive alternative to static CMOS design with respect to area, performance and power consumption. Among all pass-transistor **logic** styles considered 2T multiplexer is having few transistor counts. The advantage of having the same functionality with very few transistors and of small input capacitance in 2T pass- transistor **logic** will be beneficial in multiplexer realization for decoders. The pass transistor has loss of **logic** level but can be compensated by using buffers at intermediate places in decoder stages. Thus 2T multiplexer is suitable for multiplexer-based decoder implementation which is characterized by high speed with minimum power compared with all other realizations. As shown in table 1 , it occupies less area and consumes less power. The comparison chart is shown in fig. 8

in different ways: they observe, or infer by themselves, and often also, they ask someone else. Traditional philosophical logics describe part of this behaviour, the ‘static’ properties produced by such actions: in particular, agents’ knowledge and belief at some given moment. But rational human activity is goal-driven, and hence we also need to describe agents’ evaluation of different states of the world, or of outcomes of their actions. Here is where preference **logic** have come to describe what agents prefer, while current dynamic logics describe effects of their physical actions. In the limit, all these things have to come together in understanding even such a simple scenario as a game, where we need to look at what players want, what they can observe and guess, and which moves and long-term strategies are available to them in order to achieve their goals. Logical dynamics of information and belief There are two dual aspects to this situation.

32 Read more

In complementary CMOS **logic** design using gates are designed from a pull-down NMOS and a dual pull-up PMOS **logic** structure. By using both the **logic** structures, many types of **logic** functions can be realized and it can be achieved by connecting the output of the gate with the power lines. The major merits of CMOS circuit are it is robust in nature against the transistor space and scaling of voltage with more noise margin. It provides very reliable function at very less voltage with minimum transistor size. The layout of CMOS is simple and efficient for its non- complementary pairs of transistors. The major drawback in CMOS is its high input loads as there is huge number of PMOS transistors are used [8]. Other disadvantage is the weak output driven ability where delay increases due to connection of series of transistors at the output section [9]. 2.1 CMOS 4-bit Adder Cell

1236 | P a g e Performance degraded in a domino circuit is due to propagation of pre-charge pulse from dynamic node to the output node. The Pseudo Domino Buffer based design for domino **logic** compensates this problem up to some extent [12]. In the Footed Diode Domino **logic** an NMOS transistor which is working as a diode in between GND and M2 clock transistor [13]. This transistor reduces the discharging time furthermore which in turn reduces the delay. Fig2.4a shows a generalised CMOS footed diode domino **logic** and multiplexer using the same **logic**.

Note, however, that this shared structure does not eliminate the difference between the two sides. The reason why is that the external quantum becomes qualitative when we render explicit the implicit qualitative difference between it and its specifying counterpart. As Hegel puts it, it is “this difference between them” that is posited in the “immediacy of being” (SL 339 / LS 378-379). So, although the external quantum does, indeed, become qualitative, like its counterpart, it does so as it becomes explicitly different qualitatively from the latter. The two sides in the new logical structure must, therefore, have their own distinctive qualities, and the quantum that each is must be the specific quantum of that quality. It is, of course, possible, as a matter of fact, to encounter two related things with the same specific quantum and same quality, such as two equal amounts of water; but such a relation between things is not what is made necessary at this point by the **logic** of measure. What is made necessary here is a relation between two things, each of which has its specific quantum and the

27 Read more

Wave pipelining is a very efficient way to design high-throughput RCA, but it requires accurate delay control. Hence, CMOS normal process complementary pass transistor **logic** (NPCPL) has been used in place of static CMOS **logic** which suffers delay variation depending on input combinations. The most important advantage of using NPCPL is that all kinds of gates can be implemented with the same basic structure, hence the delays of all kinds of gates can be kept the same. However, conventional NPCPL has two major problems for high speed wave pipelined design. One is the insufficient driving capability, and the other is the unbalanced loading.

An array multiplier is very regular in structure as shown in figure 4. It uses short wires that go from one full adder to adjacent full adders horizontally, vertically or diagonally [13]. An n × n array of AND gates can compute all the i i a b terms simultaneously. The terms are summed by an array of „n [n - 2]‟ full adders and „n‟ half adders. The shifting of partial products for their proper alignment is performed by simple routing and does not require any **logic**. The number of rows in array multiplier denotes length of the multiplier and width of each row denotes width of multiplicand. The output of each row of adders acts as input to the next row of adders. Each row of full adders or 3:2 compressors adds a partial product to the partial sum, generating a new partial sum and a sequence of carries.

Flood is the most frequent disaster that occurs in Malaysia. This type of disaster causes a lot of damage in term of property and life. In the response to this harmful disaster, the flood detection and protection system is designed. The system consists of warning and protection system. When flood occurs, the water lever sensors sense the water level and send the information to Programmable **Logic** Controller (PLC) as input variable. PLC as a main control board that control each parts of the flood detection and protection system. Information from water level sensors is processed by PLC and send command signal to the actuator to open the water gate. If flood level continuously increase and reaches level two and level three, the PLC will activate the siren and mobile phone. Where, in this project the mobile phone only has a function for making a dialing. The experimental results show that the flood detection and protection system success to open the water pump and active the siren and mobile phone as soon as the flood level increase.

24 Read more

In this paper, we have designed an 8-bit ripple carry adder using different **logic** styles such as pass transistor **logic**, mux- based **logic**, and 2T **logic**. An 8-bit ripple carry adder can be built by using eight 1-bit full adders. The Ripple carry adder creates a **logic** circuit using multiple full adders to add N-bit numbers.

When the control input is a **logic** zero (negative power supply potential), the gate of the n-channel MOSFET is also at a negative supply voltage potential. The gate terminal of the p-channel MOSFET is caused by the inverter, to the positive supply voltage potential. Regardless of on which switching terminal of the transmission gate (A or B) a voltage is applied (within the permissible range), the gate-source voltage of the n- channel MOSFETs is always negative, and the p-channel MOSFETs is always positive.Accordingly,neither of the two transistors will conduct and the transmission gate turns off.