With the exception of some of the lighter compounds that volatilize from water or soil, PAHs are relatively non- volatile and of low solubility in water. In the atmosphere, they are mostly found adsorbed to particulate matter that can be removed by wet or dry deposition onto the surface of water bodies, soil, plant surfaces and impervious surfaces. Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons released to soil will adsorb to particulate matter where they will be slowly degraded by microbial activity or transported by surface runoff. In aquatic systems, PAHs generally adsorb to suspended matter or sediments, where they tend to persist.
POLICIKLIČNIH AROMATIČNIH UGLJOVODONIKA
Policiklični aromatični ugljovodonici (polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons - PAHs) spadaju u grupu jedinjenja koja predstavljaju veoma opasne zagadjivače životne sredine zbog svojih mutagenih, kancerogenih i toksičnih efekata na živi svet. Cilj ovog rada bio je da se ispita i uporedi sposobnost i efikasnost bakterijskih izolata dobijenih iz oblasti zagađenih naftim derivatima u razgradnji PAHs. Bakterijski potencijal za biološku razgradnju različitih aro- matičnih ugljovodonika određen je pomoću 2,6-dihlorofenol-indofenol testa. Biodegra- dacija PAHs analizirana je gravimetrijskom i gasno-hromatografskom tehnikom. Od osam bakterijskih izolata selektovana su dva izolata, identifikovana na osnovu 16S rDNK kao Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 i Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, koji imaju sposobnost da rastu i iskorišćavaju skoro sve testirane ugljovodonične supstrate. Selektovani bakterijski izolati korišćeni su za biodegradaciju fenantrena i pirena, kao pojedinačnih supstrata, ali i kao smeše, deset dana u in vitro uslovima. Nako tri dana od početka eksperimenta, oba bak- terijska soja razgrađuju značajnu količinu fenantrena, koji ima jednostavniju hemijsku strukturu od pirena. Planomicrobium sp.RNP01 započinje biodegradaciju pirena u smeši tek nakon što je skoro u potpunosti razgradio fenantren. Izolovani i okarakterisani bak- terijski sojevi, Planomicrobium sp. RNP01 i Rhodococcus sp. RNP05, pokazali su visok bioremedijacioni potencijal i mogu biti kandidati za razgradnju veoma toksičnih PAHs na zagađenim područjima.
ABSTRACT. Three different uptake studies, including one water-only exposure and two sediment exposures, were conducted using a freshwater mussel, Elliptio complanata, to determine bioconcentration factors (BCF) for 45 individual polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAH). Comparison of BCF values across water vs. sediment exposures suggested no difference in PAH bioconcentration patterns. BCF values were used to calculate steady-state bioconcentration regression equations which were compared to other regression equations in the literature and demonstrated no major differences between freshwater and marine bivalve species. However, regression equations did exhibit sensitivity to alterations in dissolved and particulate organic carbon-water
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
Environment in India is contaminated with polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) due to oc- curring of large anthropogenic activities i.e. fuel combustion, mineral roasting and biomass burn- ing. Hence, contamination of 13 toxic PAHs: phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz (a) anthracene, ben-zo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, benzo (ghi) perylene, dibenz (ah) anthracene, indeno1,2,3-(cd) pyrene, coronene and coronene in the envi- ronment (i.e. ambient particulate matter, road dust, sludge and sewage) of the most industrialized area: Raipur city, India is described. The ∑ PAH 13 concentration in the 16 environment materials was ranged from 7980 - 1,051,300 µg/kg with mean value of 172,613 ± 154,726 µg/kg. The con- centration variations, toxicities and sources of the PAHs in various environmental compartments are discussed.
Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of environmental contaminants that emanate from incomplete combustion of fuel or high temperature pyrolysis of fats and oils. It is well known that PAHs occur in curing smoke and that they accumulate on meat products being smoked . They have been extensively researched into because of their carcinogenicity and mutagenicity to animals . In 2001, PAHs ranked 9th on the list of most threatening compounds to human health .
1 Department of Environment Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh, (India)
2 Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh, (India)
Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a group of persisting and prevalent environmental pollutants that are harmful to the environment and humans due to their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. The emission of PAHs into the environment has increased with the increase in demand for petroleum products. The incomplete combustion of organic products such as coal, fuel oil, fire wood etc. remains an important contributor to emission of PAHs; the other sources being forest fires, motor vehicles, volcanoes, refineries and many more. Degradation of PAHs with chemical, photooxidative and biodegradative methods helps to reduce their harmful effects on the environment. Relevant literature has reported biodegradation to be the most cost-effective and environment-friendly method. This review presents the current information regarding the sources, bioaccumulation, health hazards and degradation techniques of PAHs.
ABSTRACT: Biodegradation of polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons, toxic compounds widely distributed in the environment by bacteria, is a cheap and safe cleaning up method. The present study attempts to isolate and characterize dioxygenase-producing bacteria which are able to degrade phenanthrene and pyrene from refinery soils. It also aims to assess in vitro biodegradation. To do so, two contaminated soil samples were collected from Isfahan-Iran refinery. The population of phenanthrene and pyrene degrading bacteria were 2.17 × 10 3 and 1.19 × 10 3 CFU/g in sample 1 and 21.50 × 10 3 and 19.40 × 10 3 CFU/g in sample 2. A sum of 18 phenanthrene and pyrene degrading bacteria were isolated using enrichment culture technique, three of them getting selected which had dioxygenase activity and produced biosurfactant. Identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida ATAI18, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATAI19, and Pseudomonas stutzeri ATAI21, they were submitted to GenBank under the accession number of KF113842, KF113843, and KF113845 respectively. The degradation rate of pyrene (50 mg/L) by strains ATAI18 and ATAI19 was 45.32% and 31.23%, respectively. The strain ATAI21 degraded 39.38% of phenanthrene (50 mg/L) after 9 days. These isolated bacteria can be used to improve microbial population of other hydrocarbon- polluted soils for faster bioremediation of such areas.
Over the past decade, polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) have steadily climbed in importance on the CERCLA list of hazardous substances. Though the listing does not necessarily imply that these chemicals exhibit the greatest degree of toxicity, such recognition by ATSDR and USEPA is predicated at least in part on their overwhelming ubiquity in association with many very common sources, coupled with toxicity considerations. Regulatory agencies increasingly are under pressure to define and interpret data describing urban background levels, and to appropriately determine the relative importance of waste-producing activities and concentrations resulting from typical natural and/or human activity. Three case studies from Florida are presented that confirm the ubiquity of the PAHs at low levels, and that demonstrate the need for more sophisticated and transparent treatment by regulatory agencies. We discuss assessment and risk assessment activities related to two urban redevelopment projects, as well as one property transaction project. In each case, considerable sampling of surficial soils and sediment identified total benzo(a)pyrene-equivalent concentrations in the range of less than one ppm to about 5 ppm. Although those concentrations frequently exceeded the default Florida cleanup target level for both residential and commercial/industrial land use by a wide margin, it was concluded that they are completely consistent with levels reported in a great many urban settings. There is an ongoing need to consider the development of a default urban background level for PAHs in areas characterized by busy roadways or multiple industrial facilities, in much the same way that geological or anthropogenic background levels are established for some inorganics.
REQUIMTE-LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Porto, Portugal
ABSTRACT: This study collected the personal PM 2.5 air fraction in fifteen healthy and no-smoking firefighters during their normal shift inside four Portuguese fire stations. Indoor PM 2.5 levels varied between 0.05 to 1.04 μg/m 3 . PolycyclicAromaticHydrocarbons (PAHs) are known for their ubiquity and toxicity, being some of them classified as carcinogenic and possible carcinogens to humans. Firefighters’
Epidemiological data suggests that there is a potential relationship between PolycyclicAromaticHydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations near major roadways and some health related diseases. This project focuses on measuring PAHs near a major roadway, Interstate 40, just east of Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. One hundred seven samples were collected on 20 sampling days over a 2 month period; September 5 – November 6, 2014. The integrated 8-hour samples were collected by low flow (16.7
89. Dennis MJ, Massey RC, Mcweeny DJ, Knowles ME, Watson D. Analysis of polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons in uk total diets. Food Chem Toxicol. 1983; 21: 569 – 574.
90. Kobayashi R, Okamoto RA, Maddalena RL, Kado NY. Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons in edible grain: A pilot study of agricultural crops as a human exposure pathway for environmental contaminants using wheat as a model crop. Environ Res. 2008; 107: 145 – 151. 91. Ignesti G, Lodovici M, Dolara P, Lucia P, Grechi D. Polycyclic aro-
Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) are usually de R ned as a group of chemicals with two or more fused benzenoid rings. If elements other than carbon and hydrogen are present, the term polycyclic aro- matic compounds (PAC) is used. PAHs are natural constituents of crude oil and many other petrochemi- cal products and they are also formed by the incom- plete combustion of organic matter. Therefore, they enter the environment from a wide variety of sources such as automobile emissions, industrial processes, waste incineration facilities, domestic heating systems and natural events such as forest R res and volcanic eruptions.
Several analytical techniques have been developed and applied for identification and quantification of polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) present in different samples. These analytical techniques include gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detectior (GC/FID), gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet or fluorescence detector, and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with fluorescence detection. Since sensitive analytical techniques were essential in the determination of the presence and levels of these toxic compounds, some aspects of standard preparation and suitable instrumental condition for quantification of the sixteen PAHs listed by the U.S. environmental protection agency (EPA) have been reviewed in this article. The quantification performance of each technique has been comparable for different samples matrix.
= high resolution mass spectrometry; IcP = indeno[1,2,3-cd]py- rene; PAH = polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons; SEC = size ex- clusion chromatography.
Abstract: Benzo[a]anthracene (BaA), chrysene (CHR), cyclo- penta[c,d]pyrene (CPP), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), benzo[b]flu- ACHTUNGTRENNUNGoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF), benzo[j]flu- ACHTUNGTRENNUNGoranthene (BjF), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), dibenzo[a,h]anthraACHTUNGTRENNUNGcene (DhA), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DlP), dibenzo[a,e] ACHTUNGTRENNUNGpyrene (DeP), diben- zo[a,i]pyrene (DiP) and dibenzo[a,h]pyrene (DhP), the 15 SCF- PAH, assessed to be relevant as well as benzo[c]fluorene (BcL) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), were analysed in different types of chocolate. The sample pre- paration included accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), size ex- clusion chromatography (SEC) and solid phase chromatography using small silica gel columns. The individual PAH were separated by gas chromatography using a VF-17ms GC column and dete- cted by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The in- vestigation of 40 samples of various types of chocolate with different cocoa contents resulted in a median benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content of 0.22 mg/kg. Furthermore, the results showed a linear correlation between the content of BaP and the sum content of the 16 priority PAH. Therefore, the analysis of BaP as a
Background: Petrochemical industry is one of the fastest growing industries. This industry has immense importance in the growth of economy and manufacture of large varieties of chemicals. The petrochemical industry is a hazard- ous group of industry generating hazardous waste containing organic and inorganic compounds. In spite of the present treatment process, the hazardous waste compounds are found untreated to the acceptable level and found discharged at soil–water environment resulting into the persistent organic–inorganic pollutant into the environment. The bioremediation will be the innovative techniques to remove the persistent pollutants in the environment. Result: Petrochemical contaminated site was found to be a rich source of microbial consortium degrading polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons. Indigenous microbial consortiums were identified and used for bioremediation of polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (naphthalene and anthracene) at the concentrations of 250, 500, and 750 ppm. The potential microorganism was also identified for naphthalene and anthracene, and their bioremediation was studied at varying concentrations. The bioremediation with consortium was found to be comparatively more effective than the poten- tial microorganism used for bioremediation of each compound. Pseudomonas aeruginosa a potential organism was identified by 16S rRNA and further studied for the gene responsible for the PAH compounds.
Keywords: immobilized laccase; polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs);
soil remediation; nylon net; chitosan.
Polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAHs) are hydrocarbons that contain more than two benzene rings, 1 including over 150 kinds of compounds, such as naph- thalene, anthracene, phenanthrene and pyrene. They are considered toxic chem- icals that are mainly formed during the incomplete combustion of coal, crude oil, gas, or other organic substances. Numerous studies 2,3 have shown that most of the low molecular weight PAHs have one, two, or three aromatic rings, and they are acutely toxic. Most of the high molecular weight PAHs have more than three aromatic rings, which are highly mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic to
Sixteen polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) samples collected at an urban and industrial cum residential site in Agra (India) from December 2005 to December 2006. The average total PAH concentration was found to be 115 ± 17 ng m -3 . The mea- sured concentrations were found to be lower than those reported from other cities in India like Chennai, Delhi, Kanpur, Mumbai and Kolkata. The mass distribution in air was dominated by high molecular weight compounds. PAH concentration showed a significant seasonal cycle during the year with greater concentra- tion during the cold months due to changes in emission sources and meteorological factors. The presence of specific tracers and calculation of characteristic molecular diagnostic ratios revealed vehicular exhausts and emissions from coal and biofuel combustion as the major sources of these compounds.
open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution provided the original work is properly cited.
The extensive use of fossil fuel based products in our modern production of chemicals has resulted contamination of soils with polycyclicaromatichydrocarbons that have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.