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A privacy-level model of user-centric cyber-physical systems

A privacy-level model of user-centric cyber-physical systems

In this paper, we extend our previous work in [9–11] by investigating attacks, challenges and methods to preserve privacy in user-centric thin clients such as CPSs. We analyze the most severe privacy challenges occurred from passive at- tacks, such as eavesdropping and traffic analysis, and from active attacks, such as impersonation and jamming. Suitable countermeasures are described to pro- tect data and identity, location and routing paths. To define the privacy-level model, we group the described mitigation mechanisms into three categories ac- cording to the utilized parameters: standard parameters, fake parameters and changing parameters. Based on these categories a privacy-level model is pro- posed, consisting of three di↵erent levels of privacy corresponding to di↵erent privacy challenges and attacks. This model can be applied in a variety of CPSs independently of device’s capabilities and operating systems. Furthermore, the privacy-level model developed here is evaluated in an experimental test-bed.
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A User centric Mobile Service Creation Approach Converging Telco and IT Services

A User centric Mobile Service Creation Approach Converging Telco and IT Services

people to create, manage, and share their own personalized services fitting their needs. It has gained a momentum on the Internet, with the release of several Web content and application mash-up tools such as Yahoo Pipes (http://pipes.yahoo.com) and Microsoft Popfly (http://www.popfly.com). But up to now a unique integration between the telecommunications and the Internet services, which fosters the creation of a personal communication space across terminals, networks and domain boundaries, is still missing. User-centric service creation as supported by the platform being developed by the OPUCE project (http://www.opuce.eu) does not only mean a faster and cheaper way of service delivery, but also offers new business models to promote the use of services such as messaging, location, and presence residing in the telco core networks.
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User Centric Future Internet and Telecommunication Services

User Centric Future Internet and Telecommunication Services

The Web 2.0 is heading towards a global service ecosystem, and a good example is the mashup phenomenon, where small applications are built by coordinating remote Web services. In order to allow user-centric mash-up creation, some online tools already exist to allow easy and intuitive composition of Web services for early adopters, like Yahoo Pipes (http://pipes.yahoo.com), or general public, like Microsoft Popfly (http://www.popfly.com). Users can compose with these tools their own simple mash-ups, in some cases without requiring very high computer science and ICT skills. The vision of the Internet of Services is starting to become real thanks to these tools. In the nowadays Internet, users are able to provide their own content. In the future Internet, they will be able to provide their own services.
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User centric trust based access control for ubiquitous computing enviroments

User centric trust based access control for ubiquitous computing enviroments

Can we develop real world deployment and perform larger case studies? It would be interesting to gather a much larger audience for the evaluation of the proposed solution. There is certainly, a huge scope for the continuation of research in the area of trust management in OSNs, as a proxy for the kind of issues that need to be addressed for user centric ubiquitous computing applications. Case studies could be designed to tackle various issues discussed in this paper. Besides experimenting with online communities in the broad Internet context, it would also be very interesting to address issues with OSNs used in organisations and centre around particular user requirements in a work setting. In summary, it is the opinion of the authors that trust- based management mechanisms that are tailorable to an individual’s needs are necessary in many collaborative ubiquitous computing applications. In our research, we have shown that the interactions necessary with the individual in order to manage and personalise trust can be simplified but that more work is needed to fully explore the issues that arise from our initial evaluation.
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Towards user centric operation in 5G networks

Towards user centric operation in 5G networks

There are three pillars that characterize the new 5G revolution, namely, the use of heterogeneous wireless access technologies conforming an ultra-dense network, the software-driven flexibility of this network, and the simplified and user-centric operation and management of the system. This next-generation network operation and management shall be based on the usage of Big Data Analytics techniques to monitor the end-user quality of experience through direct measures of the network. This paper describes the Astellia approach towards this network revolution and presents some results on the performance of quality estimation techniques in current cellular networks. Thanks to the use of this approach, operators may fill the gap of knowledge between network key performance indicators and user experience. This way, they can operate in a proactive manner and have actual measurements of the users ’ experience, which leads to a fairer judgement of the users ’ complaints.
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User centric web search using ontology

User centric web search using ontology

Abstract. Semantic information retrieval systems query the World Wide Web based on context information, and are intended to provide more pertinent search results. However, most of the existing systems overlook one important aspect ‘the user’. They are more focused on eliminating the obscure results that a conventional or non-semantic search engine would throw up and hence, they are pretty much static. On the other hand, our effort would channel its focus more towards providing a more user-centric service using ontology and involving learning and prediction. By studying the usage statistics of the user, context information can be built and used effectively to produce better search results. Such an approach also entails that the knowledge that is accrued, be organized such that the relationships between the data elements can be elicited easily and unambiguously. The ontology would be described using OWL. Latent semantic indexing algorithm is used for context analysis and retrieval.
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A visual semantic service browser supporting user centric service composition

A visual semantic service browser supporting user centric service composition

Abstract—Follow the promising Web 2.0 paradigm, the telecommunications world also wants to implement the Telco 2.0 vision by inviting its users to actively participate in the cre- ating and sharing of services accessible using handheld devices. The EU-IST research project OPUCE (Open Platform for User- Centric Service Creation and Execution) aims at providing end users with an innovative platform which allows an easy creation and delivery of personalized communication and information services. This paper introduces a novel visual semantic service browser built on top of the OPUCE service repository which enables intuitive visualized service exploring and discovery while requires no technical semantic Web knowledge from the user.
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Managing User centric Adaptive Services for Pervasive Computing

Managing User centric Adaptive Services for Pervasive Computing

Presentation-centric adaptive systems use explicit user models to tailor information to different users. Data is collected for the user model from various sources [14], e.g. contact lists, schedules, terminal capabilities, application usage histories and security, cost, navigational and presentational preferences. The user model is the basis of the adaptation effects. One area of strong research into personalized adaptive systems is Adaptive Hypermedia systems, which are typically applied to areas of learning, such as museum guides or eLearning. These offer an alternative to the traditional “one-size-fits-all” approach by employing user models that allow personalization in hypermedia systems. The benefits of such personalization include relevancy, reduced time to learn and improved retention and recall by users. The experiences of the adaptive hypermedia community therefore provide a rich seam of techniques and architectures that may prove useful in developing user-centric adaptive services. We are assessing the usefulness of these experiences as we move from document-oriented adaptation of hypermedia to service-oriented adaptation. In general, the focus of adaptive hypermedia systems on user cognition will have to be expanded to address the adaptive delivery of services to the user. However, the conceptual similarities pointed out in [18] between the service-oriented concepts as used in architectural description languages and the hypermedia meta-model indicate that such a shift can be readily accommodated. We have already developed a sophisticated generic adaptive engine that has been applied successfully to personalized eLearning hypermedia [3]. We are currently investigating how this engine can be applied to support adaptive service composition.
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Title: User Centric Web Page Recommender System Based on User Profile and Geo-Location

Title: User Centric Web Page Recommender System Based on User Profile and Geo-Location

Web page recommendation became a major requirement in web information searching, wherein different machine learning algorithms used for the links to the recently viewed web pages are shown. Google uses ranking algorithm for searching web pages that contain the keywords to be searched, and simultaneously extracts the key words from the web pages and then based on the extracted keywords frequency in the web pages a rank to each page has been given. The best matched link with the highest frequency of searching key word comes first in the Google search recommendation. Google Search engine ranking algorithm works by importance of the website which is decided by counting the links attached to that website. The link counting may take a process of iteration and finals the algorithm with a ranking result. There are web page recommendation systems done using web log file and knowledge representation. User Centric based personalized web recommending is a better and automated way of providing search result of web pages concentrating on the user‟s information needs.
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Resource allocation scheme for future user-centric wireless network

Resource allocation scheme for future user-centric wireless network

The research work focuses on the envisioned user-centric telecommunication paradigm, which will influence operators to enhance their profit windows by increasing the satisfied user pool. The aforementioned facts motivate us to carry out the research on modeling the decision instances of resource allocation decisions at the network technology level. In order to achieve the goal, the sub-objectives are as below

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Introducing the user to the service creation world: concepts for user centric service creation, personalization and notification

Introducing the user to the service creation world: concepts for user centric service creation, personalization and notification

This means that a user-centric service creation environment needs a way to make explicit references to User Sphere, when creating a service. It is important to remind that people in the OPUCE community can be both final service users and service creators. This means that, when referring to a value from the User Sphere inside a service definition (e.g. an email address, a phone number, etc), there has to be suitable support to tell if that reference has to be resolved in the service creator space or in the final use space. This last kind of reference is needed to make service definitions more flexible and to ease the task of enabling other users to run services inside their own User Sphere. This approach also helps protecting users’ private data, while keeping the ability to port services to other users. In fact users cannot reference directly other users’ personal data and each reference is made through an alias for values inside the user sphere: e.g. if inside a service definition the service creator needs to send an SMS to another OPUCE user in his contact list, he can refer to $Me.contactList.OPUCEUser1.mobile and that will do. Of course OPUCEUser will be asked permissions for being added to the creator contactList, and this can make his references available (if he wants to) in an anonymous way (i.e. without showing the actual number).
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Vulnerability to social engineering in social networks : a proposed user-centric framework

Vulnerability to social engineering in social networks : a proposed user-centric framework

The reviewed frameworks indicate the need for a multidimensional perspective. There are many important factors to consider when examining user susceptibility to social engineering. In contrast to the listed frameworks, our proposed framework affords a more extensive and holistic user-centric model that offers a starting point for future research to understand user susceptibility to social engineering. Table 2 shows a summary of the attributes that have been identified as a basis for comparing frameworks. A tick (√) shows that the attribute is included in the framework. Note that all listed attributes are included in our proposed User-Centric Framework.
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A USER-CENTRIC DATA SECURE CREATION SCHEME IN CLOUD COMPUTING

A USER-CENTRIC DATA SECURE CREATION SCHEME IN CLOUD COMPUTING

Key words — User-centric, ACC-PRE, Data creation, Master secret secure, CCA. In this paper we use a security analysis of algorithm .In this paper we focus on how a mediator can help a social affair of customer to totally utilize the volume markdown assessing philosophy offered by cloud organization providers through financially savvy online resource booking.

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User-centric Visualization of Data Provenance

User-centric Visualization of Data Provenance

‘Treemaps’ or ‘Dynamic Squarified Treemaps’ by Bhulai et al. [75], is another type of visualization introduced to solve the representation issues tied to the lists and tag clouds. The size of the squares in the dynamic squarified treemaps represents the magnitude or importance of an item. One can argue that this is user-centric and that it provides a reasonable amount of information to the users. However, as data grows, scalability can become an issue with this type of visualization because of proliferation of tiny and large datasets requiring human-supervised analysis [67] [69]. For example, the ratio in size, of the largest square in the ‘dynamic squarified treemap’ to the smallest square can become small to a point where users of the visualization cannot read and analyse the treemap visualization. Figure 2.5 illustrates an example of a ‘Dynamic Squarified Treemap’ visualization based on company income. As shown in Figure 2.5, large datasets are visible. However take a new company, ‘X Company’ for example, has only $1 million for its income. To visualize ‘X Company’ along with all other existing company will be a user-centric issue, since the ratio of the largest company to the ‘X Company’ is so big that
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Efficient  Threshold  Zero-Knowledge  with  Applications  to  User-Centric  Protocols

Efficient Threshold Zero-Knowledge with Applications to User-Centric Protocols

Furthermore, we apply the developed primitives and techniques in the context of user-centric protocols. In particular, we construct distributed-user variants of Brands’ e-cash system and the bilinear anonymous credential scheme by Camenisch and Lysyanskaya. Distributing the user party in such protocols has several practical advantages: First, the security of a user can be increased by sharing secrets and computations over multiple devices owned by the user. In this way, losing control of a single device does not result in a security breach. Second, this approach also allows groups of users to jointly control an application (e.g., a joint e-cash account), not giving a single user full control. The distributed versions of the protocols we propose in this paper are relatively efficient (when compared to a general MPC approach). In comparison to the original protocols only the prover’s (or user’s) side is modified while the other side stays untouched. In particular, it is oblivious to the other party whether it interacts with a distributed prover (or user) or one as defined in the original protocol.
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Towards Privacy-Preserving Web Metering Via User-Centric Hardware

Towards Privacy-Preserving Web Metering Via User-Centric Hardware

User-centric hardware-based web metering schemes have a potential to overcome user impersonation attacks and can be designed to preserve users’ privacy. This can be achieved by involving the Audit Agency in the user setup or increasing the cost of webserver faking visits, as followed in the lightweight security approach in [22]. The hardware introduction is used here to increase the cost for a corrupt webserver to fake visits by requiring it to own a hardware device for each fake user. At the same time, the scheme has to ensure that it is impossible for a corrupt webserver with one authentic hardware device to be able to generate an unlimited number of evidences e.g. using a periodic hardware authentication with a limit of issued certificates. Therefore, we need a hardware device at the user side containing a secret key. Also, the secret keys certificates and public cryptographic values have to be available to the Audit Agency as they are required in step 3. In steps 3 and 7, the user is assumed to be securely redirected and may not necessarily be aware of this ongoing web metering operation, if a privacy- preserving scheme is being used in a transparent mode.
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Interfacing User Centric Design of Human Computer Interaction in Quality of Software

Interfacing User Centric Design of Human Computer Interaction in Quality of Software

User centric design concept of human computer interaction is aimed to provide easiness towards user’s interface. It is also called interface design process that emphases on usability goals, user characteristics, environment, tasks, and workflow. For analysis, design, and evaluation of mainstream hardware, software, and web interfaces the UCD monitors a sequence of well-defined methods and techniques [35]. UCD process is an iterative process, where design and evaluation steps are constructed in from the first stage of projects, through implementation. It focuses on following:
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User-Centric Energy-Efficient Scheduling on Multi-Core Mobile Devices

User-Centric Energy-Efficient Scheduling on Multi-Core Mobile Devices

This paper introduces the concept of application sensitivity into scheduler and governor designs for mobile systems, with the objective to improve user experience and energy efficiency simul- taneously. The rationale behind the concept is based on the fol- lowing observations. Mobile applications provide a large variety of functionalities, some of which are delay-sensitive while others are delay-tolerant. Delay-tolerant applications, like file zipping, can be delayed without affecting the user’s experience signifi- cantly. By contrast, delay-sensitive applications, such as video playing, are extremely sensitive to delay and thus require timely responses. In other words, different applications may have dif- ferent sensitivity with respect to user perception. Therefore, we argue that mobile applications should be treated unfairly by allocating CPU resources to them according to their sensitivity. Realizing this concept in mobile operating systems obviously raises several design challenges. First, determining the sensitiv- ity of each application is a major challenge. Our design, which is based on some observations about human attention and interac- tion [2, 13], classifies the sensitivity of applications into three lev- els: high, medium, and low. Based on these levels, we define the rules of sensitivity inheritance and transitions. Second, another challenge is how to exploit each application’s sensitivity during scheduling and governing. This is difficult because the gover- nor tends to limit the available CPU resources to reduce power consumption, so the scheduler only has limited CPU resources to maintain the quality of user experience. Our design, which considers user experience and energy efficiency simultaneously, manages and allocates CPU resources in certain proportions to applications with high, medium, and low sensitivity. Finally, to validate the concept and evaluate our design, we have integrated our user-centric scheduler and governor into the Android oper- ating system, as well as conducted extensive experiments on a commercial Samsung Galaxy S3 smartphone with some mobile apps found on Google Play. Compared to the Completely Fair Scheduler [8] and the Ondemand governor [11], the proposed design can reduce the CPU’s energy consumption by about 25% while improving 31% response time of the application that dom- inates the user’s attention. The experiment results also provide some valuable insights into user-centric, energy-efficient schedul- ing on mobile devices.
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NYSOL: A User-Centric Framework for Knowledge Discovery in Big Data

NYSOL: A User-Centric Framework for Knowledge Discovery in Big Data

The NYSOL Project has expanded the ecosystem of KDD tools which balances the creation and management of information assets from big data. The user-centric nature of NYSOL tools empower users to create and customize programs, and to build a tailored information system for data management and analysis in a simplified and efficient mannner. The NYSOL package is available for public download distributed under the terms of GNU Affero General Public License 2 at http://www.nysol.jp/en/home. In addition, an experimental parallel processing GGP system that specializes in data table structure was developed, and the resulting benchmark achieved high processing efficiency. Moving forward, we aim to improve user interface for NYSOL tools, optimize processing efficiency with GGP architecture to enhance its robustness for extensive use in high performance research and commercial environment. We hope that The NYSOL Project could continue to benefit the community with innovative applied research and development in KDD, supported by educational initiatives.
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Ethical dimensions of user centric regulation

Ethical dimensions of user centric regulation

In this paper, we question the role of information technology (IT) designers in IT regulation. Through our concept of user centric regulation (UCR) we unpack what a closer alignment of IT design and regulation could mean. We also situate how they can respond to their ethical and legal duties to end users. Our concept asserts that human computer interaction (HCI) designers are now regulators and as designers are not traditionally involved in the practice of regulation hence the nature of their role is ill- defined. We believe designers need support in understanding what their new role entails, particularly managing ethical dimensions that go beyond law and compliance. We use conceptual analysis to consolidate perspectives from across Human Computer Interaction and Information Technology Law and Regulation, Computer Ethics, Philosophy of Technology, and beyond. We focus in this paper on the importance of mediation and responsibility and illustrate our argument by drawing on the emerging technological setting of smart cities.
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