At the opposite end side of the spectrum are people who may compromise the IS accidentally. Hackers range from inexperienced professional, college student, or novice (e.g., script kiddy) to the highly technical and capable. Most hackers pride themselves on their skill and seek, not to destroy, but simply to gain access so that the computer or network can be used for later experimentation. Hackers often believe that by exposing a hole or 'back-door' in a computer system, they are actually helping the organization to close the holes, providing a benefit to the Internet and a needed resource. Other hackers have less benign motives for getting inside.
In the third step, based on results of the previous stage, health informationmanagement and computer experts’ opin- ions, and observations of the five selected hospitals, a com- prehensive form was designed to assess the status of ISRM for computerized health information systems, including four dis- tinct parts encompassing general information about hospitals, specifications of computerized health information systems, informationsecurity incidences, and self-assessment checklist of ISRM. Its content validity was confirmed by 12 experts of health informationmanagement, medical informatics, information technology (IT), and computer engineering (three professionals per area of study).These scholars were selected on the basis of their previous work experience in the hospital’s IT departments or their familiarity with the structure of the IT department in the hospitals of Iran. For data collection, this questionnaire and its guideline were sent to all 908 active hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health of Iran. To remove any possible ambiguity, an instruction sheet was attached to this questionnaire, explaining all sections. The hospitals were selected with regard to their CHIS application, such as hospi- tal informationsystem, Electronic Medical Record, Patient’s Admission and Discharge Systems, and so on. Hospitals that did not use CHIS at the time of this research were excluded. To facilitate and expedite the collection of data, this form was placed electronically in the official Web site (portal) of the Ministry of Health of Iran and hospitals were asked to register the relevant information in the aforementioned Web site.
Electronic information used by companies constantly increases, while its management, ease of access, adequacy, reliability and compliance tends to be even more complex in order to meet organizational objectives. In addition, organizations are concerned about exposure caused by incidents that could compromise their activities (Posthumus and Von Solms, 2004).Influenced by needs, goals, security requirements, processes, size and structure, organizations tend to specify and strategically implement an InformationSecurityManagementSystem (ISMS) that meets organization's objectives. In its latest update, ISO/IEC 27001:2013 standardizes definitions and structures of different ISO standards in order to provide an even more effective risk management by including requirements to assess and treat informationsecurity risks (ISO/IEC 27001, 2013). Nevertheless, a continuous improvement approach through a process of creating, implementing, operating, monitoring, reviewing, maintaining and improving the organization's ISMS adopts the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle while taking into account security requirements of information and actions required to meet stakeholder's expectations. The model reflects, among others, the principles of governance of information systems and networks, risk analysis, specification, implementation, administration and security revaluation (Da Veiga and Eloff, 2007; ISO/IEC 27001, 2005; ISACA, 2012). Information privacy and security are concepts related to protection and both should be considered when dealing with
Information is the lifeblood of organizations, a vital business asset in today’s Information Technology (IT) -enabled world. Access to high-quality, complete, accurate and up-to- date information is vital in supporting managerial decision- making process that leads to sound decisions. Thus, securing informationsystem resources is extremely important to ensure that the resources are well protected. Informationsecurity is not just a simple matter of having usernames and passwords . Regulations and various privacy / data protection policy impose a raft of obligations to organizations . Meanwhile viruses, worms, hackers, phishers and social engineers threaten organizations on all sides. Hackers or sometimes we call edit by unidentified user is likely to cause huge losses for an organization [figure 1], such as by theft of customer data, spy on business strategy, for the benefit of competitors . It is imperative for organizations to use an informationsecuritymanagementsystem (ISMS) to effectively manage their information assets. ISMS is basically consist of sets of policies put place by an organization to define, construct, develop and maintain security of their computer based on hardware and software resources. These policies dictate the way in which computer resources can be used.
Technical advancements do not always produce a more secure environment. All kinds of human factors can deeply affect the management of security in an organisational context; therefore, security is not solely a technical problem; rather, we need to understand human factors to achieve effective informationsecuritysystem practice. For this purpose, the study identifies critical direct and indirect human factors that impact upon ISSs. These factors were analysed through the study of two security incidents in UK financial organisations using the SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) technique discussed in the preceding chapter. Typically, human work within an organisation falls into four categories: individual, team, management and customer/interested party  . Human factors within these categories can become uncontrollable forces. Because people have different perceptions of security, their reactions to informationsecurity procedures are diverse. Each individual has concerns, values, culture, skills, knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of his or her own. These factors are highly subjective and extremely hard to measure and calculate in ISS processes. These human forces interact with technological elements in an interconnected world of so-called “secure information systems” . People have their own unique culture, attitudes, skills, knowledge, understandings, behaviour and interests that depend upon the role that they play within the organisation. Individuals’ interaction with computers and decisions made with regard to informationsecurity are certainly very dynamic and complex issues. Human factors are the greatest single issue of concern in IS . We therefore need a comprehensive understanding of human factors and their impacts for an effective implementation of ISSs. This task is challenging, as the domain is highly subjective by nature and it is difficult to quantify all the factors into a measuring scale. There are many areas in which judgement becomes extremely difficult and hugely subjective because the study is about people and their reactions to IS and, therefore, it is highly personal. For instance, it would be extremely difficult to judge and evaluate people’s apathy and their attitudes towards ISSs.
Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. Although the risk assessment methods have been greatly improved, the problems of difficulty in implementation, limited scope of application and high requirements for analysts are also common. Therefore, further study of convenient, fast and effective evaluation method is the prerequisite and key to ensure the smooth development of informationsecurity work. Next, we will introduce a conventional risk managementmodel, and then make an application analysis in the light of a practical example.
managementinformationsystem for Nasarawa State polytechnic lafia and thus determine its impact on school administration. Stratified random samplingwas adopted to sample the target population.Questionnaire and interview were the data gathering instruments used.This study established that managementinformationsystem is very effective in carrying out series of administrative and managerial activities within the institution compared to the manual system currently in use. The respondents opined positively regarding the effectiveness and the impacts of MIS in different activities it was employed during the implementation phase of the new system (MIS). Improvement in productivity, registrations, performance of duties and decision making were the key areas of success recorded as a result of MIS. The study recommendedthat, MIS should be fully adopted by Nasarawa State Polytechnic lafia. And that, there should be training and retraining of staff and students on the use of the MIS package.
Abstract: ManagementInformation Systems represent a managerial approach to information systems concepts and applications. Computers have become pervasive in every aspect of our lives. Mobile agent paradigm is an emerging and exciting paradigm for ManagementInformationSystem. Reasons are the inefficiencies associated with more traditionally distributed systems such as client-server applications in terms of latency, bandwidth, vulnerability to network disconnection, mobility etc. The main problems like scaling, integrating and staffing (security expert) are expected of this study to decrease. The study aims to develop Mobile Agent for MIS for quick and adequate operation enhancement. Mobile agent technology helps design wide range of adaptive, flexible applications with non -permanent connections by adding mobility to code, machine based intelligence, improved network and database possibilities. The adoption of Mobile Agent SystemModel in this study has shown the strength of an agent on information retrieval. Apart from these, the Mobility of Mobile Agent Architecture has been used as a concept for searching and retrieving information among categorized MIS databases available on a network. The system was designed using JAVA as its frontend and MySQL which is the control and management of the data call for database managementsystem (DBMS) which also handle structured data that will store information submitted as its backend. This language was chosen because of its wealth of compatibilities and features for developing applications. Regardless of the available tools, managementinformationsystem with mobile agent is a system that will enhance better achievement of result.
Social security data management is an important topic both in application of informationmanagement and in social se- curity management. In the Web 2.0 era, more and more human information and healthcare information is released to the Internet through various approaches. This abundance makes managing social security data go beyond managing con- ventional social security database records. How to organize the conventional records together with the related informa- tion gathered from the Web is an interesting problem to solve to provide more convenient and powerful social securityinformation service. In this paper, we introduce our initial work on building a Web-oriented social securityinformationsystem named i-SSIS. I-SSIS is a database system which adopts a new object-role data model named INM model and deploys INM database system as its core. With the assistance of auxiliary tools to carry out social securityinformation extraction, analyzing and query, i-SSIS can properly provide social security-related information gathered from the Web. We introduce the basic ideas of designing i-SSIS and describe the architecture and major components of the system.
Today’s information systems are complex collections of technology (i.e., hardware, software, and firmware), processes, and people, working together to provide organizations with the capability to process, store, and transmit information in a timely manner to support various missions and business functions. Information needs to be available, accurate and up-to-date to enable an organization make good business decisions. While various ISMS frameworks have been implemented and adopted by organizations, the focus has been more on the use of technology as a means of securing information systems. However, informationsecurity needs to become an organisation-wide and strategic issue, taking it out of the IT domain and aligning it with the corporate governance approach. Furthermore, an algorithm-based ISMS model demonstrating Information Technology General Controls (ITGC) concepts, is proposed with a more human-centred
The PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard) is a multifaceted security standard that includes requirements for securitymanagement, policies, procedures, network architecture, software design and other critical protective measures. This comprehensive standard is intended to help organizations proactively protect customer account data and manage IT security and privacy risk in credit card transactions. PCI DSS has 12 requirements (IT control objectives) and more than 50 recommended IT controls. By adopting industry best practices (e.g. CobiT, ISO 27000, PCI DSS) and adjusting IT infrastructure with high-level executive objectives, companies can lower IT risks, especially security and operational risks. According to the recent IDC white paper 3 implementation of comprehensive IT Governance
Qualitative: It involves the assessment of the effects of identified risk factors and the creation of priorities that can be used to decide on how to solve the potential risk factors. They are simple and hence are considered better than quantitative method as the risks are expressed in terms of descriptive variables. They are based on judgment and intuition. They are complex and pose serious problems in secondary schools due to complexities. Ex: Hazard and Operability study (HAZOP), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and CCTA-Risk Analysis and Management Method (CRAMM). Not all techniques require strong expertise or are complex. Technique like OCTAVE (Operationally Critical Threat, Asset and Vulnerability Evaluation) which is a layered based technique provides easy, cheap and viable means of achieving the same objectives. It has also been found to be the most appropriate one as not much knowledge is required in the field of information risk management. Hence OCTAVE is always recommended for small scale organizations.
This is supported by the results of the study Pecina et.al, there are 2 types that can cause on the data destruction the is a threat and vulnerability. The threat of data destruction for the category of cyber threats (virtual assault) is a against the infrastructure, applications of physical and wireless communications. Cyber threats are divided into several categories namely intrusion, fraud, harassment, malicious code or denial of service. Vulnerability can be defined as weakness the in ICT infrastructure. It may exist in the securitysystem procedures, system design, phase in the implementation application, internal controls, employees issues, organization security and so on.
2 In this study, the implementation of ISMS will be conducted on the IT Services Centre (ISC) organization as a case study to identify the gaps of ISMS best practices and the implementation roadmap is focusing on the planning stage of ISMS implementation. The core business of the IT Services Centre (ISC) is providing IT services and operation support to the various organizations, which focusing in Property investment businesses. The ISC has identified the Data Centre activities as the scope for the ISO27001 ISMS certification.
organization Gartner as: The information assets need new processing mode to have the greater deci- sion-making power, insight discovery and process optimization of massive, high growth rate and diversi- fication. From the data category, the big data refers to the information which can’t be dealt with by using traditional processes or tools. The definition of big data is defined by Wikipedia as: A collection of data can’t be captured, managed, and processed with con- ventional software tools in the affordable time range. Big data has four features: Volume, Velocity, Variety and Value. ĸ The features of big data are also reflected in two aspects, one is the data volume that grows in a geometric level, and the other is that the data source is very abundant. The proportion of non-structured data increases more and more. The security industry has begun to shift to the cloud with the widespread big data and cloud services, because the traditional secu- rity system, which can’t effectively and quickly find unknown threats, has been very weak or disintegrated to the role of big data and cloud platform.
Currently, most IC manufacturing enterprises have already established a scheme of ISO9000 quality managementsystem, which standardized enterprise internal operation, providing customer consignment service securely, timely and accurately to continuously improving and enhancing customer satisfaction. In quality managementsystem, there are also some items for security considerations, so part of the program files and work instructions are made to meet informationsecuritymanagement requirements. On the other hand, most enterprises perform well in securitymanagement based on safety technologies, such as: Intranet/Extranet network access, network security area design, IP address coding, and informationsystemmanagement.
The system in question is an automated system to manage the informationsecurity in companies that information is very sensitive and to control informationsecurity as well as Risk management. Therefore, after identifying and modelling the requirements into a well structured design, some group of team members proceed with implementing into a web application form. During the period of Industrial attachment, the author is expected to meet the following objectives;
Development of the InformationSecurityManagementSystem (ISMS software) has been started since 2008 at SCAN. Because, ISMS had initially been developed for governmental organization, therefore delivering a quality product has been important for the company. Moreover, as one of its obligations the company should service its clients according to the CMMI level 3 standard. In addition to the above, SCAN should support the ISMS client (the government) with the newer versions. Therefore, in order to maintain the quality of the software, the ISMS must be delivered with the least possible problems. One of the solutions to this problem is to frequently test the software and fix the problems for every new version that is going to be released.
In Otero, Otero, and Qureshi (2010), innovative control evaluation and selection approach were developed, particularly for informationsecurity controls, to help decision makers select the most effective ones in resource- constrained environments. The approach used desirability functions to quantify the desirability of each security control after taking into account the benefits and restrictions associated with implementing the particular control. The above-provided management with a measurement that was representative of the overall quality of each security control based on organizational goals. Through a case study, the approach proved successful in providing a way for measuring the quality of security control in organizations. Otero et al.’s (2010) methodology took into consideration relevant quality attributes of each security control in order to determine their relative importance. This allowed a control selection scheme that represented how well these security control met quality attributes, and how important those quality attributes were for the specific organization. The quality attributes were defined in terms of different features, where each feature was determined by the organization to either be present or not. Once all features were identified, each individual security control was evaluated against each feature using a simple binary (boolean) scale (0 or 1). Security controls that satisfied the highest number of features exposed a higher level of quality (or priority) for that particular quality attribute. The above resulted in a control evaluation approach based on how well security controls met quality attributes, and how important those quality attributes were for the organization. However, boolean criteria for evaluating the quality attributes of each security control in order to ultimately determine which ones to select, may not be considered a precise enough assessment for selecting and ultimately implementing security controls in organizations.
However, the inclusion of those subjects or of a part thereof in training of professionals is not sufficient. This approach includes only the organizational part (see the beginning of this article) in the construction of integrated security systems. What about the training of professionals capable of developing the technical part and writing procedures for the implementation of each of the activities related to security and defense? As already mentioned, not all of the team to build the system can know everything, for this purpose there are specialists in different disciplines and subsystems of the managementsystem of the organization. But I think two people should have at least general knowledge of all subjects relating to the provision of security and protection of critical infrastructure. This is the Designer of Integrated SecurityManagementSystem and Security Project Manager. Both should make sure you have knowledge and experience in the establishment of the organizational part of the system. As for the technical part, the Designer must master, above all, the specificity of information technology, while the Project Manager needs to know how they should be managed for security purposes (IT are at the heart of building security systems). Someone will say that for that purpose, system administrators or engineers in the IT area. This will answer that "narrow" IT professionals should always have corrective in the face of security specialists, the latter is necessary to master the basic principles in the IT area. This is a must if we don’t want IT specialists always to offer us for building security systems to buy the most expensive "toys" in their area (this is the mentality of most of his colleagues who really deep knowledge in IT area). Namely security specialists must have the ability to make accurate analysis of cost-benefit and build security levels of the organization, taking into account its specific needs in this area. And such a security expert in this case must be the Designer, which laid the foundations of the securitysystem.