Top PDF Object-Oriented Software in Ada 95, 2nd Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Object-Oriented Software in Ada 95, 2nd Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Object-Oriented Software in Ada 95, 2nd Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

In the example above, any Integer object can be used as an index to the array. This freedom may lead to program errors when a value other than the intended subscript is used. Unfortunately such an error would not be detected until run-time. To allow Ada to perform strict type checking so that such an error may be caught at compile-time, a separate type for the bounds of the array can be defined. This is achieved by defining a range type that is then used to describe the bounds of the array. For example, the previous object Computers_In_Room could have been defined as:

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Information Technology for Management, 7th Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Information Technology for Management, 7th Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The question of how much a manager should know about technology is an emo­ tionally charged one. There are managers who feel they do not need to have any knowledge of technology; they can leave these issues to staff members. On the other hand, IT is so pervasive in the modem organization, and so many firms de­ pend on it for critical applications, that a manager needs to be able to make edu­ cated decisions about technology. This need suggests that you should have a mo­ dicum of knowledge about technology, but how much is that? During your career you are likely to be involved in decisions about what hardware and software to purchase, the hardware and software architecture of the firm, and numerous appli­ cations of technology that involve employees, customers, suppliers, and others. Given the demands these decisions will make, it would be difficult for you to know "too much" about technology. One of the objectives of this text is to provide you with a strong base of knowledge about technology. I hope you will be moti­ vated to continue learning about the technology throughout your career.
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C++: A Beginner's Guide, Second Edition  - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C++: A Beginner's Guide, Second Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

This is a comment. Like most other programming languages, C++ lets you enter a remark into a program’s source code. The contents of a comment are ignored by the compiler. The purpose of a comment is to describe or explain the operation of a program to anyone reading its source code. In the case of this comment, it identifies the program. In more complex programs, you will use comments to help explain what each feature of the program is for and how it goes about doing its work. In other words, you can use comments to provide a “play-by-play” description of what your program does. In C++, there are two types of comments. The one you’ve just seen is called a multiline comment. This type of comment begins with a /* (a slash followed by an asterisk). It ends only when a */ is
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Mathematics under the Microscope - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Mathematics under the Microscope - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The transfer of order between the different sensor mechanisms can be conscious or subconscious. One of more striking examples of subconscious transfer is given by Leontiev’s experiments [198, pp. 193–218] on training tone-deaf adults to distinguish the pitches of sounds by developing a correlation between pitch and muscular tension. Interestingly, visual perception played the role of interme- diary: the subjects had to pull a lever and equalize two gauges, one for pitch and another for the force applied. After some training of that kind, subjects attained a reasonable ability to recognize pitch even without gauges and levers. Their test performance deterio- rated, however, when the devious experimenter engaged subjects’ hands (or feet, if, in the training period, the lever was pushed by foot) in some activity. This example is even more puzzling because my applied mathematics colleagues told me that the sound recep- tors in our inner ear are actually doing, at the hardware level, a Fourier transform [223]. At what point do the brains of tonally chal- lenged people start to ignore hardware readings?
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Basic Concepts of Mathematics - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Basic Concepts of Mathematics - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

In 1956, Zakon moved to Canada. As a research fellow at the University of Toronto, he worked with Abraham Robinson. In 1957, he joined the mathemat- ics faculty at the University of Windsor, where the first degrees in the newly established Honours program in Mathematics were awarded in 1960. While at Windsor, he continued publishing his research results in logic and analysis. In this post-McCarthy era, he often had as his house-guest the prolific and eccentric mathematician Paul Erd˝ os, who was then banned from the United States for his political views. Erd˝ os would speak at the University of Windsor, where mathematicians from the University of Michigan and other American universities would gather to hear him and to discuss mathematics.
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Embedded Software Development with eCos - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Embedded Software Development with eCos - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

eCos is designed as a configurable component architecture consisting of several key software components such as the kernel and the HAL. The fundamental goal is to allow construction of a complete embedded system from these reusable software components. This allows you to select different configuration options within the software component, or remove unused components altogether, in order to create a system that specifically matches the requirements of your applica- tion. By creating an eCos image that closely matches your system requirements, the size of the software is compact, only including used components. The software application is also faster because extra code is not executed, compared to other real-time operating systems that do not offer configurability and, therefore, incorporate all functionality regardless if it is required by the application.
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LATEX Tutorials: A Primer - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

LATEX Tutorials: A Primer - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

So, why all this trouble? Why not simply use a word processor? The answer lies in the motivation behind TEX. Donald Knuth says that his aim in creating TEX is to beautifully typeset technical documents especially those containing a lot of Mathematics. It is very difficult (sometimes even impossible) to produce complex mathematical formulas using a word processor. Again, even for ordinary text, if you want your document to look really beautiful then L A TEX is the natural choice.

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Programming Abstractions in C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming Abstractions in C++ - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

return a value that clients are likely to use directly. For one thing, the value of RAND_MAX depends on the hardware and software environment. On most systems, it is defined to be the largest positive integer, which is typically 2,147,483,647, but it may have different values on different systems. Moreover, even if you could count on RAND_MAX having that particular value, there are few (if any) applications where what you need is a random number between 0 and 2,147,483,647. As a client, you are much more likely to want values that fall into some other range, usually much smaller. For example, if you are trying to simulate flipping a coin, you want a function that has only two outcomes: heads and tails. Similarly, if you are trying to represent rolling a die, you need to produce a random integer between 1 and 6. If you are trying to simulate processes in the physical world, you will often need to produce random values over continuous range, where the result needs to be represented as a double rather than an int . If you could design an interface that was better suited to the needs of such clients, that interface would be much more flexible and easy to use.
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Answer Set Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Answer Set Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Equivalence relations between propositional formulas that are stronger than classical equivalence and do not treat, for instance, dropping a double negation as an equivalent transformation have been studied in logic for a long time. This work was initially related to the intuitionist philosophy of mathematics. The idea that mathematics is the creation of the mind has led intuitionists to the view that the law of excluded middle and “the principle that for every system the correctness of a property follows from the impossibility of the impossibility of the property” may be invalid in application to infinite systems [18]. The logical consequences of this view were clarified by the invention of intuitionistic propo- sitional logic—a formal system that does not sanction the law of excluded middle and other tautologies that intuitionists find objectionable [66].
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Mathematical Linguistics - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Mathematical Linguistics - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

The book is accessible to anyone with sufficient general mathematical maturity (graduate or advanced undergraduate). No prior knowledge of linguistics or lan- guages is assumed on the part of the reader. The book offers a single entry point to the central methods and concepts of linguistics that are made largely inaccessible to the mathematician, computer scientist, or engineer by the surprisingly adversarial style of argumentation (see Section 1.2), the apparent lack of adequate definitions (see Section 1.3), and the proliferation of unmotivated notation and formalism (see Section 1.4) all too often encountered in research papers and monographs in the hu- manities. Those interested in linguistics can learn a great deal more about the subject here than what is covered in introductory courses just from reading through the book and consulting the references cited. Those who plan to approach linguistics through this book should be warned in advance that many branches of linguistics, in particular psycholinguistics, child language acquisition, and the study of language pathology, are largely ignored here – not because they are viewed as inferior to other branches but simply because they do not offer enough grist for the mathematician’s mill. Much of what the linguistically naive reader may find interesting about language turns out to be more pertinent to cognitive science, the philosophy of language, and sociolin- guistics, than to linguistics proper, and the Introduction gives these issues the shortest possible shrift, discussing them only to the extent necessary for disentangling math- ematical linguistics from other concerns.
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C++ Essentials - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

C++ Essentials - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Since Widget is a base class for both OptionList and Window , each menu object will have two widget objects (see Figure 8.19a). This is not desirable (because a menu is considered a single widget) and may lead to ambiguity. For example, when applying a widget member function to a menu object, it is not clear as to which of the two widget objects it should be applied. The problem is overcome by making Widget a virtual base class of OptionList and Window . A base class is made virtual by placing the keyword virtual before its name in the derived class header:

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Bootstrap Programming Cookbook - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Bootstrap Programming Cookbook - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Create a new HTML file, which will be your main one, and make sure you have the following folder structure after downloading Boostrap.... Figure 6.1: layout-1.[r]

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Advanced Linux Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Advanced Linux Programming - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Jeffrey Oldham received a bachelor of arts degree in computer science from Rice University in 1991. After working at the Center for Research on Parallel Computation, he obtained a doctor of philoso- phy degree from Stanford in 2000. His research interests center on algorithm engineering, concentrating on flow and other combinator- ial algorithms. He works on GCC and scientific computing software. Alex Samuel graduated from Harvard in 1995 with a degree in physics. He worked as a software engineer at BBN before returning to study physics at Caltech and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Alex administers the Software Carpentry project and works on various other projects, such as optimizations in GCC.
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Programming Linux Games - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming Linux Games - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

A particle system is a set of tiny objects, usually drawn with single pixels or small alpha-blended images, that move under the control of a simulated system of physics. Particle systems can be used for simulated smoke trails, flying sparks, dust effects, and just about anything else that involves small bits of matter. With a little help from a graphics accelerator, particle systems can be used to create breathtaking effects. They can be implemented in many ways, and the particle system implementation in Penguin Warrior is only one possible approach. Penguin Warrior uses a particle system to simulate explosions. Whenever an object explodes, Penguin Warrior releases thousands of individual visible specks (particles ) onto the playing field. Each particle is assigned a random direction and velocity, originating from the center of the explosion. Each particle is also given a color according to its velocity (roughly approximating the heat of the particle). This is actually a pretty bad simulation of an explosion, but it looks impressive, and that’s all that matters (since the particles have no bearing on the actual gameplay).
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Programming in Standard ML - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming in Standard ML - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Most familiar programming languages, such as C or Java, are based on an imperative model of computation. Programs are thought of as specifying a sequence of commands that modify the memory of the computer. Each step of execution examines the current contents of memory, performs a simple computation, modifies the memory, and continues with the next instruction. The individual commands are executed for their effect on the memory (which we may take to include both the internal memory and registers and the external input/output devices). The progress of the com- putation is controlled by evaluation of expressions, such as boolean tests or arithmetic operations, that are executed for their value. Conditional commands branch according to the value of some expression. Many lan- guages maintain a distinction between expressions and commands, but often (in C, for example) expressions may also modify the memory, so that even expression evaluation has an effect.
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Complex Variables: Second Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Complex Variables: Second Edition - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Since the real and imaginary parts of an analytic function are, in particular, harmonic functions [see (2.2.19)], the question arises as to whether the maximum and minimum principles are[r]

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Object Oriented Programming with ANSI-C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Object Oriented Programming with ANSI-C - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Each chapter has a summary where I try to give the more cursory reader a run- down on the happenings in the chapter and their importance for future work. Most chapters suggest some exercises; however, they are not spelled out formally, because I firmly believe that one should experiment on one’s own. Because we are building the techniques from scratch, I have refrained from making and using a massive class library, even though some examples could have benefited from it. If you want to understand object-oriented programming, it is more important to first master the techniques and consider your options in code design; dependence on somebody else’s library for your developments should come a bit later.
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Object-oriented Programming in C# for C and Java Programmers - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Object-oriented Programming in C# for C and Java Programmers - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Programming done in the early years of the computing era (before the introduction of Algol) is often thought of as "unstructured programming". Unstructured programming is largely characterized by use of "jumping around" by means of goto commands. The introduction of if and while control structures together with procedures eliminated the need for gotos. This can be shown theoretically, but - more important - it also holds true in the practical world of imperative programming. Armed with the common control structures (if and while, for instance) and procedural abstraction, very few programmers are tempted to use a goto statement in the programs they write. Such programming, without use of goto statements, is often called structured programming.
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Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science (2nd Edition) - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science (2nd Edition) - Free Computer, Programming, Mathematics, Technical Books, Lecture Notes and Tutorials

dxe = the least integer greater than or equal to x . (3.1) Kenneth E. Iverson introduced this notation, as well as the names \oor" and \ceiling," early in the 1960s [191, page 12]. He found that typesetters could handle the symbols by shaving the tops and bottoms o of ` [ ' and ` ] '. His notation has become suciently popular that oor and ceiling brackets can now be used in a technical paper without an explanation of what they mean. Until recently, people had most often been writing `[x]' for the greatest integer x , without a good equivalent for the least integer function. Some authors had even tried to use `]x[' | with a predictable lack of success.
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