Intelligent sensors and communication sub stations bus network, intelligentsensor as from the machine, the measurement results are sent to the communication substation, the substation remote transmission to the monitoring computer. Zigbee is used for remote meter reading data by European standards, it has the following characteristics: two wire bus, not divided into positive and negative polarity, the construction is simple; the digital signal transmission level features unique, strong anti-interference ability; bus can provide a regulated power supply of 3.3v/3ma for each communication node, providing two power supply for instrument; can use any bus topology structure, system network low cost, flexible expansion.
With advancements in wireless and related technologies in last two decades, WirelessSensor Networks (WSNs) become an integral part of our daily life as these networks are being used in wide areas of applications. WSNs consist of Sensor Nodes (SNs) which are equipped with low-power microcontrollers and transceivers to perform various operations in the network field . There is large range of applications such as monitoring of environment, pollution control system, military operations, control of vehicle motion, detection of earthquake, tracking of target and surveillance system, monitoring system for patients , where WSNs can play an important role. Routing is one of the critical technologies in WSNs. Opposed to traditional ad hoc networks, routing in WSNs is more challenging as a result of their inherent characteristics [3, 4]. Firstly, resources are greatly constrained in terms of power supply, processing capability and transmission bandwidth. Secondly, it is difficult to design a global addressing scheme as Internet Protocol (IP). Furthermore, IP cannot be applied to WSNs, since address updating in a large- scale or dynamic WSN can result in heavy overhead. Thirdly, due to the limited resources, it is hard for routing to cope with unpredictable and frequent topology changes, especially in a mobile environment. Fourthly, data collection by many sensor nodes usually results in a high probability of data redundancy, which must be considered by routing protocols. Fifthly, most applications of WSNs require the only communication scheme of many-to-one, i.e., from multiple sources to one particular sink, rather than multicast or peer to peer. Finally, in time-constrained applications of WSNs, data transmissions should be accomplished within a certain period of time. Thus, bounded latency for data transmissions must be taken into
The robot will send control command to the sever in the intelligent space when it needs to search and locate an object. Sever will look for the ZigBee nodes which connect with the RFID reader and send the command to these nodes, then the ZigBee terminal node will control to turn on the RFID reader and RFID antenna. When RFID antenna finds the tag which is attached on the ob- ject, RFID reader will send the RFID tag information to the ZigBee terminal node through serial port. ZigBee terminal node will add its physical address to the RFID tag information, and transfer this information to the sever by ZigBeewirelesssensornetwork and server will trans- fer this information to the robot. Robot can complete the object search according to the information. The program flowchart is show in Figure 11.
OPNET is network simulation software based on the research results of MIT is developed by MIL3. The main features of OPNET include the following aspects: (1) using object-oriented technology, object attributes can be arbitrary configuration, each object belongs to the corresponding behavior and function of the class, can meet the requirements of different systems by defining a new class; (2) the OPNET provides members of the communication network and information system and the module; (3) OPNET using the graphical interface modeling, the three layer provides to the user (network layer, node layer, process layer) modeling mechanism to describe the reality of the system; (4) OPNET in the process of hierarchical finite state machines have been used to model other protocol and process flow simulation, user model and OPNET the built-in model will automatically generate C language implementation of efficient, high discrete event executable.
ABSTRACT: Food security is one of the main global challenges today. Despite the fact that the number of food insecure populations remains unacceptably high worldwide, each year, enormous quantities of food are lost due to many factors such as spoilage, infestations, theft and spillage during transporting. These losses are called Postharvest Losses (PHLs). Zambia's Food Reserve Agency (FRA)currently faces PHL grain inventory losses, the current grain inventory management system is manual and paper based, and the cost of implementing a commercial automated inventory management system such as one that utilizes RFID technology is high. Hence, we proposed a sensornetwork thatuses Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), ZigBeeWirelessSensorNetwork (WSN), and Cloud technologies in the development of a grain inventory management system for the FRA. An extensive literature review was conducted to find existing RFID applications in object tracking, monitoring and inventory management. A baseline study was conducted to determine the challenges faced by FRA regarding grain inventory management. The results of the baseline study were analysed and it was found that inventory is counted manually, records are mostly kept on paper and thefts are experienced. Interviews with warehouse supervisors were also conducted to get details FRA’s current business transactions. These findings were used to design automated RFID Grain Inventory Management System (RFID-GIMS) models with the goal of eliminating manual and paper based systems, and eliminating theft altogether.
ZigBee is the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and PHY layers designed for low bandwidth, low-power, low-cost, wireless mesh network standard . The mesh networking capability provides high reliability and longer ranges applications while the low cost enables the technology to be used in monitoring and controls of wireless applications, and a low power consumption guarantee a longer life for the batteries . ZigBee operates in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) radio bands which include; 868MHZ in Europe, 915MHZ in both Australia and United States of America and 2.4GHZ frequency band worldwide. Data transmission ranges from 20kb/s to 250kb/s in the 868MHZ to 2.4GHZ frequency band [8, 9].
The wirelesssensornetwork has been developing rapidly with the development of computer technology, sensor technology and modern communication technology. In terms of development, Internet technology provides a unified communication basis, and greatly improves the efficiency of communication among people. However, with the development of Internet of Things technology, the traditional Internet technology can no longer meet the people’s need to access information. While, the development of wirelesssensornetwork has greatly promoted the people’s ability of information acquirement and perception, which can effectively acquire various information in the physical world, and make such information be widely used in national defense, indus- trial control, intelligent medical treatment, modern agriculture, etc. The ZigBee tech- nology is a communication protocol standard that is developed based on small wire- less networks , and has great application prospect in smart home and commercial building automation, as the ZigBee protocol matures gradually, especially in recent years .
Abstract - WirelessSensor Networks Application of Wellness Determination for elderly people involves functional assessment of daily activities. We reported a mechanism for estimation of elderly well-being condition based on usage of house-hold appliances connected through various sensing units. An intelligent home monitoring system based on ZIGBEEwireless sensors network has been designed and developed to monitor and evaluate the well-being of the elderly living alone in a home environment. Wellness of elderly can be evaluated for forecasting unsafe situations during monitoring of regular activities. The intelligent software, along with the electronic system can monitor the usage of different household appliances and recognize the activities to determine the well-being of the elderly. Also, the system interprets all the essential information about elder persons such as Heartbeat Rate, Temperature, Movement, lighting in the room. Basically, the system function based on the usage data of electrical and non-electrical appliances within a home. At the hardware level, wirelesssensornetwork with ZigBee components are connected in the form of mesh topology, and a central coordinator of the sensing units collect data from the sensors connected to various appliances. In this system, a required number of sensors for monitoring the daily activities of the elderly have been used. A smart sensor coordinator collects data from the sensing units and forward to the computer system for data processing. Collected sensor data are of low level information containing only status of the sensor as active or inactive and identity of the sensor. To sense the activity behavior of elderly in real time, the next level software module will analyze the collected data by following an intelligent mechanism at various level of data abstraction based on time and sequence behavior of sensor usage.
Many applications of wirelesssensor networks in intelligent buildings depend on location information of sensor nodes. For example, when fire occurs, we need to know the location of fire, and when someone invades, we need to know where the intruders are. Though nodes are deployed manually in intelligent building wirelesssensor networks, due to the large number of sensor nodes, it is not practical to set positions for each node manually. It is not possible for each node to configure a glob- al positioning system GPS because of the limitations of cost and the use of environ- ment. Because of the effects of building environment complexity and the resource constraints of sensor nodes, many traditional wireless location algorithms cannot be directly applied to sensor node localization in buildings. In addition, the wirelesssensornetwork in the building is working in an open environment, so the location of sensor nodes in the building is vulnerable to attack. This chapter first of all analyzes the location mechanism and location security problem in wirelesssensornetwork. And then, it designs a secure localization algorithm suitable for wirelesssensor net- works in intelligent buildings according to the characteristics of wirelesssensor net- works in intelligent buildings.
This protocol is based on data query, to set up a safe path sink node to the event area according to the regional location, without the use of flood propagation mode. At the same time, each node can obtain information about their location, and location information of neighbor nodes mechanism obtained through Hello message simple exchange. Confidentiality of the message exchange between nodes by the security mechanism to ensure the link layer, routing protocols in network layer in not be considered. In the agreement, first by the sink node sends a query command, according to regional location query command is transmitted to the region from the nearest sink node, other nodes of the node to query command spread to the region; then the reverse path monitoring data to the sink node along the query message transmission. As the resistance of Wormhole and Sybil attack, adding a series of security mechanism in the routing update phase and data forwarding.
Hashimoto et al. is one of the earliest works to imple- ment an intelligent space using networked devices. Baeg et al. initiated a smart home environment project for light-weight service robots to provide reliable services through the wirelesssensornetwork . Liang et al. proposed a system of wireless Smart-home sensor net- work based on ZigBee and PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) . Suh et al. suggested a new in- telligent home control system based on a wireless sen- sor/actuator network, which divided and assigned various home network tasks to appropriate components . Yu et al. implemented a ubiquitous robotic space with a sensornetworkbased on ZigBee protocol . Lee et al. de- signed an automated construction of node software for ubiquitous sensornetwork in intelligent environment . Zhou et al. discussed wirelesssensornetworkbased multi-pattern information acquisition and fusion in intel- ligent space . However, service robot usually has not been involved in most of above researches and related literatures. In this paper, we introduce the design and implementation of a ZigBeebasedwirelesssensor and actuator network (hereinafter referred to as ZWSAN), which has been applied in our service robot intelligent space successively.
Taking Fukushima accident as an example, in March 2012, the level of radiation is estimated to up to 73 Sv/h inside the containment of No.2 reactor , and Feb. 2017, the level has shot up to 530 Sv/h . Such high level of radiation can, no doubt, cause severe damage to wireless transceivers and networks if no precautions are taken. Before any protection measures can be taken, it is necessary to investigate how different wireless devices and network components react to radiation under similar radiation conditions. Unfortunately, there are only limited resources available on radiation responses of industrial wireless devices and networks in the literature. To fill this gap, the characteristics of commonly used industrial wireless devices and networks are studied. The results of this study provides a scientific basis in the selection of suitable wireless technologies and network devices in such applications. Based on those studies and analysis, six industrial wireless nodes built with commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, CC2530 (2.4 GHz ZigBee standard), CC2520 (2.4 GHz WirelessHART standard), CC2530 (2.4 GHz ISA100.11a standard), are chosen to undergo irradiation tests in a gamma radiation environment. Since these are destructive tests, a group of diversified wireless devices are therefore built using different industrial wireless networks for the radiation tests. A total dose test is performed to measure the behaviors of the developed wireless devices and networks by directly exposing them to 60Co gamma irradiator at The Ohio State University Nuclear Reactor Laboratory (OSU-NRL) under a high dose rate (20 K Rad/h). The results of this test will provide guidelines to designwireless monitoring instruments for using in high level radiation environments. They serve as important references to assist other researchers and engineers to design and manufacture radiation-hardened (rad-hardened) monitoring system by using COTS components.
Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wirelesssensor networks. In large place such as a marketplace, it is crucial for firefighters to know the fire hazard situation, and decide on how to best tackle the disaster. This paper presents an intelligent fire hazard monitoring system for large space based on wirelesssensornetwork, and proposes fire hazard detection algorithm based on neuralnetwork for single node, and fire hazard location algorithm using the smoke diffusion model and gas temperature diffusion model for whole wireless networks. Theory analysis and experimental results show that the fire hazard detection and location algorithm could improve the performance of fire hazard detection including accurate location, and can speed up fire warning to reduce property losses.
The Linux kernel of OMAP4430PandaBoard development platform has been modi- fied by the development platform manufacturers and can be downloaded directly through the official website. Less serial port connection and simpler communication has become a more common data interface. In this system, the UART1 is used as the command line of the secure digital memory (SD) card, the UART2 is used as the com- munication of the ZigBee communication module, the UART3 is used as the debug- ging, and the UART4 is used as the communication of the GPRS wireless communica- tion module. In Linux, the serial port is the subtype of teletypes, which needs to con- figure the parameters. The specific parameters are serial number, baud rate, port num- ber, interrupt number, and serial port. The serial port 2 and serial port 4 are used here to modify serial number, port number and interrupt number, and the baud rate is set up at the highest. According to the hardware of serial connection, it is necessary to config- ure the parameters of baud rate, data bit, stop bit, parity check and other parameters according to the characteristics of the hardware in the development of the function pro- gram. The configuration of the serial ports 2 and 4 is shown in Table 2.
The stability of the BPnetwork training requirements of learning efficiency is very small, so the gradient descent method to make the training is very slow. Momentum method because the learning rate is usually higher than the simple gradient descent method to be faster, but in the actual application, or the speed is not enough, the two methods are usually applied only to the increasing training. Multilayer neuralnetwork can be applied to the linear system and nonlinear system, simulation for arbitrary function approximation. Of course, the perception and linear neuralnetwork can solve this kind of problems in network. But, although the theory is feasible, but in fact the BPnetwork does not always have a solution.
Location in wirelesssensor networks including a variety of classification, the absolute and relative positioning, physical location and symbolic location, centralized computing and distributed computing, tight coupling and loose coupling, location technology and range free localization based on etc.. Sensornetwork node locating system refers to a node to access our locations. The paper presents a novel model of ZigBee in wirelesssensornetworkbased on CMOS image sensor and BPneuralnetwork. By the price, volume, power consumption and scalability constraints, most sensornetwork localization systems have node localization scheme using beacon assisted. BPneuralnetwork is a nonlinear optimization problem, it can be in the constraint conditions known, find a set of parameters, the objective function so that the combination to determine the minimum. Multi slope CMOS image sensor makes the dynamic range can be kept unchanged significantly increased in SNR.
Abstract—For dealing with the limitations and deficiencies of present wire- less sensornetwork nodes, including poor flexibility, low degree of variability, low generality, Arduino development advantages are combined with ZigBeewireless communication technologies characteristics. The versatility and flexi- bility of wirelesssensornetwork nodes and the cost and energy consumption of nodes are studied. First of all, ZigBee communication protocol and networking technology are studied, and based on this, communication protocols that the subjects need are designed. Secondly, the hardware system of ZigBeewirelesssensornetwork node based on Arduino technology is discussed and designed. In addition, suitable Arduino development panel is selected in accordance with requirements of ZigBeewirelesssensornetwork node. With the development panel as the design prototype, the circuit of functional module is designed. Thirdly, based on the wirelesssensornetwork node communication protocol and hardware design, the software system of wirelesssensornetwork node is designed and realized. The results showed that, through designing reasonable software working flow and compiling efficient information acquisition and wireless communication program, the intelligence orientation of node infor- mation acquisition and information transmission is achieved. In a word, it can be concluded that, combined with Arduino, a better function can be achieved.
world. Possibilities and way to design and implement a ZigBee-based data transmission and monitoring wireless smart sensornetwork integrated with the Internet are considered and described in the paper. Implementing of a cost-effective such system requires the use and integration of different hardware elements and programming languages. Possibilities and key aspects of smart sensor nodes are considered and described in the paper. Design and implementation of an inexpensive energy saving Zigbee point-to-point wireless smart sensornetwork to monitor sensor data in energy efficient manner using Zigbee modules and different boards are proposed and described. Configuration of used Zigbee modules for smart sensor nodes communication is also described. Data measurement with such sensor nodes is also described. Results of wireless data measurement, data transfer and monitoring with such Zigbeebasedwireless smart sensornetwork via Web technologies are shown in the paper.
WUSN devices which are known for their location based work sare used for location based services. Even one can envision gadgets placement beneath the road surface that speaks with a car as it moves. A conceivable administration would be to caution the driver for an upcoming sign for stop or activity signal. The car will get the information about the upcoming stop signal and send it to the driver. Location information will likewise serve as a navigational help for the autonomous frameworks, e.g. an autonomous fertilizers unit, which travels around the place to be fertilized, focused around the underground beacons and the soil condition information from the underground sensors (Akyildiz and Stuntebeck, 2006). D. Security analysis and Border patrol
The system in  detects overall moisture present in the soil, which is based on that pumping motor which will automatically pumps the water in the farm. Soil sensor give the present status of the soil moisture contents to the microcontroller, and it get displayed on LCD and provided power ON or OFF the pumping motor through relay. System  shows design and development of WSN node for wirelesssensornetwork monitoring the industrial environmental parameters. This system uses RF module ZigBee, WSN, PIC 18F4550 microcontroller water measuring various parameter in collected water samples. The project system in which gives solar energy parameters calculation like voltage, current, temperature and intensity with the help of various sensors. Parameters displayed on LCD interfaced with PIC microcontroller. The system  consists of various sensors to measure the standard of water, GSM and microcontroller used to transfer the information to the watching centre at predefined time. The system in  detects greenhouse parameters in order to maintain environmental condition for greenhouse suitable for plants growth using PIC and zigbeebased WSN.