is called the characteristic of the subjunctive mood by the academic circle. Three kinds of tense usages in if-condition are consistently proposed, including the present facts contrary to hypothesis, the past facts contrary to hypothesis and the future facts contrary to hypothesis. Under these conditions of the context and syntax, the simple past tense marker is no longer addressed to what happened before the speaker’s speech time or event, but mainly expressing suggestion, wishes, hopes or hypothesis that are contrary to the speaker’s reality. Mental space theory conducts the information packing of thoughts and speech of the speaker, which partly reflects the cognitive mechanisms that the simple past tense operates during the processing of the constructional emergence. Fauconnier (1997)  holds that grammar embodies a centralized reflection about cognitive ability and human thoughts and plays an crucial role in constructing meaning of language. However, the subjunctive mood is em- ployed to convey the hypothetical meaning and non-facts verb forms. We propose that the subjunctive mood can contain two mental spaces, that is, the reality space and the hypothetical space. More often than not, there is no corresponding element in the hypothetical space, but we can mark them in detail or clearly in reality space. The approach adopting to explore counterfactuals is completely compatible with the statement that the temporal dis- tance often stretches into realizing non-reality or non-probability. This approach also fits for the characteristics of space partitioning and accessibility. Let us take example (15) to elaborate in detail:
The present study was an attempt to investigate the effectiveness of metacognitive listening instruction on the young learners’ acquisition of simple past tense and to probe whether incorporating metacognitive listening instruction can affect young EFL learners’ beliefs about grammar learning. Thirty young elementary students, who were studying in a private language institute in Chalous, Mazandaran, Iran participated in the study. As to the data collection instruments, OPT, the pre- and post-tests, and semi-structured interview were used. Findings revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group after the intervention (i.e. teaching simple past tense through metacognitive listening), showing that the instruction was quite successful in assisting the learners to acquire simple past tense. The effective role of metacognitive listening instruction on the occurrence of change in the learners’ beliefs about grammar learning was also proved in that they held positive beliefs about grammar learning and changed their simplistic and less-positive beliefs. Not only should metacognitive listening instruction be recognized as an appropriate procedure to teach listening, it can also be applied in teaching grammar, as a ‘focus on form’ approach in which the learners are involved in the context of meaningful interaction.
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As for the first issue, researchers working on grammar instruction/learning have contributed several definitions. The definition given by Freeman (1992, 2003) is of interest. Freeman (1992) who used the term grammarian for the first time puts emphasis on the dynamism of grammar, asserting that grammar must be viewed as the fifth skill an individual need to acquire in learning a foreign or second language. Furthermore, Freeman (2006) presents multiple definitions discussed in the literature. One of these definition characterizes grammar as an internal system through which new utterances are generated and interpreted. Yet, another definition describes grammar as a set of prescriptions and proscriptions concerning language structures as well as the application of them for a particular language. Consequently, literature appears seems to present various definitions of grammar among which language teaching practitioners need to choose from based on their particular uses and purposes. In fact, grammar is viewed as the backbone for learning a novel language and it should not be deleted from L2 instruction (Freeman, 2006). It should be noted that one of the grammatical features posing problems for both L2 learners and native speakers is simple past tense (Biber et al. 1999). Thus, this study seeks to investigate the impact of positive versus negative evidence on the Iranian EFL elementary learners' learning of simple past tense.
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Mourssi (2013) investigated the cross linguistic interference of L1 in learning the grammar of L2 specifically the acquisition of past tense. This study aimed to find out the impact of Arabic as L1 in the acquisition of the simple past in English language context. This study was conducted in Omani government secondary high school. The participants were 74 Arab learners of English. The participants' level of English was pre-intermediate to intermediate level. They were between 16 and 18 years old and they studied English for eight years. This study was quantitative and the tool was a test attempt to explore the interlanguage phenomena in writing skill. The tests distributed in three stages which were 222 written texts. Each group submitted three written text of each sample. This study used two strategies in analyzing: transfer strategy and overgeneralization L2 strategy. The analysis focused on the acquisition of simple past tense forms. The results showed the impact of the interference of Arabic L1 in acquiring second language in general and as a particular in simple past tense. Moreover, the two strategies represented that Arabic participants had characteristics of acquisition of the simple past tense in English.
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Most English verbs have consistent verb forms that we use to create the tenses we’ve just examined. These are called regular verbs, which means that the form to create the past tense and the perfect tenses are the same. That is, in both the simple past tense and the perfect tenses, we add –d or –ed, or (in a few cases) add a final -t. No other change in spelling happens, as you’ll see in the table below.
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Most English verbs have consistent verb forms that we use to create the tenses we’ve just examined. These are called regular verbs, which means that the form to create the past tense and the perfect tenses are the same. That is, in both the simple past tense and the perfect tenses, we add –d or -ed, or (in a few cases) add a final -t. No other change in spelling happens, as you’ll see in the table below.
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The paper presented a method to automatically la- bel English verbs in Simple Past tense with a bi- nary pragmatic feature, narrativity, which helps to distinguish temporally ordered events that hap- pened in the past (‘narrative’) from past states of affairs (‘non-narrative’). A small amount of man- ually annotated data, combined with the extraction of temporal semantic features, allowed us to train a classifier that reached 70% correctly classified in- stances. The classifier was used to automatically label the English SP verbs in a large parallel train- ing corpus for SMT systems. When implement- ing the labels in a factored SMT model, translation into French of the English SP verbs was improved by about 10%, accompanied by a statistically sig- nificant gain of +0.2 BLEU points for the overall quality score. In the future, we will improve the processing of verb phrases, and study a classifier with labels that are directly based on the target lan- guage tenses.
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In order for speakers to have reanalyzed [int] as a token of something other than didn’t, the rate of /d/-deletion in the language would have to have been high enough to provide enough input for such a reanalysis. In order for that to happen, the environment producing [int] through /d/-deletion would have to have been robust enough as well. We might also expect ain’t to be used more often when there is a preceding consonant as a result, since the new variant would allow speakers to completely avoid consonant clusters. Accordingly, Weldon (1994) tests the prevalence of environments favoring Rickford’s /d/-deletion rule on data from Black speakers in Columbus, Ohio. Though her results are not significant, she does find that preceding vowel environments show a preference for ain’t over preceding sonorant or obstruent consonants. Weldon notes that this is the opposite of what would be expected if ain’t was derived from the reduction of didn’t. In Chapter 3 of this dissertation, the effect of the phonological segment preceding the use of either ain’t or didn’t will again be tested to determine the robustness of the environment responsible for /d/-deletion in spoken AAE. It is expected that, if /d/- deletion is the motivation for the reduction of didn’t that creates ain’t as a variant in past tense contexts, the environment that favors /d/-deletion (didn’t preceded by consonants) will be robust in naturalistic speech. Additionally, it is expected that ain’t will be most often preceded by consonants as it allows speakers to avoid consonant clusters all together.
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In recent years, the details of this achievement and the precise mechanisms guiding its development have been the subject of considerable study, reﬁnement, and debate. It has become clear that a simple stage-like ac- count is inadequate and does not account for the com- plex developmental pattern that has emerged in more recent studies (e.g., Marchman, 1997; Marcus, Pinker, Ullman, & Hollander, 1992; Plunkett & Marchman, 1991). Children do not enter a period in which the reg- ular rule is applied across-the-board. Instead, past tense forms of some irregular verbs are produced correctly at the same time that others are being overregularized. Although it is rare to ﬁnd a child who never produces overregularizations (Marchman, 1997), errors typically reﬂect only a small portion of childrenÕs irregular verb use (e.g., less than 15% reported by Marcus et al., 1992). Finally, while overregularizations are the most oft-cited evidence that children have abstracted systematicities that are inherent in the language, other types of pro- ductions also occur, including zero-markings (e.g., ‘‘he sit’’) and vowel changes (e.g., ‘‘she brang’’). Analyses have shown that these errors are systematic (Marchman,
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In this study, the researcher intended to delve into learners’ points of view towards explicit and implicit teaching of grammar rules. Feedback from most English teachers in the respective school (Sekolah Kebangsaan Bandar Seri Alam 1) showed that these teachers teach grammar rules explicitly to their learners in view of the fact that learners are to be prepared for examination. For this study, Past Tense verb rules was particularly chosen because Question 3 in English examination Paper 2 usually requires learners to write a story in Past Tense. However, based on their result in Year 5 Final English examination paper (Paper 2), quite a number of learners were found to be generally weak in grasping the rules. These learners are weak in applying Past Tense verb rules into writing as they find it confusing and tedious.
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measures have demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of language ability considering that practitioners often only need to focus on produc- tivity, diversity of vocabulary, and sentence or- ganization. Although useful, these metrics only provide superficial measures of the children’s lan- guage skills that fail to capture detailed lexico- syntactic information. For example, in addition to knowing that a child is able to use specific verb forms in the right context, such as, third person singular present tense or regular past tense, knowl- edge about what are the most common patterns used by a child, or how many different lexical forms for noun + verb are present in the child’s speech is needed because answering these ques- tions provides more detailed information about the status of grammatical development. To fill in this need, we propose a set of measures that aim to cap- ture language proficiency as a function of lexical variability in syntactic patterns. We analyze the information provided by our proposed metrics on a set of spontaneous story retells and evaluate em- pirically their potential use in language status pre- diction.
form “used to” neutralizes the tense-aspect meaning of the perfect forms, thus ensuring the possibility of their expressing repeated actions in the past. The meaning of a single action that “reached its limit” in the past, expressed by the past tense of the perfect form, eliminates the possibility of its determination by any determinant with the meaning “many times”, including “used to” component. The impossibility of occurrence of “used to”, for example, with the parallel use of imperfect and perfect forms of the past tense in the text, indicates that the structure of expression of the attributive system is limited only to the imperfect forms; the perfect forms are not included in the system and have no relation to the content of the attribute:Many times that evening he went to the looking-glass, and stood a long while before it. At last he turned from the looking-glass to me, and with a sort of strange despair, said, “Mon cher, je suis un broken-down man.”(The Possessed by F. Dostoyevsky).The last sentence contains perfect verbs in the past tense, expressing one-time, finite actions in the past (“turned”, “said”), to which the meaning “many times” does not apply. Therefore, the description“many times” is only part of the meaning of this text, expressed in the first sentence. A variation of the content of the predicate “many times” is the content that describes the “plurality of those who”.The first case describes the same situation that occurs many times, the second one deals with the description of one person or object from a number of those that are characterized by the same set of features. The system of such description has, as a rule, a characteristic communicative “beginning”, the structure of which necessarily includes the plural form with the meaning of that indefinite set, which is described further, in the main part of the system:
The analysis of the essays across the three assessment periods demonstrated important changes in how participants wrote as participants significantly decreased from one assessment to the next in self-reported personality disorder symptoms, personality disorder beliefs, and psychiatric symptoms while increasing in self-reported quality of life. Across all treatments, the essays decreased in the use of first-person singular pronouns, negative emotion, and causation words as well as past and future-tense verbs. Furthermore, essays increased in the use of positive emotion words and present-tense verbs. The majority of these changes in word use occurred between baseline and the one- year follow up assessment. In an exploratory analysis, the researchers found twelve additional linguistic categories that changed over the two-year time period, namely the change in the number of unique, social, metaphysical, hearing, death, optimism, and negation (e.g., no, not, didn’t) words as well as articles, pronouns, words greater than six letters, the number of sentences, and the word count. The researchers also compared each assessment period to the control group and found that while positive emotion words increased over time, they remained significantly lower than word counts for the control group. When comparing conditions on negative emotion word use, the proportion of negative emotion words by the experimental condition was higher than control
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perception precedes production, it is possible that in the cases of copula omission on the elicited imitation, the participants failed to perceive the copula, which is arguably distinct from accurately perceiving the copula but failing to produce it. However, this study maintains that the elicited imitation was the most efficient method of collecting quasi- production data across a wide variety of structures. While the methodology of this study may not have allowed for the discovery of all possible environments in which copula omission takes place, nor allowed for an accurate prediction of the rate of copula omission by Arabic speakers learning English, it did allow for a comparison of rate of omission between verb type, tense, number, and syntactic environment within each task as well as an insight into the types of copula errors that Arabic speakers learning English make beyond just those of copula omission. Based on the results of this study, future research (to be discussed in more detail in Section 6.3) has a starting point for identifying the sort of structures that would be most beneficial to hone in on and then collect
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The abstract must also provide a clear and accurate recapitulation of the manuscript for readers who read the entire manuscript. For example, an abstract must not contain data which are not included in the results.The abstract is usually written as one or two paragraphs and it is important that the text flows and does not resemble a collection of disjointed sentences. The choice of words should be simple, jargon avoided and abbreviations omitted except for standard units of measurement and statistical terms. Citations are not usually included. 
sample were annotated manually for, on the one hand, the tense-aspect marking of the main verb and the modal expressions, and, on the other, the modality marking and time reference. Also, the study examines the ELT typology on its own terms, and distinguishes four levels of inclusion, determined on the basis of the information given in a sample of ten coursebooks for advanced learners.
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We investigated selective impairments in the production of regular and irregular past tense by examining language performance and lesion sites in a sample of twelve stroke patients. A disadvantage in regular past tense production was observed in six patients when phonological complexity was greater for regular than irregular verbs, and in three patients when phonological complexity was closely matched across regularity. These de ﬁ cits were not consistently related to grammatical dif ﬁ culties or phonological errors but were consistently related to lesion site. All six patients with a regular past tense disadvantage had damage to the left ventral pars opercularis (in the inferior frontal cortex), an area associated with articulatory sequencing in prior functional imaging studies. In addition, those that maintained a disadvantage for regular verbs when phonological complexity was controlled had damage to the left ventral supramarginal gyrus (in the inferior parietal lobe), an area associated with phonological short-term memory. When these frontal and parietal regions were spared in patients who had damage to subcortical (n = 2) or posterior temporo-parietal regions (n = 3), past tense production was relatively unimpaired for both regular and irregular forms. The remaining (12th) patient was impaired in producing regular past tense but was signi ﬁ cantly less accurate when producing irregular past tense. This patient had frontal, parietal, subcortical and posterior temporo-parietal damage, but was distinguished from the other patients by damage to the left anterior temporal cortex, an area associated with semantic processing. We consider how our lesion site and behavioral observations have implications for theoretical accounts of past tense production.
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While time is a philosophical category that humans use to partition the succession of units such as hours, days, weeks, years, centuries, etc., tense is the language resource that humans use to express time reference. According to their culture, humans interpret the time phenomenon in a diversity of ways which are reflected in linguistic expression of time. This diversity explains why, according to Comrie (1985) there are languages which have three basic tenses (past, present and future), other languages have one tense (past) and the other tenses are said to be not tense (non-past). Still other languages distinguish different types of past and future in such a way that, having the tense corresponding to the present time, or the time of speech, as the reference tense, and the other tenses as those expressing events which happen before the present (past) or happen after the present (future), may distinguish recent past from remote past, or near future from distant future. In agglutinative languages, all these tense distinctions are marked in different ways in the verb structure be it segmentally or suprasegmentally.
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Further, EFL textbooks provide little information regarding the tense that should be used for the main/reporting verb. By presenting exclusively the examples in which the reporting verb is always in the past tense, textbooks implicitly suggest that this is always the case, disregarding other possible tense combinations for the reporting and embedded verbs (present-past, present-present). Textbooks also neglect context-dependent and register-dependent variation (Barbieri and Eckhardt 2007), that is, the fact that reported speech is not used in the same way in everyday conversation, newspaper writing or academic essays. Corpus research showed that the presentation of reported speech as a “monolithic phenomenon” (Barbieri and Eckhardt 2007) is highly misleading one. The usage of reported speech signiﬁcantly varies across registers, including the usage of reporting verbs other than “say”, “tell” and “ask” and tense combinations other than past-past.
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We collected a large amount of data on irregular past tense formation in English with a nonce probe test, a classic method for exploring the produc- tivity of inflectional morphology (Berko, 1958). Earlier studies used 30 or fewer participants per condition (Bybee and Slobin, 1982a; Albright and Hayes, 2003). By using Amazon Mechanical Turk, a burgeoning forum for psycholinguistic re- search (Munro et al., 2010), we were able to re- cruit a large number of participants and explore the role of individual-level factors in the choice of morphological patterns. Moreover, we tested participant preferences across a large dataset (316 nonce verbs) based on broad phonological sam- pling within verb classes, allowing for repeated trials across similar items for each participant.