Method and means for testingsoilsamples
A device for testingsoilsamples is comprised of a closed container having an interior compartment with upper and lower portions. A valve is provided for introducing into the closed container a liquid having the general properties of butane, and a second valve is provided in the container for allowing gas in the closed container to exit therefrom. A soil sample filter container is suspended within the container above the bottom portion thereof. A condensation element is mounted in the closed container and positioned above the filter container to cause gas evaporating from the liquid in the container to liquefy as condensate on the
Means and method for soiltesting
An inexpensive device which is easily operated to accurately measure the Coulomb parameters of the soil. The Coulomb parameters are used in Coulomb's equation to calculate the shearing stresses along a failure surface of the soil. The device includes an instrument to test soil shear strength to which several weights have been added. To obtain the Coulomb parameters, the instrument is placed on the soil to be tested and weights are incrementally added to it. The instrument is rotated at each weight increment and the shearing stresses are read from its calibrated dial. The stresses are plotted on a graph from which the Coulomb parameters are determined. The shearing stress of the soil with any known force applied to it can then be determined.
pal part of the spectral mass is concentrated at the top 100 eigenvalues and we set the approximation rank K = 100 . Figure 1 demonstrates the effectiveness of evaluated selec- tion strategies as the bandwidth varies. More precisely, as the log value of the bandwidth parameter approaches to zero the kernel matrix is close to being the identity matrix, thus, hindering low-rank approximations. In contrast to this, as the bandwidth value gets smaller the spectrum mass be- comes concentrated in a small number of eigenvalues and low-rank approximations are more accurate. Overall, the kernel K -means ++ sampling scheme performs the best across all 13 datasets. It is the best performing method on 10 of the considered datasets and a competitive alternative on the remaining ones. The improvement over alternative approaches is especially evident on datasets ailerons and elevators . The approximate leverage score sampling is on most datasets competitive and achieves a significantly better approximation than alternatives on the dataset cal-housing.
assumptions underlying the two factor-scaling methods may affect the power of the LRT κ .
Neither model size nor model complexity was varied in this study. For simplicity, a two-group, one-factor CFA model with six indicator variables was the true generating model. Future researchers could consider more complex models (for example, more observed indicators and/or additional latent variables) to investigate whether varying the model size and/or model complexity would affect the testing and description of the latent mean difference across groups. Future research that includes models with more observed indicators could likewise investigate more severe loading non-invariance conditions. Further, mean comparisons between more than two groups are not uncommon and, hence, the impact of including more than two groups on latent mean comparisons could be examined in future investigations. In addition, multivariate normal data were generated. Future studies could also explore the implications of violating the assumption of normality when using the
Hypothesis testing is a method of making statistical decision using experimental data. One use of hypothesis testing is in deciding whether experimental result contains enough information to cast doubt on conventional wisdom. Hypothesis testing are performed by many researcher in various fields of inquiry, usually to discover something about particular process. Literally, hypothesis testing is a method of testing a claim about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample[3,4]. In this method, we test some claim by determine a likelihood that a sample statistic could have been selected if the hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true.
The results are based on testing of women in a university hospital STI clinic and laboratory, with well-established procedures for testing and handling specimens. The sam-
pling was carried out by specialist medical doctors. The limitations of this study are mainly related to the potential bias of a discrepant analysis approach. Additional tests with COBAS TaqMan CT Test and the in-house PCR were car- ried out for discrepant tests only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of the SDA method in detection of C. trachomatis in cervical swabs and urine samples, not to compare or evaluate the three methods. The differences in sensitivity and specificity are expected to be small when the frequency of discordant results is relatively low . Three sets of tests for all patients would have given a stronger design resulting in higher precision in our estimates, as there is a possibility of a C. trachomatis diag- nosis, even if both urine and the cervical swabs are negative in the SDA test. A possible bias in our latent class etimates might occur if the additional Cobas TaqMan CT and PCR tests are systematically different when the BDPT tests are concordant, respectively discordant. We do not expect that such systematic differences are likely.
The proposed formula contains upper capital limit which is designed to protect the tax-payer. A problem with capital limits is that they introduce complexity and change behaviour, in this case by encouraging people to spend down or give away their assets in order to stay within them. In the proposed method a cut-off of £118,000 will restrict state funding to those with assets below this figure. In the preferred method, by contrast, the upper limit is different for each care tariff. Because it is not based on a single global value, it should discourage the early disposal assets since the tariff they receive will not be known in advance. For cost control purposes, we therefore believe a tariff system based on the care package and not an arbitrary upper limit is hence a better and more logical approach.
Figure 3. Water content versus effective normal stresses before and after shearing.
Figure 4. Definition of the Hvorslev criterion.
behaves elasto-plastically under effective stresses. The cohesion of saturated soil is a function of its water con- tent. But since the water content is proportional to the void ratio at saturation, the cohesion is also a function of the void ratio. That means that two specimens with different degrees of over-consolidation have different void ratios and thus their respective cohesions are varied. However, shear box tests have traditionally been carried out without considering the state of over-consolidation of the clay. This introduces inconsistencies, which may be illustrated by the following hypothetical example. Consider two soil specimens, which have been taken from the same depth and are being tested in the shear box under different normal stress levels. Since both specimens were surcharged equally, they have different states of over-consolidation during the testing. The results of such tests are frequently used to define a single failure envelope. Since the specimens behave differently under these test- ing conditions, and thus have different values of true cohesion, fitting them on one line is contradictory. This line will vary in relation to the testing conditions. Shear parameters, which are obtained from randomly distri- buted results of shear tests that depend upon contingencies are fictitious.
The proposed formula contains an upper capital limit which is designed to protect the tax payer. A problem with capital limits is that they introduce complexity and change behaviour, in this case by encouraging people to spend down or give away their assets in order to stay within them. In the proposed method, a cut-off of £118,000 will restrict state funding to those with assets below this figure. In the preferred method, by contrast, the upper limit is different for each care tariff. Because it is not based on a single global value, it should discourage the early disposal of assets, since the tariff they receive will not be known in advance. For cost control purposes, we therefore believe a tariff system based on the care package and not an arbitrary upper limit is a better and more logical approach.
Meanstesting does create disincentives to work and to save. However, these costs are presumably oﬀset by the redistributive advantages of focussing state benefits on poorer households. Meanstesting provides a method for ensuring that everyone has an adequate standard of living in retirement, while limiting the associated costs to the taxpayer. This consideration is critical, given the projected ageing of the population. Furthermore, it is certainly not clear that meanstesting reduces the level of aggregate savings. This is because the more aﬄuent parts of society, who generate most of the country’s savings, are not subject to meanstesting, but are aﬀected by the consequent tax rises that would be required to fund any move to a universal pension.
rvice has decided to adopt this methodology for the following reasons:
To ensure better turn around time in the processing of promotion examinations. With the former method, a lo ime was lost in the grading and collating process which negatively impacted on promotion prospects for staff.
ith this new approach, results are available the following day. In a nutshell, efficiency in exam delivery, dministration and scoring under CBT, far surpasses the traditional methods we previously adopted. The service will see faster decision-making as the result of immediate scoring and reporting.
dobivenih od strane različitih osoba koja provode ispitivanje i različite opreme obično će biti veća nego kada ista osoba provodi ispitivanje koristeći istu opremu, isto kao što će i varijabilnost biti veća što je vremensko razdoblje među ispitivanjima koja se provode u istom laboratoriju veća. Međulaboratorijska usporedba pripada vanjskim mjerama kontrole kvalitete rezultata. Većina ispitivanja vanjske procjene kvalitete pripremljena su tako da se dobije bolji uvid u cjelokupan tijek aktivnosti laboratorija, a ne samo na procesa ispitivanja. Najčešće se provode kao kontinuirana ispitivanja kojima se dugoročno prati uspješnost izvedbe laboratorija. Kao važan aspekt ovih usporedbi je izobrazba sudionika i promoviranje poboljšavanja kvalitete. Laboratorij bi trebao sudjelovati u među- laboratorijskim usporedbama kad god je to moguće, gdje su te usporedbe provedive u njegovom području akreditacije, prikladne za namjenu i ekonomski opravdane (Grgić, 2014). Opći izraz za izražavanje bliskosti dobivenih rezultata stvarnoj ili referentnoj vrijednosti je točnost. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) kvantifikaciju uspješnosti neke metode ispitivanja prikazuje pomoću dvije veličine: preciznost i odstupanje, koje predstavljaju i sastavni dio svake ASTM ispitne metode. Odstupanje kvantificira razliku između izmjerene veličine i prosječne vrijednosti, dok je preciznost raspršenosti mjerenja oko prosječne vrijednosti. Određivanje kvalitete ispitivanja prema američkim standardima propisana je normom ASTM E691. Norma je definirana minimalnim zahtjevima koje je potrebno provoditi da bi rezultati dobiveni međulaboratorijskim ispitivanjem bili valjani. Prema toj normi, minimalni broj nezavisnih laboratorija koji moraju sudjelovati u ispitivanjima je šest, a za svaki ispitni uzorak treba imati po tri mjerenja. Također, ispitni uzorak treba biti ispitan prije distribucije ostalim laboratorijima, te ga treba biti 50% više od pretpostavljene količine. Međulaboratorijsko ispitivanje obuhvaća proces organizacije, izvedbe i vrednovanja mjerenja ili ispitivanja istih ili sličnih predmeta ispitivanja u laboratorijima prema unaprijed određenim uvjetima.
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Hence, the soil DNA extraction and purification method described here, is a simple and efficient method for most of the soilsamples. DNA extracted from different samples could be purified in one hour with 2% CaCl 2 treatment, resulting in DNA pure enough to be used for restriction digestion and PCR, as compared to the commercially available kits in the market and other reported methods which resulted in lower concentration of DNA along with only 60-70% success rate in PCR amplification of the extracted soil DNA. Thus, the optimized laboratory method yielded higher concentration of DNA free of humic substances enabling us to construct metagenomic library meant for selecting clones that exhibit amyloytic activity.
or minimize the RMSE of the index function. A linear model was chosen to represent the index when fitting parameters.
Results showed that wavelengths centered near 1300 nm and 1500 nm, within the range of 400 to 1700 nm, produced the best index for individual samples. An advantage of this pair of wavelengths is that they can be sensed with a single type of sensor using narrowband optical filters. The 1500 nm band, when measured with an active ground-based sensor, will provide spectral information not available when using passive aerial or satellite-based remote sensing methods due to absorption from atmospheric moisture. When applied to all samples, the index performed well for the soilsamples but poorly for the wheat stalk residue samples. Index calcu- lations from soil reflectance measurements were highly lin- ear (R 2 > 0.95) and exhibited small variability between sam- ples at a given moisture content, regardless of measurement height. Index calculations from wheat stalk residue reflec- tance measurements were highly variable, which limited the usefulness of the index for this type of material. Based on these results, it is expected that crop residues, such as wheat stalks, will reduce the accuracy of remotely sensed soil sur- face moisture measurements. Future work should include heterogeneous samples that include both soil and crop resi- due in varying proportions to determine the composite re- sponse. As new low-cost sensors are developed, the optimi- zation parameters used to determine the “best” wavelengths should be refined based on actual sensor response, rather than ideal assumptions.
Relationships were then evaluated separately for each defect level amount versus the cycle counts for each failure category for all samplestesting. Accordingly, six relationships were evaluated.
This research aimed to establish a universal method for future fatigue tests of defective and intact weld samples and to determine if strain gages can be used to indicate when initial fatigue cracking was going to be initiated. ASTM E466-15 for force-controlled fatigue testing and ASTM E606-12 for strain-controlled fatigue testing were used as a guide however, these standards did not address the specific monitoring methods needed to determine the cycle count values for each failure category, the exact setup procedures required to run each test or, methods for determining the amount of weld defect present on each sample. These issues were addressed by determining and presenting a succinct testing procedure which described the testing process in detail including sample/test design, defect amount determination, test implementation, methods for cycle counting.
Therefore, we derive new estimators that do not make use of the singletons to estimate u . Although there is no way to compute a revised u h 1 and u j 1 , since they are solely based on singletons, one can compute new estimators derived from both the number of segregating sites and the average pairwise differences when singletons are ignored. Depending on the availability of an outgroup to orientate the mutations, these estimators are defined as S j 1 and p j 1 (with outgroup) or S h 1 and p h 1 (no outgroup). The means of these values were derived by removing the expected numbers of singletons in a sample. The expected number of singletons is given by either E½j 1 or E½h 1 ¼ E½j 1 1 E½j n1 . These two values are respectively equal to E½ j 1 ¼ u and E ½ h 1 ¼ ðn = ðn 1ÞÞ u (F u and L i 1993). It is important to point out that a singleton weighs 2/n on p . As a consequence, the expectations of these values are
yellow chelate which has an absorption maxima at 443 nm. The average molar absorption co- efficient and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 2.59×10 4 L mol -1 cm -1 and 15 ng cm -2 of Mo VI , respectively. Linear calibration graphs were obtained for 0.1-30 mgL -1 . The stoichiometric composition of the chelate is 1:2 (Mo:HAPBH). The absorbance intensity of the metal chelate reaches to a constant value within few seconds and remains unchanged for more than 48 hours. Large excess of over 60 cations, anions and complexing agents (like tartrate, oxalate, chloride, phosphate, EDTA, ascorbic acid, bromide, citrate, etc.) do not interfere in the molybdenum determination. The developed method was successfully used for assaying several standard reference materials (alloys and steels), environmental waters (inland and surface), biological samples (human blood and urine), soilsamples, solutions containing both molybdenum(V) and molybdenum(VI) and complex synthetic mixtures. The method has high precision and accuracy (s = 0.01 for 0.5 mgL -1 ).
NCR-13 wants it clearly understood that the publication of these tests and procedures in no way implies that the ultimate has been reached. Research and innovation on methods of soiltesting should con- tinue. The committee strongly encourages increased research efforts to devise better, faster, less expensive and more accurate soil tests. With the high cost of fer- tilizer, and with the many soil related environmental concerns, it is more important than ever that fertilizer be applied only where needed and in the amount of each element needed for the response goal. The best hope of attaining this goal is better soil tests and bet- ter correlations with plant response. NCR-13 stands ready to evaluate promising new soil tests, and with clear justification will move quickly to revise their rec- ommendations.
Adjusting for Extreme High or Low Values
Individual samples from each grid location in Figure 1 were analyzed separately so that the spatial distribution of STP concentrations across the pasture could be shown on a map. Soil test results reflect how the pasture has been managed over years of use. The area containing STP values > 500 lbs/A, next to the eastern boundary, was an area where cattle had been fed for many years because it was the only dry location during most winters. The area with < 100 lbs STP/A, in the extreme northwest corner, was usually too wet for the litter spreader truck and had not received as much phosphorus as other parts of the field.
It should be pointed out that we use the traditional solid medium based methodology for Mycobacteria isolation. Additionally, concordance between positive smears and cultures was 67.8%, showing that culture is still the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterium spp. However, recent studies have shown that PCR method is a valuable, cost- effective and alternative tool for quick diagnosis of active tuberculosis in different clinical specimens . Our data were essential for corroborating a new protocol on biological sample processing. Due to the low percentage of positive pleural fluid and bronchoalveolar lavage smears (25%), cultures have been performed to eliminate false negative results, even when not requested by a patient’s physician.