Top PDF Screening Pulmonary Function Tests

Screening Pulmonary Function Tests

Screening Pulmonary Function Tests

Restriction is a reduction of total lung capacity or one of its subvolumes (Fig I) as a result of collapse or volume displacement of the lung (fibrothorax), in- creased elastic [r]

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An Analysis of Pulmonary Function Tests, Pulse Oximetry, Haematocrit Abnormalities in Chronic Obstructive
Pulmonary Disease Patients

An Analysis of Pulmonary Function Tests, Pulse Oximetry, Haematocrit Abnormalities in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

In India COPD is the second most common lung disorder after pulmonary tuberculosis 21 Overall the prevalence is higher in males due to greater prevalence of smoking. The disease is most often seen in middle aged or elderly people, it is infrequent before the age of 35 years. It has been reported from studies in North India that prevalence of chronic bronchitis may be as high as 15 % in subjects above 40 years from rural areas. Further the prevalence is more in northern India compared to south india 22 . The regional difference has been attributed to climatic conditions, particularly the severe winter in North India. The marked preponderance of males in urban India is less striking in case of rural areas in the country, this has been attributed to greater prevalence of smoking among women in rural areas, and it may also be related to marked indoor air pollution cakes, firewood and fossil fuels.
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An insight on Diabetes and deteriorating lung function based on Pulmonary Function Test  A narrative review

An insight on Diabetes and deteriorating lung function based on Pulmonary Function Test A narrative review

allergies or lung disease, their finding that lung elastic recoil was decreased in these young patients with diabetes was interpreted to reflect effects of diabetes on lung elastic proteins. This was the first suggestion in the literature that the lung may be a target organ of diabetes. Because the elastic structure of the lung supports the intrathoracic airways and helps to maintain their patency, the authors suggested that patients with diabetes were at risk for developing chronic airflow obstruction. While small changes in lung elastic recoil do not have direct clinical implications, subsequent development of chronic airflow obstruction could incur significant disability due to mechanical dysfunction of the lungs and airways. Schernthaner et al. ( 22 ) could not confirm the findings of Schuyler et al. in patients with type 1 diabetes. However Sandler et al. ( 23 ) did find decreased lung elasticity. In addition, they found decreased CO transfer capacity with decreased pulmonary capillary blood volume in 40 patients (15–60 years of age) with insulin-dependent diabetes compared with age-matched control subjects, all lifelong nonsmokers. Lung CO transfer capacity is significantly affected by the integrity of lung capillary endothelium and, therefore, the findings of Sandler et al. focused attention on pulmonary vascular changes. The concept of the lung as a target organ for diabetic microangiopathy received continuing attention. Reports of lung function tests in patients with diabetes over the next 15 years have focused largely on pulmonary microangiopathy with relatively few studies of pulmonary mechanical function. Lung function tests relating specifically to pulmonary microangiopathy include CO transfer capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume.
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“Role of Spirometry in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases” by Dr.Dipti Mohapatra, Dr.Tapaswini Mishra, Dr.Manasi Behera, Dr.Nibedita Priyadarsini, Dr.Arati Mohanty, Dr.Prakash Kumar Sasmal, India.

“Role of Spirometry in Diagnosis of Respiratory Diseases” by Dr.Dipti Mohapatra, Dr.Tapaswini Mishra, Dr.Manasi Behera, Dr.Nibedita Priyadarsini, Dr.Arati Mohanty, Dr.Prakash Kumar Sasmal, India.

Spirometry is the most commonly used pulmonary function tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically volume and/or flow of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. The spirometry test is performed using a device called a spirometer. Spirometry is easily and quickly performed in many settings so it is widely performed study and is important in initial screening and assessment of severity and type of respiratory disease. Besides, it also contributes prognostic information. It is usually done to distinguish between Obstructive and Restrictive diseases of the lungs and measure airflow obstruction to help make a definitive diagnosis.The important information provided by the spirometer are the FVC (Forced Vital Capacity), FEV1 (Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second), FEV1 /FVC (the ratio of FEV1 to FVC), FEV6 (volume of air that can forcibly be expired in 6 seconds). In normal cases FEV 1 and FVC is above
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Dynamic changes of serum SARS-Coronavirus IgG, pulmonary function and radiography in patients recovering from SARS after hospital discharge

Dynamic changes of serum SARS-Coronavirus IgG, pulmonary function and radiography in patients recovering from SARS after hospital discharge

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a new infec- tious disease in humans. The first victim of SARS to be diagnosed was a businessman from the city of Foshan in Guangdong Province, China. SARS patients may present with a spectrum of symptoms and signs, ranging from rel- atively asymptomatic to fulminant pneumonitis and death [1]. Lung injury caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is one of the main clinical manifestations in SARS patients, significantly affecting their prognosis. A regular follow-up survey of SARS patients in the convales- cent phase would be helpful to evaluate any changes in acquired immune function, pulmonary function, bones and joints over the course of time. At present, there have been few reports about the relationship between the prog- nosis for recovery and the degree of lung injury caused by the SARS-CoV. In addition, a study of the serum levels of the specific IgG antibody against SARS-CoV is needed because it is the major immunologic protection to aid in recovery and is essential to avoid repeated infection with SARS-CoV. It has been 14 months since the World Health Organization officially declared the global outbreak of SARS to be under control [2]. The present study focused on the dynamic changes in the IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV and in lung lesions in the discharged but recov- ering SARS patients as measured by lung function and imaging tests. The phenomenon of femoral head necrosis was also investigated in those SARS patients who com- plained of chronic bone and joint pain during the one year follow-up after discharge from the hospital.
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Lung cancer case study

Lung cancer case study

Pulmonary function tests will be undertaken to help ascertain whether a patient has enough lung function to undergo a surgical resection or treatment with radical radiotherapy... Whe[r]

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Predictive Value of Pulmonary Function Tests for Respiratory Infections in Cervical Cord Injury

Predictive Value of Pulmonary Function Tests for Respiratory Infections in Cervical Cord Injury

Studies examining pulmonary function need to meet ATS/ERS acceptability criteria, however respiratory muscle paralysis in patients with spinal cord injury makes acceptability of expiratory manoeuvres uncertain. Kelly et al in 2003 examined the spirometry testing standards in spinal cord injury and analysed the determinants of test failure(46). The study found that 17% of 278 subjects were unable to produce acceptable trials due to failure to expire for more than 6 seconds or delay in the onset of expiration causing excessive back extrapolated volume. On analysis of the determinants of test failure, it was found that the subjects with unacceptable efforts had lower percentage predicted FVC and FEV1 values and a greater proportion had neurologically complete cervical level spinal cord injury. If the criteria for excessive back extrapolated volume were relaxed, and a 0.5 second plateau at residual volume was accepted instead of a 6 second expiratory phase, then 92% of subjects were able to produce reproducible efforts. The study concluded that since subjects with the most impaired respiratory function could produce reproducible efforts, despite not strictly adhering to ATS/ERS standards, these efforts should be considered acceptable and included in study data to avoid bias.
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Effect of diabetes mellitus on the Pulmonary Function Tests in Sudanese Diabetic Patients

Effect of diabetes mellitus on the Pulmonary Function Tests in Sudanese Diabetic Patients

A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs; (Figure 1). The subject was asked to take a deep breath (maximum inspiration), and expire hard and forcible as long as possible into the spirometer. The tests were performed (with each subject in the standing position). The tests were repeated three times after adequate rest. Patients were trained about the entire maneuver and were encouraged to practice this maneuver before doing the pulmonary function tests. The parameters that were measured included force vital capacity (FVC), force expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory low rate (PEFR) the best reading of the three was taken.
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Comparative Study on Pulmonary Function Tests in Children Swimmers Versus Non Swimmers

Comparative Study on Pulmonary Function Tests in Children Swimmers Versus Non Swimmers

Historically, study data indicates that prolonged aerobic working out programmes does not produce any change in the normal lung Dempsey et al., 1977. There are also other studies showing no changes in the lung volume based on height, age and vital capacity in trainings on land practiced for a short period of time Sinning and Adrian 1968; Reuschlein et al., 1968; Kollias et al., 1972; Raven 1977; Kaufman and Swenson 1981. Thus the lung size and the pulmonary functions are not affected by regular exercises even if they are of intensive type.
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Pulmonary function tests as outcomes for systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease

Pulmonary function tests as outcomes for systemic sclerosis interstitial lung disease

An adaptation of the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) flow diagram [9] outlining the study selection process is available in figure 1. The detailed search strategy retrieved 3258 records. Following removal of duplicates, the titles and abstracts of 2056 records were screened to assess eligibility. Both co-reviewers independently agreed on the exclusion of 1415 records, with an overall percent agreement of 0.91 and a kappa statistic of 0.78. To confirm inclusion, a full-text assessment was performed on the remaining 641 records of which 384 were excluded. The overall percent agreement and kappa statistic for the secondary screening were 0.85 and 0.69, respectively. The reasons for exclusion at both the primary and secondary screening stages are presented in the supplementary material (e-Appendix 2)
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ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF AGING ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN ELDERLY POPULATION OF JAMMU

ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF AGING ON PULMONARY FUNCTION TESTS IN ELDERLY POPULATION OF JAMMU

Simple ventilatory function tests have proved useful in establishing the diagnosis, prognosis and in guiding therapy. [9,10] The knowledge of pulmonary function tests is a basic requirement to understand the respiratory physiology for all medical physiologist and clinicians. Many studies related to pulmonary function tests have been conducted mainly in the developing countries. This type of research in electronic media failed to disclose any studies in the elderly Indian population. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess Pulmonary Function Tests for elderly population of Jammu.
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Pulmonary Function Tests and Their Reversibility in Smokers

Pulmonary Function Tests and Their Reversibility in Smokers

Cigarette smoking is by far the most important risk factor for COPD and the most important way that tobacco contributes to the risk of COPD (3). Cigarette smokers have a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function abnormalities, greater annual rate of decline in FEV1, and a greater COPD mortality rate than those of non-smokers (4). These differences between cigarette smokers and non-smokers increase in direct proportion to the quantity of smoking. Smoking leads to rapid decline in pulmonary function tests (PFTs) specially those indicating diameter of airways such as forced expiratory flow in one second (FEV1) (5). Even in teenagers who have smoked only a few years, maximum expiratory flow- volume curves demonstrate decreases in flow rates at small lung volumes (6) yet another expression of small airway obstruction. If smoking causes changes in small airway calibre at such an early age , one might expect that smoking also causes acute changes in these small airways. Until now, the only well- documented acute effect of smoking on the airways was the decrease of airway conductance demonstrated by Nadel and Comroe (7).
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Assessment of Pulmonary Function Tests among
Firefighters in Jerusalem Longitudinal Study

Assessment of Pulmonary Function Tests among Firefighters in Jerusalem Longitudinal Study

Furthermore, it is possible that subjects who did develop a pulmonary disorder left their workplace and therefore our tests found a lower prevalence of obstructive disorders. Our research showed a negative correlation between years of service and FEV1 as well as FVC values (Table 2). This finding suggests that firefighting might be hazardous to the respiratory system leading to diminished pulmonary function parameters. However, we did not discover any findings suggesting long term pulmonary harm following involvement in the Carmel fire nor did we find significant differences between heavy and light fire exposure. This could indicate that forest fire exposure is different from the exposure in the WTC rescue operations. Although it is not possible to diagnose a restrictive lung disorder with simple Spirometry, we did note that the prevalence of a restrictive pattern (13.1%) was greater than that of an obstructive disorder. We also found a significant decline in FVC values (Figure 1b). A decline of 110 milliliter per year in FVC is of concern and should prompt continued follow up. Similar findings have been described in large studies among firefighters in the USA [8-12]. A possible explanation for this is the acquirement of restrictive lung diseases. For this reason, we believe that it is important to address these findings and conduct further research to identify possible restrictive lung diseases in firefighters, by doing serial lung volume measurements and follow up chest X-ray.
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Effectiveness of septoplasty on pulmonary function tests in symptomatic deviated nasal septum cases: a prospective study

Effectiveness of septoplasty on pulmonary function tests in symptomatic deviated nasal septum cases: a prospective study

The pre and post-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants in relation to pulmonary function tests are given in Tables 2 and 3. The postoperative values of FEV1% (p≤0.001), FVC% (p ≤0.001), PEF% (p=0.005) and FEV1/FVC% (p≤0.001) were higher than the preoperative ones, and the results were statistically significant. Clinically significant improvement in the pulmonary functions was noted among males in the 21- 30-year age group, with left-sided nose block, preceding trauma, hump, left-sided deviation, and the cartilaginous part of the septum. However, age, gender, laterality and duration of deviation, headache, sneezing, part of septum involved, spur, caudal location, and ITH did not play a role in the enhancement of pulmonary functions after septoplasty.
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Association between Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Tests

Association between Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Lung Function Tests

manifesting as increased respiratory effort and respiratory failure (5), and a progressive increase in the frequency of exacerbations with an increase in cough, purulent sputum production, and dyspnea, which indeed negatively affect the quality of life of patients and limit their function (6). In some patients, mostly those with severe airflow obstruction, severe respiratory failure occur periodically and may require frequent admission to emergency ward and mechanical ventilation. In fact, respiratory failure associated with COPD is responsible for about 12.5% of the emergency ward admissions (7). Data from follow-ups of
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Relative Sensitivity of Different Pulmonary Function Tests in the Evaluation of Exercise-Induced Asthma

Relative Sensitivity of Different Pulmonary Function Tests in the Evaluation of Exercise-Induced Asthma

Pulmonary function measurements included airway resistance (Raw), specific airway conductance (SG awl’ functional residual capacity (FRC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maxi- mum mid[r]

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Comparison of Impulse Osillometry System and Spirometry for Diagnosis of Obstructive Lung Disorders

Comparison of Impulse Osillometry System and Spirometry for Diagnosis of Obstructive Lung Disorders

In 2007, Al-Mutairi et al, showed a 31.3% sensitivity for IOS for asthma and 19.6% sensitivity for conventional pulmonary function tests. They revealed 38.95% sensitivity for IOS in COPD and 47.4% sensitivity for conventional pulmonary function tests. The sensitivity of IOS was 45.8% for detecting healthy people, and was superior to that of PFT (28.8%). There was 80.5% specificity for IOS and 86.2% for cPFT in detecting healthy people (7). In contrast with Al-Mutairi study, our findings showed greater sensitivity and specificity for IOS.

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Pulmonary function tests, sputum induction, and bronchial provocation tests: diagnostic tools in the challenge of distinguishing asthma and COPD phenotypes in clinical practice

Pulmonary function tests, sputum induction, and bronchial provocation tests: diagnostic tools in the challenge of distinguishing asthma and COPD phenotypes in clinical practice

Data were expressed as mean ( ± SE) or median values. IL-8 and TNF- α were expressed as the median value and the inter-quartile range. All calculations of PD 20 were performed with the base-2 logarithm (log 2 ), as this reflects doubling concentrations and normalizes the distribution. Patients already responding to saline were assigned a PD 20 value half of the lowest concentration applied. Patients not responding to the highest concentration of methacholine or AMP were assigned a value twice the highest concentration applied. Dif- ferences between subject groups were initially assessed using a Kruskal–Wallis test and if significant, a Mann–Whitney rank test was then performed. Correlations between inflammatory cells and cytokine levels in sputum, smoking characteristics, or lung function parameters were calculated using Spearman’s rank correlation tests. Statistical analysis was not influenced by values at the lower limits of detection, since the non- parametric tests used were based on ranks of values. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant.
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Effect of Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trials

Effect of Incentive Spirometry on Pulmonary Function Tests in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Randomized Clinical Trials

The administration of incentive spirometry started at the beginning of study for every patient and continued for 2 months at home [14]. Also, we provided them an incentive spirometer with a pictorial educational booklet containing all the verbally-provided training materials. All incentive spirometers provided to the intervention group were Shree Chem or similar brand. The routine pulmonary function test including FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 / FVC were demonstrated at the beginning and 2 month after the initiation of the study to both groups. All pa- tients were evaluated by the pulmonary function test before hemodialysis treatment in the hospital. The pul- monary function was evaluated by a spirometer (Model: Flowhandy ZAN type: 3.1) in both groups. We used the same spirometer during the study and its reliability was assessed by the test-retest method. For this reason, FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC were evaluated in 15 patients for 2 times within 5 minutes under the same conditions, and the correlation coefficient was 95%.
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The role of preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis

The role of preoperative pulmonary function tests in the surgical treatment of extremely severe scoliosis

All of the patients received pulmonary function tests (PFTs) before surgery. The PFTs included the following six parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), FVC ratio, forced expiratory volume at the end of the first second (FEV1), FEV1 ratio, peak expiratory flow (PEF), and PEF ratio. The 60 patients were divided into two subgroups according to the severity of the restrictions of their preoperative pul- monary function. The severe restrictive group fits the fol- lowing criteria: FVC ratio ≤ 65%, FEV1 ratio ≤ 65%, and PEF ratio ≤ 65%. The moderate restrictive group followed the subsequent criteria: FVC ratio > 65%, FEV1 ratio > 65%, and PEF ratio > 65%. The surgical procedures in- cluded anterior spinal fusion in 3 cases, posterior spinal fusion in 27 cases, one-stage anterior and posterior spinal fusion in 9 cases, and two-stage anterior and posterior spinal fusion in 21 cases. The chosen surgical approach depended on the curve type and flexibility. More specific- ally, anterior spinal fusion was indicated for single flexible thoracic or thoracolumbar curves, and combined anterior/ posterior spinal fusion was administered for rigid curves. The staging of the procedures depended on the complex- ity of the procedures, the intraoperative status of the pa- tients, and the anticipated interval traction. The second of the staged procedures was performed about 1 week after the first. The mean operation time was 396 min, and the mean blood loss was 989 mL. All patients underwent intraoperative neurologic monitoring such as SSEP and MEP. Tracheal intubation was kept into intensive care unit and pulled out by an anesthetist.
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