The intention of this paper was to propose a new process oriented studio teaching model. The paper has presented an overview assessment of traditional studio teaching practices based on content analysis and literature review. The results of the assessment delineate that while form manipulation skills appear to be superior to process aspects, a growing awareness of the value of the process in studio pedagogy is clearly on the rise. Based on adopting and adapting the multiple intelligence and the split brain theories, the model is structured in terms of process and teaching style while the process is constituted in four main stages: exploration, information gathering and analysis, interpretation, and schematic design. These stages address specific aspects that meet students’ individual differences and thinking capabilities.
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on user inputs (dynamic typing) that are based on vendor terminology such as SAP terms in reference models. The field of ontology describes the existence of objects in the world and how they are related . Ontology can play a role in improving the quality of the creation of the as-is BP models. Indeed, gathering information often leads to the following specific problems: the information con- tains redundancies and repetitions, homonyms and synonyms, exceptional cases to be handled, and implicit information or confusion or inconsistencies between the schema and instance levels . Often when we define the as-is business process, there are several types of documents to be considered, such as working instructions, already existing process models, intra-net information or even theses regarding parts of the process. Consequently, use of these conventions and standard terms can help in consolidating and reinforcing the enterprise as-is models . Further, ontology is a formal conceptual model of a real world do- main, which represents the semantics underlying that domain. This level of se- mantic accuracy is recognized as useful (or even essential) to provide the basis for the production of generalized and reusable models of organizational beha- vior . Also, the benefits of ontology-based terminology used within the business process model include improved model distribution, integration and interoperability, and model matching . Therefore, in this research, the ven- dor terminology (such as: SAP terms) is used and the link between the LORS forms and the vendor dictionary is established to define consistent labels for functional areas, activities, business rules, events, and other objects used to build the as-is business process.
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All wrap-up types will be examined on the existence of patterns regarding both roles and regulation phase and direction of activity. This will result in two process models per wrap type that can be analyzed and compared. The process mining tool that is used is Prom 6.8, developed by the University of Eindhoven. The mining tool that is used is the 'Fuzzy Miner' (Günther & Aalst, 2007; Bannert, Reimann & Sonnenberg; 2014). The output model will contain nodes (events, i.e. a role, or regulation instance) and edges (relation between nodes). The algorithm computes both significance and correlation of nodes and edges, while taking into account the temporal order of the events (i.e. what role follows on a previous role). The frequency of nodes and edges determines their significance, usually giving the most frequent node and the most frequent edge the value 1. For edges also correlation is calculated. This metric describes the strength of the relation between two nodes (co-occurrence).
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Since the beginning of conflict resolution in Sri Lanka, Retailers in Mannar have been promoting their products to consumers via different media vehicles. Over the years, the promotional processes and systems used by retailing have been tailored and modified in order to meet the demands of the consumers. Nowadays promotional messages are greatest important to all business to realize the objectives of the businesses successfully. Suitable promotional messages support consumers for their purchase decisions. Promotional message content is important, because those fascinate consumers. Today’s retailers must find new ways to attract consumers and inspire high levels of customer retention. Purpose of this research is to identify the different contents of promotional messages conveyed by the retailers in Mannar, where many retailers penetrated after conflict resolution. This research analyzed the contents of promotional messages in 24 Newspaper Advertisements and 26 Catalogs. This research frequently identified the contents of pesticides and herbicides promotional messages. Based on Carlson’s classification contents are summarized based on product oriented, process oriented, Image oriented, environmental reality orientated and integrated promotional messages. Content analysis was used to classify those promotional messages into five categories. Different promotional messages are identified from the different product advertisements. There is inadequate promotional messages on environmental reality, and integrated messages identified in this study. Consumers seek for innovation, creativity as well as the environmental friendly concern. Therefore, present study provides implications to retail sector in Mannar to design further promotional messages which integrate the orientations on product, process, Image, and Environmental reality.
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10 Product Innovation. Product innovation indicates the adoption of a product that is new to the organization. It is measured as a binary variable taking the value of 1 if the firm has generated new products in the period 2006-2008 in Turkey (TURKSTAT, 2009). A vast amount of studies suggest that the introduction of a new product increases firm performance (Löfsten, 2014; Roberts, 1999; Deeds and DeCarolis, 1999; Cho and Pucik, 2005; Hua and Wemmerlov, 2006). Product innovations could generate positive effect on firm performance through increasing range of products. Firms with differentiated products could gain competitive advantage in the market which turns into increase in firm profits. In addition to these, new markets could emerge with the introduction of the new products. Damanpour et al. (2009) has found that product innovations are externally oriented and sensitive to market signals. The needs of the markets play a crucial role in the implementation of those innovations. Our hypothesis is constructed based on this rationale indicating that product innovations generate product oriented impact. Product innovations could also make process oriented changes for the firm. The features of the new product could enhance capacity of production or may require flexibility in production processes. To test these assumptions, we add hypothesis on the link between process oriented impact and product innovations.
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The current study aimed to investigate the contextual factors in formation and maintenance of process-oriented organization and the effect of the identified factors on strategy development of the organization. A questionnaire was designed to measure the research variables in which its validity and reliability was confirmed by factor analysis. The instrument was distributed among 183 managers, officials and the experts of systems, information technology and strategic planning divisions of major corporations in Iran Khodro industrial group. The method was descriptive- correlation and a path analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The results revealed that reengineering of business process has a significant impact on designing business and management of business processes have a strong effect maintenance of process oriented organization and as a result, management of business processes lead to the formation of planning school in process oriented organization.
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embedded system development. Figure 4 shows four sta- ges for this process: aspect-oriented requirement discov- ery and identification; function specification and com- munication definition; platform identification and specifi- cation; as well as mapping and system deployment. In as- pect-oriented requirement discovery and identification, the functional and non-functional requirements are explo- red and the standard documents are created. Then, these documents are used to define, validate and eliminate con- flicts between the requirements. The products of this sta- ge are the mapping table and the use-case diagram. The function specification and communication definition stage describes the application and the system platform, and it employs the use-class diagram to describe the application. It also uses the component diagram to describe the hard- ware components and the communication in the architec- ture platform. This paper only focuses on aspect-oriented modeling for applications in an embedded system. In the platform identification and specification stage, the struc- ture is described by the class diagram, and the behavior of the application and aspect platform is described by the sequence diagram. The final step of system deployment is the mapping and system deployment stage.
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View–based Access control (VBAC) is an access control model specifically defined to support the design and management of access control policies in object oriented system .VBAC model consists of following data types: Subject which used to represent system users and the process that run on behalf of the users. Object used to represent the distributed objects in the system to which access must be controlled by a policy. Permission specifies a right to access an object. View groups a number of permissions belonging to the same object. Role represents the access control roles, which are assigned to subjects. A role can be played by several subjects, and a subject can play several roles.
Successful design often begins with a clear definition of the design objectives. While in analysis and evaluation, the designer using these knowledge and simple diagrams, makes a first draft of the design in the form of diagrams. This has to be thoroughly analyzed to verify that it meets the design objectives and that it is adequate but not over designed. A systematic approach is useful only to the extent that the designer is presented with a strategy that he can use as a base for planning the required design strategy for the problem at hand. A design problem is not a theoretical construct. Design has an authentic purpose - the creation of an end result by taking definite action or the creation of something having physical reality. The design process is by necessity an iterative one. The software design should describe a system that meets the requirements. It should be thorough, in-depth, and complete and use standardized notations to depict the structure and systems. According to Ford (1991, p. 52):
This paper attempts to formulate basic building blocks of an intent-oriented process design theory . Motivated by process engineering literature, this work extends the notion of process to an interactive algorithm that executes relational order according to environmental rules and conditions to satisfy an intention. This generalization of process takes into account physical and metaphysical environments. To classify processes beyond the activity, product, decision, and context oriented categories of process models, process complexity is defined by adopting an object-oriented view of situations and actions. Action-types and situation-types are mathematically formulated. This view of situations and actions concludes that process complexity is caused by group representation of objects and group inter-dynamics as formed by individual representation of objects and individual intra-dynamics then vice versa. An extension of intention theory that considers group and individual representations with inter-dynamics and intra- dynamics is concluded. An extended Nash Equilibrium approach is recommended as a future direction to solve group and individual intention dominance. This work recommends an abstract view of process actors as complex systems consisting of stable and modular subsystems. This abstract view includes human agents, information systems, and organizations – groups of human agents and information systems executing collective actions. This work views process actors as C3I3K complex systems (for Command, Control, Communications, Intention, Information, Intelligence, and Knowledge). A basic argument for the evolution of C3I3K complex systems is outlined. Finally, a model of the environment as distributed multilevel infrastructures (DMLI) is recommended to extend the four world model of process engineering. KEYWORDS
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Understanding the associations between business processes is far from completed business management knowledge. There is known that a research of interrelations between process threads and their orchestration inside the system based on them is not completely ﬁ nished. On the other hand, the rugged and dynamic consumer market makes any company introduce new business processes, and there is always necessary to ﬁ nd their position in the already established process threads, or to create a new process thread for them. There is obvious that the system of threads is very much alive, and is ﬂ exibly modiﬁ ed. Given that our goal is a more advanced platform of enterprise activity, a business service platform, we will not deal with process threads problems consistently.
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In recent years, enterprises try to develop the online sales systems in order to reach various customers in different places and expect to bring better profit or company exposure via the internet and mobile device channels. However, different platforms, technologies, transaction rules, policies and processes have resulted in data dispersion and business logic inconsistency that is hard for the company to audit and manage. This study presented a service-oriented analysis and design of the online sales process integration for our case company. We analyzed and modeled the processes using the service-oriented modeling and architecture (SOMA) approach to identify service candidates, and also utilized service component architecture (SCA) to create web services for activities required for the processes. Based on the function of services, business rules and logic, the corresponding service abstraction layer of the integrated online sales process is established. Finally, this study used the Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) to realize the service orchestration and composition, thus achieving service reusability. With the SOA solution, the case company can efficiently integrate resources and that the enterprise system become more flexible, agile and cost-effective.
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In university quality assurance center, Process is a set of activities performed by its teamwork and monitoring activities performed faculties' quality assurance units. These units deal with sub-processes, each of which includes the set of activities performed by the teamwork of the unit, teaching staff, and students. The quality assurance process mainly involves two kinds of stockholders. Planners, who play the main role of planning scheduled tasks and activities, monitoring the execution of these tasks, approving the completed tasks, and sometimes execute parts of these tasks. The other stockholders are executers, who are mostly executing tasks like assessments, and documents preparing. The use case of the quality assurance process can be represented as in figure 3.
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one of them followed the organisational restructuring approach. From the results of these hospitals, it seems that the adoption of either approach can possibly lead to the desired process orientation. The UWHC redesign demonstrated that the adoption of the organisational restructuring approach can be relatively successful: patient satisfaction, financial outcomes, and operational outcomes of the redesigned services were improved. However, the UWHC adopted the organisational restructuring approach for only three, and later on six, strategically important patient groups. This leaves the question whether the organisational restructuring approach would also be potentially successful for strate- gically less important services or for the organisation of care delivery for patients with needs that do not fit within existing clinical care lines. Vera et al. already pointed out that this could be difficult, because political and ethical obligations of hospitals prevent them from withdrawing small volume services to focus only on strategically important ones of sufficient volumes that justify the creation of multidisciplinary departments .
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In  the researcher outlines a process that can be used to extend Tropos to address requirements traceability. He intends to develop a complete and usable requirement traceability process for Tropos which is (i*) tool, aiming to ensure the quality improvement of both the methodology and the software developed with it. This proposal outlines a process to help the software engineer in order to structure the necessary information to perform traceability in a specific project using the Tropos methodology. In our opinion the enhancement will be more efficient when we do it in the Meta model, so our proposal is making enhancement in the core (i*) framework rather than (i*) tools, to address requirement reliability. We have added a layer to deal with obstacles that will help to develop more robust system
However, as researcher performing a design-oriented research in a business problem-solving context he experiences a lack of inside knowledge to ensure covering all ins and outs of the research subject. Based on that awareness this research is also built on the contribution of involved staff concerning a combination of providing detailed information about the process and localization of constraints and their possible improvements. For that reason the fourth sub-question of this research is formulated: ‘What suggestions does the involved staff of the Capital Process have as a contribution to this research and how can this be reflected with the available literature?’. Besides this research being the result of the unfinished intention of smoothen the Capital Process operating, this same unfinished intention did provide the first contribution to this research: an overview of some constraints in the Capital Process that was the reason for making a standardized template for capital expenditure. Both the overview and template functioned as a handhold in this research. Other contributions were given during meetings and conversations. Involved staff mentioned their fuzzy awareness of the process status during the capital expenditure request and the unawareness of others’ tasks and responsibilities they should know about. Besides providing valuable knowledge about the Capital Process and details of processes, they have also contributed by bringing in ideas or draw attention on specific actions i.e. digitalization of the capital expenditure request.
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Decision support systems (DSS) have been used in forestry to test different management scenarios to forecast productivity, wood quality and landholders’ income and expenses over a rotation (Farm Forestry Toolbox 2008). Within forest health, DSS provide assistance with identifying pest and disease symptoms (About Lucid ID 2010; Farm Forestry Toolbox 2008), risk assessment (Potter et al. 2000) and browsing management (Clark et al. 2010). Through simulation of population dynamics of plantation pests (Nahrung et al. 2008), the optimum frequency and timing of pesticide applications for insect population control can also be evaluated within process-based software such as DYMEX™ (Maywald et al. 2004). Optimising the frequency and timing of pesticide application can provide significant productivity benefits and may enhance environmental impacts by reducing the extent of pesticide residues (Mansingh et al. 2003; Robinson et al. 2002). However, these model-based decision making processes are immature in terms of the involvement of practitioners in system development. Further, pest management knowledge is continually evolving, and any DSS should reflect this by incorporating new knowledge to determine the most appropriate practice. A decision making process that enables interaction between scientists and practitioners is therefore important; it must incorporate knowledge from multiple sources to maximise the quality of the knowledge base as well as provide decision support.
The film manufacturing process considered in this work starts with polymer heated to above its melting point such that it can be treated as a viscous fluid. Using a continuous casting process the polymer melt is formed into a thick film that is approximately 1.5 meter wide in one direction and continuous in the other. This film is then mechanically stretched in both directions such that a much thinner film is obtained. The stretching operations are carried out under high temperatures and in a continuous manner which produces a film that can be wound onto a large roll.
wooden strips are laminated on an MDF jig with a number of clamps. Thirty-two laminated wooden bands are beveled for coopering. They are glued and stitched together with steel wires to create the volume. The gluing process is painfully long. First, the bands are glued as pairs. Two became four, and four became eight. Finally, #1 ends up as two pieces, half-round shapes which contain 16 laminated pieces each. All the stitches are removed from the piece after gluing, and holes are filled with wooden dowel, leaving trace of construction. This whole process requires tremendous patience and a considerable amount of time in order for the glue to set. (fig.6)
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Process Management) is a methodology of companies' resource managenet in order to generate a service or products according to the needs of clients. Business process management is a comprehensive and integrated (holistic) approach, where owners, management and employees, promotes the effectiveness of business processes and their continuous innovation using information and communication technology, in order adapt to market demands and consumer needs.