... the **exchange** rates of many countries have been fluctuating considerably overtime, and there has been more interest in predicting **exchange** ...to **exchange** **rate** management still remains an area ...

13

... the **real** interest **rate** ...of **real** interest rates, we would like to emphasize that the notion of non-stationarity, and hence of a long-run that we employ throughout this paper, is sample ...the ...

36

... and **exchange** **rate** volatility in all our ...the **real** **exchange** **rate** by failing to control for the heteroge- neity of the speed of mean reversion of prices across different ...the ...

11

... While technology and endowments contribute to define competitive advantages in international trade, policy variables play a role too. The **real** **exchange** **rate** (RER) is a significant policy variable ...

24

... In more recent work, Jin and Zeng (2005) develops a flexible price model with distribution costs to show that with reasonably large distribution costs their model can generate highly volatile and persistent **real** ...

39

... nominal **exchange** **rate** regimes without necessary policies usually face the **real** **exchange** **rate** ...of **exchange** **rate** regime, monetary policy makers desire to maintain the ...

36

... This paper assesses the relationship with **real** **exchange** **rate** and growth using quarterly data of 1989:Q1-2005:Q2. Two groups of models are used in the study that is held. The first model, which was ...

23

... actual **exchange** **rate** (RER) is positive but insignificant in random effect ...actual **exchange** **rate** (RER) is negative and insignificant in fixed and random effect ...actual **exchange** ...

5

... the **real** ex- change **rate** of ruble a current misalignment indicator was calculated which measures the difference of an actual and equilibrium **real** **exchange** **rate** based on the selected ...

34

... equilibrium **real** **exchange** **rate** using the Macroeconomic Balance (MB) and the Natural **Real** **Exchange** **Rate** (NATREX) ...float **exchange** **rate** system; have similar output ...

38

... for **real** **exchange** **rate** movements (see, for example, IMF (2006), IMF (2013) and Bussiere et ...Swiss **real** **exchange** **rate** ...the **exchange** **rate** patterns of the Swiss ...

33

... the **rate** of capital accumulation depends on the convergence speed, τ, and the dis- tance to the steady ...the **real** **exchange** **rate** and its effect on the growth **rate** of ...higher ...

6

... (NATural **Real** **EXchange** **rate**) a formulé un cadre théorique pour le taux de change réel naturel à long terme dont l’estimation est basée sur un ensemble de relations comportementales ressemblants aux ...

12

... A basic limitation of DARER is the assumption that every current account deficit is accumulated in external debt that will, sooner or later, have to be repaid, and that the key stimulus for the shift from deficit to ...

16

... paper, **real** **exchange** **rate** is assumed to follow the path dictated by economic fundamentals, that is, while **real** **exchange** **rate** (rer) remains the only endogenous cum exogenous ...

35

... the **rate** of ...the **real** **exchange** **rate** in the change in a fundamental determinant at a constant state of ...the **real** **exchange** ...

35

... flexible **exchange** **rate** provides greater room to maneuver (autonomy of the monetary ...the **real** **exchange** **rate** (**real** anchor) and to avoid ...the **exchange** rates. At least, a ...

25

... foreign **exchange**; welfare effects; and other concerns regarding its result on inflation and the **real** **exchange** **rate** ...the **real** **exchange** **rate** dynamics in ...with ...

18

... the **real** **exchange** **rate** toward the profitability of a ...BI **Rate** such as what had been used in the empirical study on the influence of **exchange** **rate** toward the performance of the ...

22

... of **real** **exchange** **rate** misalignment and **real** **exchange** **rate** volatility on total exports for a panel of 42 developing countries from 1975 to ...both **real** **exchange** ...

26