These days Object Oriented Frameworks are an accepted technology within the software industry. More and more people are writing use cases, for behavioral requirements, for software systems or to describe business processes . There is a growing trend in diagram interpretation [33, 34, 35] and automated grading of diagrams like UseCasediagrams, Class Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams, Activity Diagrams, Collaboration Diagrams and E-R Diagrams. Keeping this in mind it is proposed to investigate the automated assessment of diagrammatic answers- particularly UseCasediagrams. In the remainder of this paper, section 2 discusses the work done in this area, section 3 gives the outline of the system and presents the architecture, section 4 explains the benefits of the proposed architecture and in the final section of the paper we find its conclusion.
casediagrams. The main advantage of our model is that it can be used in the early stages of the software life cycle, and that can help project managers efficiently conduct cost estimation early, thus avoiding project overestimation and late delivery among other benefits. Software size, productivity, complexity and requirements stability are the inputs of the model. The model is composed of six independent sub-models which include non- linear regression, linear regression with a logarithmic transformation, Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN), Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP), General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) and a Treeboost model. Several experiments were conducted to train and test the model based on the size of the training and testing data points. The neural network models were evaluated against regression models as well as two other models that conduct software estimation from usecasediagrams. Results show that our model outperforms other relevant models based on five evaluation criteria. While the performance of each of the six sub-models varies based on the size of the project dataset used for evaluation, it was concluded that the non-linear regression model outperforms the linear regression model. As well, the GRNN model exceeds other neural network models. Furthermore, experiments demonstrated that the Treeboost model can be efficiently used to predict software effort.
• Reuse at the class level can be hindered by each developer “taking a UseCase and running with it”. Since UCs do not talk about classes, developers often wind up in a vacuum during object analysis, and can often wind up doing things their own way, making reuse difficult
Usecase modeling is an important requirements engineering technique which plays an important role in describing the systems specifications and facilitating systems development. The use of linguistic representations of system requirements as a source of information for generating usecase models is a challenging task and can be considered relatively a new field. This paper has tackled the problem of extracting the required elements that are needed to automatically generate usecasediagrams from specification documents which are written in common natural language. Therefore, we have developed an automated system which employs the Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques to parse specifications syntactically based on a predefined set of heuristic rules. Furthermore, our system incorporates the capability of analyzing and understanding the English text as a semantic unit to infer some important linguistic features such as reference, comparing and additive cohesive devices. The extracted information is then mapped into actors and use cases, which are the basic elements of usecasediagrams. Our proposed approach was evaluated using both recall and precision performance measurements. The experiments revealed that our system has an average of 96% recall and 84% precision.
Relationships between Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams are complex. The complexity leads to inconsis- tencies between UML diagrams easily. This paper focus on how to identify and check inconsistencies between UML diagrams. 13 consistency rules are given to identify inconsistencies between the most frequent 6 types of UML dia- grams in the domain of information systems analysis and design. These diagrams are as follows: UseCaseDiagrams, Class Diagrams, Activity Diagrams, State Machine Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams and Communication Diagrams. 4 methods are given to check inconsistencies between UML diagrams as follows: manual check, compulsory restriction, automatic maintenance, dynamic check. These rules and methods are helpful for developers to model information sys- tems.
M. Sarma et al. presented an approach of generating test cases from UML design diagrams. A UML usecasediagrams transformed into a graph called usecase diagram graph (UDG) and sequence diagram into a graph called the sequence diagram graph (SDG) and then integrating UDG and SDG to form the System Testing Graph (STG). The STG is then traversed to generate test cases for system testing. They have used state-based transition path coverage criteria for test case generation. Having stored all essential information for test generation in the STG, they now traverse the STG to generate test cases. The Test Suite Generation algorithm, traverse the STG at 2 levels. The traversal begins with the UDG. This traversal visits all use cases and generate test cases for detecting initialization faults. At level 1, if a usecase initialization faults occur then it was assume faults in its operation and therefore no need to apply test cases corresponding to the operation. At level 2 traversal, starting from a usecase node the corresponding SDG was visited and test cases were generated to detect operational faults . Chen et al. proposed a technique in which they use UML activity diagrams as design specifications, and consider the automatic approach to test case generation. Instead of deriving test cases from the UML activity diagram directly, they presented an indirect approach which selects the test cases from the set of the randomly generated test case according to a given activity diagram. In this method, they first randomly generate abundant random test cases. Then, by running the program with these test cases, they will get the corresponding program execution traces. Last, by comparing these traces with the activity diagram according to the specific coverage criteria, they can prune some redundant test cases and get a reduced test case set which meets the test adequacy criteria.
Abstract—Business modeling is a primary task in the information systems development lifecycle. Although both MEASUR (Methods for Eliciting, Analyzing and Specifying User’s Requirement) and RUP (Rational Unified Process) provide their own Business Modeling Method (BMM), each has obvious merits and demerits. To keep the merits and avoid the demerits at the same time, in this paper, a MEASUR and RUP combined BMM is devised based on the comparison of the two BMMs respectively from the semantics, pragmatics and social world of the semiotic framework. The method proposed consists of three activities in sequence. Unified Modeling Language (UML) UseCaseDiagrams (UCD) are employed in the first activity “UML UCD Modeling” to model business functions concerning with the social world since they are the only formal result modeling business functions in both BMMs. The extended UML Activity Diagrams (AD) are employed in the second activity “Extended UML AD Modeling” to model both norms and communications concerning with both the social world and the pragmatics since UML AD can model communications directly and obviously but norms cannot and therefore make the analysis of purposes in communications much easier. In addition, it is easy to extend UML AD with the deontic operators to express the same meaning as norms following the simple rules. The Ontology Charts (OC) are employed in the third activity “OC Modeling” to define meanings of terminology used in business models and concerning with the semantics since ontological dependencies are modeled directly and clearly in OC but not defined in UML Class Diagrams.
Shanti and Kumar propose test case generation by means of UML sequence diagrams using genetic algorithms, offering the best test case path . Liu and Huang propose a process and a set of rules for conflict analysis in class diagrams, which can reinforce requirements analysis tasks . In , a framework for the automated generation of usecasediagrams is proposed. By developing usecasediagrams and activity diagrams, functional test cases are generated. Olajubu et.al  present work on automating the generation of test cases from software requirement models. They represent requirements using a modeling notation and automatically generate test cases using model to text transformation techniques.
Usecase scenarios are usually not executed in arbitrary orders. Some usecase scenarios need to be executed before others. They may have <<extend>> and <<include>> dependencies as well as sequential dependencies which stem from the logic of the business process that the system supports. Hence, data comes in or goes out of the system through use cases. An actor gives input and receives output information through use cases. Thus, we can have dependencies and constraints between use cases for each actor. So usecasediagrams can be ornamented with extra ad-hoc information to show relationships and dependencies among use cases of a system . The UseCase formats described so far, are all versions of UseCase descriptions. Now we describe UML UseCasediagrams in detail. A more thorough description of UML UseCasediagrams can be found in (Fowler, 2003).
Use cases diagrams explain how one or more actors interact with the system. Use cases describes what the system does i.e. its functional requirements in re- sponse to user inputs (, p. 74). To generate the use cases, first we identified the actors on the mobile application. An actor represents a role played by someone who interacts with the system. Any actor of the mobile application has some access rights on some functions. Based on the access rights, we generated three types of users, administrators, healthcare professionals and normal users. After identifying the actors, we categorized them according to the expected functions the user needs from the system. A normal user can usually access the mobile application’s basic functions such as chatting, health information portal, discussion forums, and healthcare directory. Some functions require the user to log in to the system. Before logging in, a user must create an account in the mobile application. A healthcare professional has more functions than those available for a normal user. A healthcare professional is the main content crea- tor for discussion forums and health information portal. A healthcare profes- sional like a normal user, has to create an account in the mobile application in order to manage information in the mobile application. An administrator has access rights to perform critical system functions, thereby making the mobile application convenient to use by other types of users. An administrator mainly performs management of mobile application’s modules. Figures 2(a)-(c) show the normal user, healthcare professional and administrator usecasediagrams respectively.
In this research, the input of UseCase and Class diagrams are created using Visual Paradigm v. 8, that supports UML2 The diagrams created with Visual Paradigm can be exported in XMI-format files (.uml). Moreover, Visual Paradigm provides the feature that supports the insertion of descriptions into UseCasediagrams. The UseCase diagram with inserted descriptions will then be exported in XMI format (usecaseWithDesc.uml), and transformed to the target model (usecaseDesc.uml) with ATL transformation as shown in Fig. 6. A set of mapping rules is defined, together with the source metamodel of UseCase (Fig. 7) and the target metamodel of UseCase Description (Fig. 8) are created to support the ATL transformation process. Since the metamodel of UseCase Description is not defined as a standard of the OMG, the method how to build the UCD metamodel presented in  is adopted in this work.
Given their sequential nature and clearly segmented activities, the Activity Diagrams are intuitive starting points to support mission definition. Sequence Diagrams, UseCaseDiagrams, and State Machine Diagrams can be used to provide supplementary information regarding mission performance. Sequence Diagrams are particularly useful to provide a different view of interactions between elements of the internal structure of an activity, which helps provide clarity regarding the ordering of activities. Specifically, it should alert any user to conflicts that may result from expecting an activity to commence prior to the creation of external information necessary to support that activity, a level of detail that is more difficult to see when using only Activity Diagrams as they provide no detail regarding the control of activity inputs or outputs while modeling at the level of abstraction shown. UseCaseDiagrams can be used to further aid development of functional architecture views by providing an increased level of detail regarding the actors that are involved in each activity. UseCaseDiagrams are particularly useful for multi-purpose systems, which may require a different set of personnel to execute each activity. Used in conjunction with Sequence Diagrams, this allows a mission engineer to identify potential conflicts in terms of both system control and system implementation. Finally, State Machine Diagrams provide additional clarity regarding the range of behaviors possible for a given entity, as well as the differing modes of activities in different states. This allows for a more formal examination of the control system of the system of interest than is possible in the Activity Diagram. Given that the process of interest (Minehunting and Mine Detection) is a sequential, discrete process with a limited number of human interactions and state changes, both the UseCase and State Machine Diagrams are not particularly interesting and are not shown.
Abstract. In this paper we describe in details UML modeling of login procedure, which is a part of UserBarCodeReader application, developed for large stores and intended for use as a customer support during the shopping session. Login procedure is realized within access control system, in this case over a wireless network. Paper gives the whole modeling and implementation cycle of login procedure, from UseCasediagrams to the Java source code. Login procedure is modeled using interaction overview diagram, new in UML 2.0, which gives concise representation and divides complex sequence diagram into several smaller. The link between these diagrams is modeled with OCL postcondition and precondition expressions.
Quality has been defined by two experts in quality [1 and 2]. Both of them have explored the quality as a developed mind set in management studies, especially quality management. According to Juran , the quality is suitability for use (conformance to use). Juran’s stated that a product or service should meet to the need, and what is needed or expected by the user or customer . Furthermore, Juran’s pointed out five dimensions of quality:
Figure 1 shows the basic flow of the usecase narrative. It consists of six steps describing in- teraction between the actor ( customer in this case ) and the system in the course of placing an order for the items placed in the shopping cart online. Figure 2a shows the corresponding CRUD matrix as shown in [ 12 ] , and Figure 2b shows the implied ER diagram. The capitalized operations in the table depicted by Figure 2a are executed on corresponding entities ( column headers ) during the particular process step ( row headers ) . The first row of the table shows that, in the “Review Order” step, a Read operation is executed on all four entities ( Customer, Order, OrderLineItem and Product ) . The second row shows that, in the “Submit Order” step, an Up- date operation is executed on Order and Product entities, while Read operation is performed on all four entities in order to show the correspond- ing information for all of them in the next step: generation and display of the receipt.
We compared constellations and BER in the case of sub-carriers are 16, 32, 64, 128, 256 and 512. The comparison is shown that the BER is gradually increased and the quality of optical receiving signal gradually deteriorated with the increase of the number of sub-carriers in optical coherent 64QAM-OFDM transmission system.
an indispensible tool in research methodology. A few simple principles that connect causation with association were suf- ficient to explain why matching controls to cases not only fails to remove confounding bias, but also adds colliding bias on top of confounding bias. The same principles also show that both types of bias will be removed by conditioning on the matched confounder(s). Tracing the logic of matched case- control studies reveals a possible tradeoff between effort and variance, not between effort and bias. The variance might be reduced in return for the extra effort that matching requires. Of course, the extra effort, if not trivial, may also be invested in recruiting more controls for an unmatched study.
The requirements for testing frameworks and class libraries are somewhat different than for applications. Classes used in a specific application need to work correctly in that application, whereas those in frameworks or libraries are intended to be reused and m ust work in yet unwritten applications. Of particular concern here is speciali sation inheritance, discussed in Section 3.4. A subclass that is a specialisation can be substituted for its parent provided the strengthened method preconditions are not vio lated. W hile a specific application may be able to guarantee this, it can be a potential source for errors in the use of a class library. In an ideal world, developers of class libraries and frameworks would provide their customers with test requirements for the correct use of their software (Marick 1992a), and this would include test requirements that make their specialised subclasses fail substitutability.