Traditional k-means and most k-means variants are still computationally expensive for large datasets, such as microarray data, which have large datasets with large dimension size d. In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d- dimensional space R d and an integer k. The problem is to determine a set of k points in R d , called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. In this work, we develop a novel k-means algorithm, which is simple but more efficient than the traditional k-means and the recent enhanced k-means. Our new algorithm is based on the recently established relationship between principal component analysis and the k-means clustering. We provided the correctness proof for this algorithm. Results obtained from testing the algorithm on three biological data and six non-biological data (three of these data are real, while the other three are simulated) also indicate that our algorithm is empirically faster than other known k-means algorithms. We assessed the quality of our algorithm clusters against the clusters of a known structure using the Hubert-Arabie Adjusted Rand index (ARI HA ). We found that when k is close to d, the quality is good (ARI HA .0.8) and when k is not close to d, the quality of our new k-means algorithm is excellent (ARI HA .0.9).
4.3.2 The impact of cognitive ability on average level-k choice rules
We now analyze how learner types vary with subjects’ own cognitive ability and that of their opponents. To do this, we summarize the estimated proportions of learner types in a single statistic measuring the average level-k choice rule followed by the subjects (the notes to Table 4 provide the details of how these averages of choice rules are computed). From Table 4, we can see that, across all rounds, the average level-k choice rule followed by own-matched high ability subjects is 2.08, while for own-matched low ability subjects the average level is 1.55, with the difference statistically significant at the 1% level. In Section 4.3.3, we simulate the earnings that accrue to the different learner types, and show that the higher average level of the own-matched high ability subjects is not fully explained by the higher number of high ability opponents that they face. For cross-matched subjects, the difference is less pronounced but still evident: the average level followed by cross-matched high ability subjects is 1.77, while for cross-matched low ability subjects the average level is 1.54, with the difference significant at the 5% level. The average level followed by cross-matched high ability subjects is higher even though they face a lower number of high ability opponents on average than do cross-matched low ability subjects.
The liquid phase of the Fe-Cu binary system is miscible over the whole composition range. It has been reported that it separates into the Fe- and Cu-rich phases by adding C, 1–3) Si, 4) P 5) or B. 6) The recovery of iron and copper from the Fe-Cu-B alloy has been discussed using two liquid phases separation. 7) However, the eﬀect of boron on the liquid immiscibility of the Fe-Cu system has not been clariﬁed owing to the lack of experimental results at low boron content. In this study, the equilibrium relation of the phase separation in the Fe-Cu-B system is investigated at lower boron content and 1873 K. Using this additional data, the interaction parameters of boron for copper are re-evaluated.
A strategy pair will be termed regular if it satisfies B1-B7. A regular equilibrium is an equilibrium with regular strategies. Our goal is to prove existence of a regular equilibrium given the admissibility of distribution functions. In order to do this, we have to introduce another restriction on the joint distribution of valuations. This restriction limits the amount of stochastic association between valuations of the buyer and the seller. To get the intuition for this restriction, consider the following comparative statics exercise. Suppose the buyer faces an increase in value from y 1 to y 2 . Given the aﬃliation of values, he conjectures that the value of the seller has increased as well (on average). If the increase in value to the seller is steep, and given that the seller uses an increasing strategy the price which is a convex combination of the two bids will increase steeply. This implies that the buyer might find it optimal to set a bid B(y 2 ) lower than the original bid B(y 1 ), in order compensate for the high increase in sellers oﬀer. But this will contradict the assumption of increasing strategies. A parallel argument applies to the seller. By restricting the stochastic association of valuation we can prevent this kind of aggressive reactions, and assure existence of increasing pairs of equilibrium.
Ursula K. Le Guin has spanned over three decades to create her classic fantasy The Earthsea Cycle, and in each new Earthsea book, she keeps rewriting the structure she designates for the previous one. Among all the changes, her depiction for the Earthsea dragons especially subverts the draconian archetype in the Western conventional narratives, enabling her dragons to be humanized step by step. In the process of de-demonizing and de-animalizing the Earthsea dragons, Le Guin also escapes the confines set by the traditional Western heroism, which often acclaims the human conquering over Nature. The Earthsea dragons, characteristic of the awakening feminism, correspond to Jacques Derrida’s animal discourse and the Daoist thinking of softness and femininity. In this way, the Earthsea dragons serve as the integral figure to structure the triangle relation between humans, animals and Nature. By presenting the gradual development of the Earthsea dragons, through their different stages, Le Guin also reveals her viewpoint about the term “Change,” which mirrors the ubiquitous concept “Equilibrium” in Earthsea and also helps to explain why she keeps deconstructing the old order of Earthsea. Therefore, the thesis aims to observe the change and development of the dragons, in an attempt to discuss the self-deconstruction of Earthsea and also provides a new perspective to delve into the issue of animality and humanity in a context that brings Eastern and Western cultures together.
* J.N.Barr@leeds.ac.uk (JNB); J.Mankouri@leeds.ac.uk (JM)
In order to multiply and cause disease a virus must transport its genome from outside the cell into the cytosol, most commonly achieved through the endocytic network. Endosomes transport virus particles to specific cellular destinations and viruses exploit the changing environment of maturing endocytic vesicles as triggers to mediate genome release. Previ- ously we demonstrated that several bunyaviruses, which comprise the largest family of neg- ative sense RNA viruses, require the activity of cellular potassium (K + ) channels to cause productive infection. Specifically, we demonstrated a surprising role for K + channels during virus endosomal trafficking. In this study, we have used the prototype bunyavirus, Bunyam- wera virus (BUNV), as a tool to understand why K + channels are required for progression of these viruses through the endocytic network. We report three major findings: First, the pro- duction of a dual fluorescently labelled bunyavirus to visualize virus trafficking in live cells.
poor requirement management, poor planning and less skilled staff. Requirement management is single biggest reason than bad technology, missed deadlines etc. RTM can be used to ensure that requirement defined for a system are tested and are being able to link the requirements throughout the validation process. As we know there are many requirement management tools available but in this paper we discussed about RTM tool because it can be able differentiate each requirement and their test cases more efficient way. The system or the product must be tested in some test protocols and testing the all test cases which can find all the requirement from start to the end in a effective manner to yield the good product. RTM can be used to check the current system requirement and the additional requirement which can be used in future. The test plan document before actual execution includes the RTM specifies all requirement and maps corresponding test cases.
Our main result is to show that the diﬀerent market structures have very diﬀerent implications for the nature of equilibrium and for the eﬀects of policy. In search equilibrium (bargaining), we prove that the quantity traded and entry are both ineﬃcient. In this model inflation implies a first- order welfare loss, and although the Friedman Rule is the optimal policy, it cannot correct the ineﬃciencies on the intensive and extensive margins. In competitive equilibrium (price taking), the Friedman Rule gives eﬃciency along the intensive margin but not the extensive margin. In this model the eﬀects of policy are ambiguous, and inflation in excess of the Friedman Rule may be desirable. In competitive search equilibrium (posting), the Friedman Rule achieves the first best. In this model inflation reduces welfare but the eﬀect is second order. We think these results are interesting because they help to sort out which results in recent monetary theory are due to features of the environment — preferences, information etc. — and which are due to the assumed market structure — bargaining, posting etc.
1 I N T R O D U C T I O N
This is the requirement specification for the project Autonomous Truck With a Trailer in the automatic control project course TSRT10 given at Linköping University during the fall of 2020.
The project regarding autonomous vehicles has been performed at Linköping University for a few years. Each project being a continuation of the previous. This year’s main goal is to improve the stability and robustness of the automatic control system by implementing a Model Predictive Control (MPC) controller. A Raspberry Pi (RPi) will also be integrated to the already existing truck to replace the need of an external computer during run-time. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements for the final results of the project.
In air-cooled systems, there is a rather steep temperature gradient due to the limits of heat transfer between the CPU die and the cooling air flow. The die temperature at hot spots on the CPU can easily be 30–50 K higher than the air exit temperature, depending on air volume flow, heat sink design and other parameters. From  and in particular for an Intel Xeon E5-2697 v2, if the air temperature before the CPU is at 30 ◦ C and after the die at 40 ◦ C, the die temperature might be 60–70 ◦ C and since the maximum permitted CPU temperatures is 86 ◦ C, there is enough thermal budget to overclock. On the other hand, if the room temperature is 35 ◦ C, the air temperature at the CPU might be 45 ◦ C before the die and 55 ◦ C after the die, and then, the CPU would not over clock and performance would be lower. Also, the motherboard life expectancy might be in danger because important parts are “cooled” with 55 ◦ C air or more . This phenomenon will obviously depend on the internal server configuration, and if there is some other IT equipment after the CPU or not.
The Equilibrium Constant, K p
In gas-phase equilibria, it is usually more convenient to express the equilibrium concentrations in terms of partial pressures rather than Molarities.
It should be noted that the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture (which is proportional to its mole fraction) is proportional to its Molarity concentration at a fixed temperature. You can see this by looking at the Ideal Gas Equation PV = nRT and solving for n/V, which is the molar concentration of the gas.
In this paper, we modify the general iterative method to approximate a common element of the set of solutions of generalized equilibrium problems and the set of common ﬁxed points of a ﬁnite family of k-strictly pseudo-contractive nonself mappings. Strong convergence theorems are established under some suitable conditions in a real Hilbert space, which also solves some variation inequality problems. Results presented in this paper may be viewed as a reﬁnement and important generalizations of the previously known results announced by many other authors.
-- the positive slope of the supply curve for sellers will mean that the quantity supplied will be greater than the equilibrium quantity;
-- hence the quantity supplied will be greater than the quanitity demanded.
This imposes storage costs and spoilage costs on suppliers -- fisherman find their catch spoiling,
prices. On the other hand, in the two-stage Shapley’s model, there can be subgames associated with atoms’ strategies summing to the same aggregate bids that the atomless sector plays in different ways, so generating different prices. In order to avoid this unreasonable behavior, we introduce a subgame perfect equilibrium notion characterized by the fact that, in the second stage, the atomless sector always uses the same strategies when the atoms send out bids which sum to the same total amounts. We call it Pseudo-Markov per- fect equilibrium for reasons which will become apparent in Section 4, where we discuss the differences between the two notions of Pseudo-Markov and Markov perfect equilibrium. Our main result then follows. The set of the Cournot-Walras equilibrium allocations and the set of the Pseudo-Markov perfect equilibrium allocations of the two-stage game coincide. This theorem reconciles the Cournot-Walras approach with the line of research initiated by Shapley and Shubik (1977) and makes this approach immune from the criticism by Okuno et al. (1980), as it provides an endogenous foundation of strategic and competitive behavior.
de…ned as those whose “tax amounts are quite low compared with the administration costs that would have to be incurred by the tax administration to assess the proper amount of tax.” (Thuronyi, 2004, p. 102). This de…nition corresponds to the case where R (q) 2 [0; c] in our model. “Hard-to-tax” is not the same as “impossible-to-tax” after all. It is simply not pro…table for the IRS to audit these taxpayers. As a result of lacking the motivation to audit, a very high level of evasion results in equilibrium ( = q in Proposition 1 (i) and (ii)). The possibility that the corner solution = q will occur when audit costs are very high has been noted by GRW. Our minor addition is to point out that if the equilibrium outcome = q is associated with R (q) 2 [0; c], then pouring more resources into tax administration will be of little help in resolving the problem and = q will still result. Bird and Casanegra de Jantscher (1992) emphasize that a common constraint usually faced by tax reforms in developing countries is the scarcity of resources for tax administration. This emphasis may need to be quali…ed in light of our …nding here. 12
An attempt is made to incorporate the Pissarides (1979, 2011) and Mortensen and Pissarides (1994) type of equilibrium unemployment into a computable dynamic general equilibrium model to eval- uate the impact of matching technology in the long-run growth and level of utilities and lifetime income of households in the UK economy. Dynamic interactions among heterogenous consumers and producers generate interesting results. Utility of all households increase over time as levels of output, capital stock and labour supply rise over time. The model reproduces income distribution patterns and the Gini coe¢ cients as one would expect from the analysis of the real data. Taxes create distortions and raise the prices of commodities in all sectors when taxes and transfers rise relative to the benchmark. The price index rises steadily, economy becomes more expensive, costs of production rise and output falls steadily relative to that in the benchmark economy in almost all sectors of the economy. The level of equilibrium unemployment rises but the job matching increases at a faster space in the policy reform scenario causing equilibrium unemployment to decline. Bet- ter matching technology lowers the rate of equilibrium unemployment rate as vacancies are …lled more e¢ ciently. Long run growth and redistribution are more sensitive to ‡exibility of markets as re‡ected in the intertemporal elasticity of substitution between leisure and consumption and sub- stitutability of commodities in consumption and between capital and labour in production across sectors. More e¢ cient matching technology improves e¢ ciency in consumption and production, enhances growth and raises e¤ectiveness in achieving the equity and growth objectives of the tax and transfer system existing in the UK. This is the …rst paper that includes the search and match- ing model and equilibrium unemployment with heterogenous households and …rms explicitly in this way in a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with taxes for the UK economy.
Fe-Si melt is a candidate for use as an alloy solvent for rapid liquid phase growth of SiC because of the high solubility of carbon in molten iron. In this work, the equilibrium phase relationship between SiC and the liquid phase of the Fe-Si-C system was studied to determine the optimal composition of a high SiC content solvent. The solubility of carbon in molten silicon was examined and the thermodynamic properties of the liquid phase in the Si-C system were reassessed. The phase relationship between SiC and Fe-Si melt was investigated by the equilibration technique at 1523–1723 K. It was found that Fe-36 mol% Si alloy equilibrates with SiC at the corresponding temperatures. The equilibrium phase relationship between SiC and various compositions of Fe-Si melts was studied by using thermodynamic calculations. The results indicated that SiC is far more soluble in iron-rich Fe-Si melt than in silicon-rich melt. The Fe-Si melt of Fe-36 mol% Si composition possessing high SiC solubility should be a suitable solvent for rapid liquid phase growth of SiC. [doi:10.2320/matertrans.MRA2008404]