Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB)

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Inhibition effect of polyvinyl butyral on crystallization of polypropylene

Inhibition effect of polyvinyl butyral on crystallization of polypropylene

PP has been commonly modified by the incorpora- tion of rubbers [10], thermoplastic polymers [7, 11], block copolymers [8, 12], thermosetting resins [13], nanoparticles [6, 13], organic and inorganic fillers [14], fibers [15] and polymerization of in-reactor iPP catalloy [15], etc. The modifications can notably im- prove the performance of PP, such as ductility and impact resistance. Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) is an envi- ronment-friendly multi-functional polymer, which is synthesized by the reaction of n-butyl aldehyde with poly(vinyl alcohol) in the presence of acid catalyst [16] and is considered as an excellent component for blends. PVB contains three functional groups: buty- ral, alcoholic hydroxyl and acetate groups, which can provide strong adhesion. Since PVB has a long side chain, it possesses a good molecule flexibility, and low glass transition temperature. The molecular struc- ture of PVB determines its overall performance with a high tensile strength, excellent impact resistance, great adhesive property, resilience and transparency, as well as good film-forming properties [17,18]. Since PVB contains both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts in its structure, it can be compatible/miscible with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers. By vir- tue of its outstanding merits as described above, it is widely used in laminated glass, surface coatings and primers, adhesives and binders, as well as printing inks and toners [19,20].

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Polyvinyl Butyral-Based Thin Film Polymeric Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Long-Term Stability

Polyvinyl Butyral-Based Thin Film Polymeric Electrolyte for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Long-Term Stability

The most important reason why we chose polyvinyl butyral (PVB) as the host polymer is that PVB has been used in laminated safety glass for over 60 years due to its high stability against sunlight, without degradation in its transparency or adhesion to glass. The implementation of an ionically conductive PVB film as a solid-state electrolyte film for electrochromic devices (ECDs) have been reported [23]. Thus, it is believed that PVB-SPE may provide a way to link DSSC devices with ECD energy-saving smart windows in the architecture and automotive sectors in the future.

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The Influences of Varied Processing Techniques on the Performance of Polyvinyl Butyral and High Reliability of Polyvinyl Butyral Based Glass Glass Modules

The Influences of Varied Processing Techniques on the Performance of Polyvinyl Butyral and High Reliability of Polyvinyl Butyral Based Glass Glass Modules

Recently, the adoption of glass in replacement of polymeric material as the backsheet of a module has been widely investigated [6,7]. Glass–glass modules are initially the common selection for building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), in which polyvinyl butyral (PVB) is used as the interlayer for safety and security purposes [8]. Currently, the glass-glass module has also been applied in a noticeable scale in PV power plant due to its high reliability [9,10]. For the power plant use, several encapsulant materials, including polyethyl acetate (EVA), polyolefin (POE) and PVB can be applied for the glass-glass module encapsulation. Each material has its own advantages and PVB shows superior performance in mechanical, secure and weather-resistant performance. However, the ultimate performance of the material and product are often affected by the processing technology [11,12].

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Effect of Electrode Potential on the Drag Force on Gold and Polyvinyl Butyral Surfaces in a Flowing Aqueous Fluoride Solution

Effect of Electrode Potential on the Drag Force on Gold and Polyvinyl Butyral Surfaces in a Flowing Aqueous Fluoride Solution

From the quartz resonator data on solution properties, it is reasonable to conclude that the reduction in drag force is due primarily to a decrease in interfacial viscosity caused by the applied potential. Switching from a gold to a PVB surface shifts the drag force minimum toward more positive potentials, which is also the case for the interfacial viscosity. Moreover, at a PVB surface, the minimum value of the product of viscosity and density is observed at +330 mV (Fig. 5), which corresponds to the minimum drag force on a PVB-coated sphere [Fig. 2(a)]. At a gold surface, the difference in the positions of the minima [Figs. 1(a) and 3] is probably due to the different structures of the vacuum-deposited (resonator) and electrodeposited (steel ball) gold layers. An electrodeposited gold layer is usually characterized by some degree of porosity and may contain inclusions from the plating solution, which will affect the surface charge and the double-layer capacitance. These electrode properties can have a crucial impact on the viscosity of the solution layer adjacent to the electrode surface [2, 3]. This explanation is in accord with the fact that the position of the minimum coincides with that for a PVB-coated surface [cf. Figs. 2(a) and 5]. The agreement between the positions of the minima is to be expected, since the surfaces of the PVB coatings in the two cases should not differ to any great extent, both having been obtained from the same PVB solution.

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Preparation and Characterization of  Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers  Containing Silver Nanoparticles

Preparation and Characterization of Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

In both cases of tested microorganisms, number of bacteria recovered from the inoculated nanofiber mem- brane with the nanoparticles in the test tube after 4 hours was reduced. However, the reductions of tested micro- organisms R were different and depended on the amount of nanoparticles in nanofiber membranes. It was ob- served that productivity of 10 wt% PVB solution is higher than 6 which causes higher amount of material. It seems that by using 10 wt% PVB, productivity improved and amount of NPs per cm 2 was increased. It is visible from SEM image that the surface fiber structure of 10 wt% PVB is smoother than 6 wt% PVB nanofibers. We may, therefore, suggest that antibacterial activity of Ag-NPs against E. coli is related to different membrane layer thickness and structure.

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Optical and Mechanical Properties of Highly Transparent Glass-Flake Composites

Optical and Mechanical Properties of Highly Transparent Glass-Flake Composites

Abstract: In this paper, the dynamic mechanic and optical properties of composites made of Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) and Micro Glass Flakes (MGF) with matching refractive indices (RIs) are investigated. The composite is produced by a slurry-based process using additional blade casting and lamination. It can be shown that a high degree of ordering of the MGF in the polymer matrix can be achieved with this method. This ordering, combined with the platelet-like structure of the MGF, leads to very efficient strengthening of the PVB with increasing content of the MGF. By carefully adjusting the RIs of the polymer, it is shown that haze is reduced to below 2%, which has not been achieved with irregular fillers or glass fibers.

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The Effect of Glass Plate Thickness and Type and Thickness of the Bonding Interlayer on the Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass

The Effect of Glass Plate Thickness and Type and Thickness of the Bonding Interlayer on the Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass

In this work the effect of the type of the bonding interlayer (polyvinyl butyral (PVB) or Ethyl Vinyl Acetate (EVA)), number of bonding layers, and the position and the thickness of the Glass plates on the maximum load capacity and absorbed energy by laminated glass. Furthermore, this investigation presents a mathematical model that relates the maximum force capacity of the glass laminated structure to the glass plate thickness, type and thickness of the interlay- er regardless the position of the fixed glass plate. Both practical work results and the theoretical model indicate that the maximum load capacity of laminated glass bonded with either PVB or EVA decreases as the interlayer thickness in- creases. Moreover, the maximum load capacity for the glasses bonded with EVA is greater than those for the PVB bonded ones under the same conditions. On the other hand, it was observed that that laminated glass absorbed energy increases with the increase of the interlayer thickness and the increase of glass plate thickness.

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The Dynamic Effect of PVB Interlayer Thickness on Laminated Glass Window

The Dynamic Effect of PVB Interlayer Thickness on Laminated Glass Window

Laminated glass (LG) is widely used as windows in architectural applications and windshields in automotive industry. LG consists of two or more layers of glass plies adhered by a interlayer made of polyvinyl butyral (PVB). Two soda-lime glass plies are separated by an adhesive polymer that prevents the glass plies from shattering on impact thereby greatly reducing the possibility of injury caused by sharp pieces of flying glass. However, unlike the monolithic glass (MG) that fails in a brittle manner, LG can reduce the number of dangerous flying fragments as many fragments will be adhered by the PVB layer. Hence, the risk of injuries of people can be significantly reduced. The main purposes of the PVB interlayer are to provide absorption to the impact energy and adhesion to the two glass plies. At the same time, the PVB interlayer can act as a barrier avoiding penetration. Another advantage of LG is that it is possible to reduce the weight of the glass of the same total thickness. Despite of their

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Provitamin D Doped Silica and Polymeric Films: New Materials for UV Biosensor

Provitamin D Doped Silica and Polymeric Films: New Materials for UV Biosensor

nificantly affects its absorption spectrum (that differs from well-known stability of 7-DHC spectrum in differ- ent solvents [14]), only in polyvinyl butyral film the 7-DHC absorption spectrum more closely resembles the spectrum in ethanol. The spectra in silica porous and PVA films are red shifted (2 nm), and the redistribution of the vibronic bands intensity slightly observed in silica film significantly increases in PVA film indicating heavy influence by the properties of the adjacent surrounding media [15].

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COMPARATIVE EVALUATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PVB, EVA, AND SG INTER LAYERED LAMINATED GLASS HARDNESS

COMPARATIVE EVALUATION AND REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF PVB, EVA, AND SG INTER LAYERED LAMINATED GLASS HARDNESS

Hardness is one of the significant mechanical property of materials. For glasses used in architectural, automotive safety, and decorative applications, hardness (resistance to scratches, and indentation) also plays a vital role. The present work includes measurement of hardness of laminated glasses (LG) with different interlayer (Polyvinyl butyral (PVB), Ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA) and sanitary glass) and their different critical thicknesses (0.38, 0.76, 1.52 mm). Hardness is tested using Rockwell hardness test and Mohr’s hardness test. It is found that hardness of PVB reduces with increase in inter layer thickness. Similar trend is also observed for EVA and SG inter layered LG. The highest hardness is obtained for SG inter layered LG which is found to be near the hardness of monolithic glass. The effect of inter layer type and inter layer thickness on hardness is clearly observed from this brief study. The regression analysis also reflects that the hardness of LG depends on inter layer type and inter layer thickness. The significance F value concludes the dependability of hardness on inter layer material and thickness. Similarly, P value shows that the error in the analysis is within considerable limits.

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Spectroscopic Studies on Films of Lead NitrateDoped Polyvinyl Alcohol – Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Blend

Spectroscopic Studies on Films of Lead NitrateDoped Polyvinyl Alcohol – Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Blend

Films of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)–polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) blend doped with lead nitrate(Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ) were prepared by solution casting method, with doping level (DL) of Pb(NO 3 ) 2 in PVA – PVP polymeric blend varying from 2.7 up to 50.5 wt%. The prepared films were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, fluorescence (or photo- luminescence) spectroscopy, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Parameters like optical band gaps due to indirect allowed transition (IAT) and direct allowed transition (DAT), as well as the activation energy (E a ) for optical transitions are extracted from the UV- Visible (or optical) spectra of these films. Objective of the FTIR, Raman and Fluorescence spectroscopic study is to understand the molecular chemical changes in PVA and PVP caused by the dopant (Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ). There is an enhancement of fluorescence intensity at DLs of 2.7wt%, and at DL 7.6 wt%, the fluorescence intensity decreases (quenching). PVP acts as a capping agent for the dopant species, and is considered to be responsible for changes in fluorescence intensity. Signature of nitrate ion (NO 3 - ) vibration is observed at wavenumber 1037 cm -1 in Raman

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Inkjet printed polyvinyl alcohol multilayers

Inkjet printed polyvinyl alcohol multilayers

be deposited via the solution form by drop casting 5 , spin coating 6 , or electrospinning 7 . However, these methods have a number of limitations in terms of the waste of unwanted material. For example, in the case of spin coating, it has been reported 8 that 95% of the material is wasted. Additionally, these methods are quite rigid in term of design/features (no patterning capability) and have high overall processing costs. In order to overcome the limitation of the conventional solution processing, we here explore the potential of inkjet printing technology to provide a novel platform to produce polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) multi-layer structures that have a strong impact on both the material and application perspectives. Recent developments in the manufacturing sector have focused on cheap, simple, eco-friendly, and energy-saving processes. Inkjet printing (IJP) is a modern fabrication process that fits perfectly within this framework. The major advantages of IJP technology are the efficiency of material use, the digital (mask-free) and additive patterning, the large area capability, the compatibility with rigid/flexible substrates, and the low cost.

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Enhanced acoustic insulation properties of composite metamaterials having embedded negative stiffness inclusions

Enhanced acoustic insulation properties of composite metamaterials having embedded negative stiffness inclusions

It is evident that the NS inclusions induce a major improvement of the insulation properties of the panel around its coincidence frequency range (where the acoustic wavenumber becomes equal to the structural one, implying efficient acoustic transmission and a pronounced drop of TL) with a maximum TL increase of about 20 dB. In the high frequency range the advantages are also evident with a constant TL improvement of about 5 dB. On the other hand, in the (mass and stiffness controlled) sub-coincidence range, despite the fact that the loss factor of the layered metamaterial was massively greater, the average TL improvement was inferior to 2 dB. This further confirms the difficulty of increasing noise insulation in the very low frequency range without significant mass addition to the structural panel. It is worth noting that the proposed configuration has outperformed the PVB constrained damping layer in a broadband frequency range, implying not only superior vibration attenuation performance in the low frequency range (due to its considerably greater loss factor) but also better acoustic insulation properties.

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Efficacy of single-injection unilateral thoracic paravertebral block for post open cholecystectomy pain relief: a prospective randomized study at Gondar University Hospital

Efficacy of single-injection unilateral thoracic paravertebral block for post open cholecystectomy pain relief: a prospective randomized study at Gondar University Hospital

sensation was checked 15–20 minutes after the institution of the block to elicit the extent of somatic blockade. Failed PVB was defined as inability to identify sensory block in the dermatome between T 6 and T 8 20 minutes after initiation of block, and these patients were excluded from the study. On the operating table, 0.1 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenous as per our protocol for antiemetic prophylaxis and fentanyl 2 mcg/kg were given for all groups. All patients were induced with 2–3 mg/kg propofol and relaxed with suxamethonium 2 mg/kg intravenous to facilitate tracheal intubation. Intra- operative anesthesia was maintained with halothane, and relaxation with pancronium. Intraoperative analgesia was maintained with 0.1 mg/kg of morphine. All patients were monitored using an electrocardiogram, noninvasive arterial blood pressure monitor, and pulse oximeter. At the end of the surgical procedure, all patients received 1 mcg/kg of fentanyl. Residual neuromuscular blockade was reversed with intravenous neostigmine 0.05 mg/kg and 20 mcg/kg of atropine, after that the trachea was extubated when the patient was awake and recovered fully from anesthesia. Then, patients were transferred to the recovery room and observed for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes of observation postopera- tively, presence and severity of pain and analgesic needs was assessed systematically using structured questionnaire by trained data collectors who were blinded to group allocation.

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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOCHITOSANPOLYVINYL ALCOHOL CARBOXYMETHYL STARCH TERNARY BLENDS OF VARIOUS COMPOSITIONS WITH GLUTARALDEHYDE AS CROSSLINKING AGENT

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOCHITOSANPOLYVINYL ALCOHOL CARBOXYMETHYL STARCH TERNARY BLENDS OF VARIOUS COMPOSITIONS WITH GLUTARALDEHYDE AS CROSSLINKING AGENT

environment friendly material, possesses bio activity and does not harm humans it also has high catalytic activity, anti bacterial and shrink –proofing properties, material having excellent physicochemical properties, this makes it a good applicant in drug and gene delivery, and also in removal of heavy metal. [1] The polyvinyl alcohol is nontoxic, good barrier for oxygen, aroma, oil and solvents, which is prepared by partial or complete hydrolysis of poly (vinyl acetate), Polyvinyl Alcohol is a synthetic resin with hydrophilic properties, it increases the persistence of the tear film and therefore used as a lubricant, forms a soluble plastic film upon drying. [2,3] The carboxymethyl starch is a natural starch derivative, which is a linear and branched starch polymer. The starch becomes more resistant to thermal degradation and bacterial attack because of it. Carboxymethylstarch is a derivative of starch. It has stability against freezing, excessive heat, and acids. Carboxymethyl starch is a renewable, nontoxic, and biodegradable polysaccharides with numerous applications such as removal of cations like calcium, iron, from dispersed phase.CMS has been extensively applied as wall paper adhesive, as textile printing thickener and also has applications in the pharmaceutical industry, cationic starch is used as wet end sizing agent in paper manufacturing. [4,5] The main aim of the present study was just to synthesize the nanochitosan/polyvinyl alcohol/ carboxymethylstarch blends of various ratios. The prepared blends were characterized and then the results were investigated.

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Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Pva Fiber Reinforced Concrete using M  Sand and Flyash

Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Pva Fiber Reinforced Concrete using M Sand and Flyash

Polyvinyl alcohol fibers are an ideal environment –friendly cement reinforced material, which possesses alkali and weather resistance due to its unique molecular structure taking on good affinity to cement, effectively prevent and supports the cracks formation and development, improve bending strength, impact strength and crack strength, improve permeability, impact and seismic resistance of concrete

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Coating Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol and Polyvinyl Chloride Fibers As Corrosion Passivation Applications

Coating Electrospun Polyvinyl Alcohol and Polyvinyl Chloride Fibers As Corrosion Passivation Applications

Two nanofiber coatings, namely polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were prepared and deposited on aluminum surface using electrospinning technology. The coating layers were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), optical (OM) and scanning electron (SEM) microscopes. The SEM images showed that the deposited PVA and PVC coatings on the aluminum surface have a compact and entangled nanofiber structure with diameters varied from 100 to 199 nm in case of PVA/Al, and from 150 to 400 nm in case of PVC/Al. The electrochemical corrosion of aluminum without and with PVA and PVC coatings in freely aerated stagnant solutions of 3.5 wt.% sodium chloride (NaCl) was investigated using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It has been found that the deposited PVA and PVC coatings decrease the corrosion currents and corrosion rate as well as increase the corrosion resistance for aluminum in the NaCl solution. Results together were in good agreement and confirmed that the deposited PVA and PVC coatings highly protect the aluminum versus corrosion in the chloride test solutions.

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PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MICROSPHERES OF CINNARIZINE USING EUDRAGIT RS100

PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MICROSPHERES OF CINNARIZINE USING EUDRAGIT RS100

ABSTRACT: Cinnarizine was microencapsulated with Eudragit RS100 using an o/o and o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The effects of three formulation variables including the drug: polymer ratio, emulsifier (polyvinyl alcohol) concentration and volume of external medium on the entrapment efficiency and microspheres size distribution were examined. The drug release rate from prepared microspheres and the release kinetics were also studied. The results demonstrated that microspheres with good range of particle size can be prepared, depending on the formulation components. The drug: polymer ratio had a considerable effect on the entrapment efficiency. However, particle size distribution of microspheres was more dependent on the volume polyvinyl alcohol concentration rather than the drug: polymer ratio. The release kinetics was also studied and it was shown that the release profiles of all formulations showed good correlation with the korsmeyer model of release.

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Seav And Semt Labeling For Pvb-Tree

Seav And Semt Labeling For Pvb-Tree

Abstract—The PVB-tree T is a tree consists of b branches at each vertex of all the p copies of the path V on v vertices and these paths are joined to the vertices of a path P on p vertices. This P V B − tree contains pvb + pv + p vertices and pvb + pv + p − 1 edges. Super edge antimagic vertex labeling is a bijective function λ : V (T ) → {1, 2, ..., pvb + pv + p} with the property that the weights {w(xy) = λ(x) + λ(y); xy ∈ E(T )} form an arithmetic progression{a, a + d, ..., a + (e − 1)d} . The function λ : V (T ) ∪ E(T ) → {1, 2, ..., 2(pvb + pv + p) − 1} such that there is a minimal integer k satisfying λ(x) + λ(y) + λ(xy) = k, ∀xy ∈ E(T ) is called super edge magic total labeling. A graph that possess a super edge antimagic vertex (SEAV) labeling and/or possess super edge magic total (SEMT) labeling is called SEAV and/or SEMT graph. This paper establishes that the PVB-tree is both SEAV and SEMT graph.

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Vibrational Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Poly (vinyl butyral)

Vibrational Spectroscopic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Poly (vinyl butyral)

Vibrational spectroscopy is an important tool for probing conformation and conformationally sensitive modes of polymer. In general the IR absorption, Raman spectra & inelastic neutron scattering from polymeric systems are very complex and cannot be unraveled without the full knowledge of dispersion curves. Dispersion curves also give information on the extent of coupling along the chain and dependence of the frequency of a given mode upon the sequence length of ordered conformation. These curves also facilitate correlation of the microscopic behavior of a crystal with its macroscopic properties such as specific heat, enthalpy, and free energy. Thus the study of phonon dispersion in polymeric systems continues to be of topical importance. The present study reports a complete normal mode analysis of PVB using UBFF, phonon dispersion, and heat capacity as a function of temperature via the density-of-states derived from the dispersion curves. The experimental data of FTIR reported by previous authors have been used 12 .

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