Top PDF Method and means for testing soil samples

Method and means for testing soil samples

Method and means for testing soil samples

condensation element, whereupon the condensate drips into the filter container and leaches through a soil sample therein, and then collects as a liquid in the bottom portion of the closed container. This permits a hydrocarbon residue to be left in the bottom portion of the container after the outlet valve has been opened to permit the liquid to evaporate.

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EBK Means: A Clustering Technique based on Elbow Method and K Means in WSN

EBK Means: A Clustering Technique based on Elbow Method and K Means in WSN

In this research, we are working on the development of a hybrid model using LEACH based energy efficient and K- means based quick clustering algorithms to produce a new cluster scheme for WSN with dynamic selection of the number of the clusters automatically. The energy efficiency and response time are the major wireless sensor network issues. In this paper, we proposed an energy enhanced protocol which uses K -means clustering scheme for selecting the cluster heads for each cluster and hence routing protocol LEACH which is a traditional energy efficient protocol takes the work ahead of sending data from the cluster heads to the base station. But the k means requires input parameter „k‟ that‟s no. of clusters. An inappropriate choice of k may lead to poor results. That‟s why we use „Elbow method‟ for determining no. of clusters „k‟ which gives well distributed data due to roughly equal size clusters.
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Nyström method with Kernel K means++ samples as landmarks

Nyström method with Kernel K means++ samples as landmarks

We investigate, theoretically and empirically, the effectiveness of kernel K-means++ samples as landmarks in the Nystr¨om method for low-rank approximation of kernel matrices. Previous em- pirical studies (Zhang et al., 2008; Kumar et al., 2012) observe that the landmarks obtained using (kernel) K -means clustering define a good low- rank approximation of kernel matrices. However, the existing work does not provide a theoretical guarantee on the approximation error for this ap- proach to landmark selection. We close this gap and provide the first bound on the approxima- tion error of the Nystr¨om method with kernel K - means ++ samples as landmarks. Moreover, for the frequently used Gaussian kernel we provide a theoretically sound motivation for performing Lloyd refinements of kernel K-means++ land- marks in the instance space. We substantiate our theoretical results empirically by comparing the approach to several state-of-the-art algorithms.
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Means and method of camera space manipulation

Means and method of camera space manipulation

A means and method for camera space manipulation includes a manipulator arm extending from a base to an outward end. The arm is movable through a workspace to accomplish various tasks. One or more cameras are movably oriented towards the arm and work space to capture the arm and work space in what will be called camera space or camera vision. A visual cue is associated with the outward end of the manipulator arm. Additionally, a visual cue is associated with an object which is desired to be engaged by the manipulator arm or by what is held by the manipulator arm. A control device is connected to the camera or cameras and to the manipulator. According to identification and tracking of the visual cues in the camera space, the control device instructs appropriate motors to move the manipulator arm according to estimations for engagement
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On a method of construction of new means with applications

On a method of construction of new means with applications

In the present paper, we would like to introduce a simple transformation for bivariate means from which we derive a lot of new means. Relationships between the standard means are also obtained. A simple link between the Stolarsky mean and the Gini mean is given. As applications, this transformation allows us to extend some means from two to three or more arguments.

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Method and means for gravity table automation

Method and means for gravity table automation

An apparatus for determining quality of a pharma ceutical product of a prede?ned type, comprising: impact transducer means for generating a transducer signal indicative of a set of physi[r]

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Means and method for soil testing

Means and method for soil testing

An inexpensive device which is easily operated to accurately measure the Coulomb parameters of the soil. The Coulomb parameters are used in Coulomb's equation to calculate the shearing stresses along a failure surface of the soil. The device includes an instrument to test soil shear strength to which several weights have been added. To obtain the Coulomb parameters, the instrument is placed on the soil to be tested and weights are incrementally added to it. The instrument is rotated at each weight increment and the shearing stresses are read from its calibrated dial. The stresses are plotted on a graph from which the Coulomb parameters are determined. The shearing stress of the soil with any known force applied to it can then be determined.
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Lifeline or Means Testing? Electric Utility Subsidies in Honduras

Lifeline or Means Testing? Electric Utility Subsidies in Honduras

In this chapter we provided a partial evaluation of the lifeline or increas- ing block tariff electricity subsidy in Honduras. With funding from the gov- ernment, the public utility is offering electricity at greatly subsidized rates for those households with monthly consumption below 300 kWh. Because the lifeline threshold is set so high, 83.5 percent of the utility’s residential clients benefit from the subsidy. At the same time, 81.8 percent of the sub- sidy may well be spent on nonpoor households. While this last statistic could be lower if we were using a different method for measuring poverty, it remains true that the impact on poverty of the subsidy is rather small in comparison to its cost. The fact that the current subsidy is badly targeted does not mean that it could not be improved by reducing the lifeline thresh- old. A lower lifeline subsidy as currently being considered by the govern- ment would have the potential of being more effective. Alternative proxy
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Shear Failure Criterion and Constant Volume Ring Shear Testing Method for Clayey Soil

Shear Failure Criterion and Constant Volume Ring Shear Testing Method for Clayey Soil

behaves elasto-plastically under effective stresses. The cohesion of saturated soil is a function of its water con- tent. But since the water content is proportional to the void ratio at saturation, the cohesion is also a function of the void ratio. That means that two specimens with different degrees of over-consolidation have different void ratios and thus their respective cohesions are varied. However, shear box tests have traditionally been carried out without considering the state of over-consolidation of the clay. This introduces inconsistencies, which may be illustrated by the following hypothetical example. Consider two soil specimens, which have been taken from the same depth and are being tested in the shear box under different normal stress levels. Since both specimens were surcharged equally, they have different states of over-consolidation during the testing. The results of such tests are frequently used to define a single failure envelope. Since the specimens behave differently under these test- ing conditions, and thus have different values of true cohesion, fitting them on one line is contradictory. This line will vary in relation to the testing conditions. Shear parameters, which are obtained from randomly distri- buted results of shear tests that depend upon contingencies are fictitious.
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Nonparametric hypothesis testing for equality of means on the simplex

Nonparametric hypothesis testing for equality of means on the simplex

This trick allows us to avoid the estimation of the common mean. It is not possible though to do this in the empirical likelihood method. Instead of minimisation of the sum of the one- sample test statistics from the common mean, we can define the probabilities by searching for the λ λ λ which makes the last equation hold true. The third constraint of (12) is a convenient constraint, but Jing and Robinson (1997) mentions that even though as a constraint is simple it does not lead to second-order accurate confidence intervals unless the two sample sizes are equal.

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A REVIEW ON TESTING FOR EQUALITY
OF MEANS AGAINST ORDERED MEANS

A REVIEW ON TESTING FOR EQUALITY OF MEANS AGAINST ORDERED MEANS

Hypothesis testing is a method of making statistical decision using experimental data. One use of hypothesis testing is in deciding whether experimental result contains enough information to cast doubt on conventional wisdom. Hypothesis testing are performed by many researcher in various fields of inquiry, usually to discover something about particular process. Literally, hypothesis testing is a method of testing a claim about a parameter in a population, using data measured in a sample[3,4]. In this method, we test some claim by determine a likelihood that a sample statistic could have been selected if the hypothesis regarding the population parameter were true.
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Application of Microchemical Techniques:  Identity of Soil Samples

Application of Microchemical Techniques: Identity of Soil Samples

A simple and sensitive method is described for the comparison of density distribution of small soil samples as a means of determining identity or non-identity.. It is shown that even ver[r]

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Comparing urine samples and cervical swabs for Chlamydia testing in a female population by means of Strand Displacement Assay (SDA)

Comparing urine samples and cervical swabs for Chlamydia testing in a female population by means of Strand Displacement Assay (SDA)

Endocervical swabs, vaginal swabs and urine are poten- tial specimens for testing women. The diagnostic value of each of these specimens may vary according to the popula- tion tested and laboratory method used. Several laboratory methods are available for direct detection of C. trachoma- tis, such as cell culture, immunofluorescense microscopy and enzyme immunoassays (EIA). At present, nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) provide unsurpassed sensitiv- ity and high specificity when applied on cervical and ure- thral swabs and male urine samples. NAATs target species- specific sequences of DNA for detection of pathogens. For the commonly used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, there is evidence that testing of female and male urine is equivalent to cervical and urethral swabs, respec- tively, in terms of sensitivity and specificity [9-11]. Vaginal swabs are not validated for use by the manufacturers of the two most commonly used NAATs in Norway. The BDPro- beTec™ Chlamydia trachomatis Amplified DNA Assay (BDPT) utilizes a strand displacement amplification (SDA) method coupled with a fluorescent energy transfer (ET) measurement in detecting the amplified product. For this method as well, the sensitivity in male urine samples is comparable to that of urethral swabs. However, studies based on urine samples from women have shown lower sensitivity compared to endocervical swabs [12,13], a potential impediment for testing, especially for screening purposes.
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Means Testing Social Care in England

Means Testing Social Care in England

The proposed formula contains upper capital limit which is designed to protect the tax-payer. A problem with capital limits is that they introduce complexity and change behaviour, in this case by encouraging people to spend down or give away their assets in order to stay within them. In the proposed method a cut-off of £118,000 will restrict state funding to those with assets below this figure. In the preferred method, by contrast, the upper limit is different for each care tariff. Because it is not based on a single global value, it should discourage the early disposal assets since the tariff they receive will not be known in advance. For cost control purposes, we therefore believe a tariff system based on the care package and not an arbitrary upper limit is hence a better and more logical approach.
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Review on Developments in Shear Testing Of Soil

Review on Developments in Shear Testing Of Soil

Geotechnical testing basically includes laboratory and field determination of various parameters of soil. State of art and state of practice in soil testing includes standardized methodologies adopted worldwide such as those adopted by ASTM, BS, IS codes. Geotechnical engineering, although great strides have been made in recent years, is still less a precise science than structural engineering. It remains, to an important extent, an art based on experience and judgement. Selection of particular type of test depends on various parameters such as In-Situ requirements, required soil properties, degree of accuracy required etc. Sound knowledge of geotechnical investigation will lead to accurate measurements in laboratory testing. Laboratory and field testing in geotechnical engineering forms base for investigation for the purpose of designing and constructing the foundation for structure.
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Testing for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Samples With Related Individuals

Testing for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium in Samples With Related Individuals

related individuals, the type I error can be greatly inflated. In particular the test is inappropriate in population isolates where the individuals are related through multiple lines of descent. In this article, we propose a new test for HW (the QL-HW test) suitable for any sample with related individuals, including large inbred pedigrees, provided that their genealogy is known. Performed conditional on the pedigree structure, the QL-HW test detects departures from HW that are not due to the genealogy. Because the computation of the QL-HW test becomes intractable for very polymorphic loci in large inbred pedigrees, a simpler alternative, the GCC-HW test, is also proposed. The statistical properties of the QL-HW and GCC-HW tests are studied through simulations considering a sample of independent nuclear families, a sample of extended outbred genealogies, and samples from the Hutterite population, a North American highly inbred isolate. Finally, the method is used to test a set of 143 biallelic markers spanning 82 genes in this latter population.
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The Welfare Costs of Means Testing: Pensioner Participation in Income

The Welfare Costs of Means Testing: Pensioner Participation in Income

Department of Economics, University of Sheffield ISSN 1749-8368 Sheffield Economic Research Paper Series 2006004.. Reuse Unless indicated otherwise, fulltext items are protected by copyr[r]

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Soil Testing Lab Instructions and Questions.pdf

Soil Testing Lab Instructions and Questions.pdf

The soil moisture content, prior to the rain event, affects the amount of water runoff, however, certain types of soil exhibit differing levels of water retention a n d subsequ[r]

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Mineralogical identification of soil samples collected from shahada Tahsil of Nandurbar district, Maharashtra using XRD method

Mineralogical identification of soil samples collected from shahada Tahsil of Nandurbar district, Maharashtra using XRD method

XRD pattern of selected two soil samples are quality analyzed. Samples were numbered as S1 and S2. This study is used to know the mineralogical composition. Selected representative XRD patterns of soil samples in different locations are shown in Fig. 1 & Fig. 2. The d-spacing values of black gray soil sample no. 1 (S1) is obtained from diffractograms presented in figure 1 are 4.86630, 4.43485, 3.46409, 3.29587, 2.66522, 2.28221, 2.16878, 2.01708, 1.84712, 1.73284, 1.56296, 1.42780, 1.30120, 1.21022 etc. In the sample 1, was found to have Characteristics value of the minerals such as Magnesite, Fig. 1. XRD pattern of soil from site 1 samples (S1)
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HIV Load Testing with Small Samples of Whole Blood

HIV Load Testing with Small Samples of Whole Blood

There is an urgent need for a simple, rapid, and affordable point-of-care VL assay. Such an assay will require small vol- umes of whole blood (WB) instead of large volumes of plasma and, therefore, would be particularly useful for infant diagnos- tics, where large samples volumes are difficult if not impossible to obtain. A “whole-blood approach” is supported by study data wherein the Procleix Discriminatory HIV-1 assay was used to qualitatively analyze 63 WB samples in comparison to corresponding plasma samples. It was found that of 11 plasma samples below the level of detection, 8 contained detectable amounts of HIV-1 RNA (W. Andrews, P. Yan, C. Harrington, B. Phelps, T. Elbeik, E. Fiebig, and V. Ng, poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Blood Banks [AABB], 2003). In an earlier publication, one frozen WB sample was successfully analyzed by using the Procleix Discrimi- natory HIV-1 assay to prove an infection with HIV (39). How- ever, no comprehensive study has been undertaken thus far to demonstrate utility of small-volume WB samples for VL moni- toring of HIV-1. Therefore, in our study we measured the VL in 1 ml of plasma and in 10 ␮ l of venous WB to determine the diagnostic sensitivities (36) of both assays. Furthermore, we com- pared the diagnostic sensitivities obtained with capillary and ve- nous WB. To demonstrate that WB VL can be used for HAART monitoring, we performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma and blood samples from patients starting HAART. We show the fea- sibility of VL monitoring using only 10 ␮ l of WB.
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