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Nonlinear aircraft engine model for future integrated power center development

Nonlinear aircraft engine model for future integrated power center development

For this purpose, the first step is to develop an accurate model of the aircraft engine with an adequate degree of accuracy and complexity. Almost all modern aircraft engines are designed as multiple spool turbofans with high-bypass ratios to minimize fuel consumption and reduce generated noise. Single shaft engines can be modelled as a linear system [2], however, nonlinear modelling is required for multiple spool gas turbines due to the thermodynamic coupling between compressor- turbine sets.

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Experimental studies of confinement integrity of metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash (Part.1)

Experimental studies of confinement integrity of metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash (Part.1)

As a relevant aircraft engine, turbo-fan engine, which was used for big passenger planes, such as Boeing747 and Air-Bus 300, was chosen. Its length, outer diameter and weight are 2.7m, 4.3m and 4.4ton, respectively. The local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building against a relevant aircraft engine crash has been examined. The impact velocity was set to 90m/s considering the taking-off, landing speed of the passenger aircraft, and the Type C package test conditions in the IAEA Transport Regulation (8) . The penetration depth can be calculated by the local damage formula, such as Degen formula (9) for concrete structure. According to the design concept of the storage building (wall thickness 80cm), the reduced velocity of the engine missile was estimated as about 60m/s (7) .
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Investigation of Fire Protection Certification for Aircraft Engine Components

Investigation of Fire Protection Certification for Aircraft Engine Components

Abstract: Fire protection performance is one of the most important capabilities for aircraft engine, since the result may be hazardous in the case of a fire condition. According to fire protection regulation CCAR 33.17 of China Civil Aviation Regulations, fire-proof tests of a specific pipeline, a fuel tank and a fuel filter assembly were carried out. Test conditions include inlet fluid temperature, fluid pressure, fluid volume flow, fire temperature and heat flux density. The average flame temperature during the fire tests is 2000 degrees Fahrenheit, the heat flux density is 116kW/m 2 ±10kW/m 2 and the distance from burner exhaust to the test area is 100mm in these fire tests. Fire test of pipe passed, but the fire test of oil tank failed because of the failure of the oil circulation system and the melting of plastic pipe material in the ventilation pipe separately. The first fire test of the fuel filter failed because of design defect of one oil drainage path, but after design change of the oil drainage path, the second one succeeded. Based on the fire protection tests and results analysis, three essential factors of fire protection performance and type certification were presented: 1. Volume of medium retained in test parts; 2. Mass flow of medium; 3. Pressure in the test parts cavity.
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Idealization of aircraft engine model in structural safety assessment of nuclear power plant against large civil aircraft crash

Idealization of aircraft engine model in structural safety assessment of nuclear power plant against large civil aircraft crash

One can say that the impact load induced by aircraft engine is larger than that induced by aircraft fuselage or wing part, because the aircraft engine is most heavy and strong part in the aircraft. However, the impact effects by the aircraft engine cannot be considered directly or severely in the evaluations on the NPP-large civil aircraft impact by using Riera (1968) approach. To quantify the impact load of the large civil aircraft engine, it is the best way to do the high speed impact test of full-scaled actual engines but this seems to be unrealistic or infeasible. A practical alternative in spite of many limitations and restrictions is to accomplish the impact analysis using a detailed finite element model by solving explicit nonlinear dynamics. With this approach, impact analyses or proposal of impact load are accomplished by NIST (2005) and Namba et al. (2008). NIST accomplished aircraft impact analyses to WTC towers with a detailed FE model of Boeing 767 aircraft and its popular engine PW4000-94, shown in figure 1, manufactured by Pratt & Whitney Company. Namba et al. (2008) also accomplished spent nuclear fuel storage facilities structural evaluation under aircraft crash impact with a detailed FE model of an aircraft engine CF6-80C2, manufactured by General Electric Company. According to the report published by NIST, as shown in Table 1, the engines JT9D-7R4, PW4000-94 and CF6-80C2 adopted in the large civil aircrafts including Boeing 767 are similar in sizes, weights and shapes.
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Design and Analysis of the Aircraft Engine Propeller

Design and Analysis of the Aircraft Engine Propeller

The propeller blade is an airfoil which propels the airplane through the air by converting the rotating power of the engine into thrust. Blades are twisted to optimize the performance of the propeller based on variable operating conditions. A propeller is designed to be compatible with a specific engine, in order to achieve maximum thrust or efficiency and reliability from the aircraft. Even though the propeller might fit another engine shaft, only the propeller manufacturer can determine whether it is suitable for use on a particular aircraft. Installation requirements are available for all McCauley props. Propellers are generally changed either to upgrade performance or to restore original performance compromised by wear and tear. Whatever the reason, changing propellers deserves careful consideration. The propeller is intimately linked to aircraft performance and operates in partnership with all other components. Many factors can enhance or impair performance.
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Conceive And Investigation of Cam Air Shaft For Multi Cylinder Aircraft Engine

Conceive And Investigation of Cam Air Shaft For Multi Cylinder Aircraft Engine

CAM is a mechanical appendage for broadcasting a coveted movement to an acolyte by directly contact. The device driver is anticipated CAM and determined is addressed follower. CAM mechanism is a case of a higher pair with controversy contact. Rotating shaft is the Learning ability of the engine must admit CAM lobes, accepting journals, and a thrust face to keep fore and after movement of the rotating shaft. In addition rotating shaft can admit a gear to drive the allocator and a case to drive a fuel pump. Rotating shaft is checking the valve train cognitive operation. Rotating shaft is along with the crankshaft it finds out firing order. Rotating shaft is along with the suction and consumes it determines the practicable rpm range of the engine.
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Effect of Divergence Angle on the Performance and Flow Analysis of 3D Annular Diffuser of an Aircraft Engine using CFD Technique

Effect of Divergence Angle on the Performance and Flow Analysis of 3D Annular Diffuser of an Aircraft Engine using CFD Technique

the best performance of the combustor is quite complex. Annular diffuser naturally exist in the gas turbines of aircraft because of presence of central hub or shaft. The annular diffuser have superior performance compared to conical or simular diffuser because of the presence of hub which act as a guide to the flow Kline SJ [1].

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Data Assimilation Algorithm for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Aircraft Engine

Data Assimilation Algorithm for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Aircraft Engine

For these two shortcomings, data assimilation is an ideal solution. Through data assimilation, the real-time data monitored during engine operation can be reasonably utilized, and the parameters of the model can be adjusted in time to reduce the cumulative error that may exist during the operation of the model. At the same time, individual differences can be distinguished according to the data of each engine so that the prediction is more accurate.

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The Impact of Altitude, Mach Number And Relative Humidity Towards Aircraft Engine Emission

The Impact of Altitude, Mach Number And Relative Humidity Towards Aircraft Engine Emission

Amongst the available prediction models, the empirical model tends to be the least computationally extensive. The implementation of this model can be realized in two ways: 1) using engine thermodynamic parameters and 2) using the fuel flow during landing and take-off (LTO) operations defined by ICAO. The fuel flow method was developed and derived from the P3 – T3 semi-empirical method which requires engine proprietary information for its estimation. Using fuel flow at altitude, Boeing Fuel Flow Method 2 (Dubois & Paynter, 2006) and DLR Fuel Flow Method (Dopelheuer & Lecht, 1998) managed to provide an acceptable estimation of aircraft emissions.
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CFD Analysis of Oil Cooler Duct for Turboprop Aircraft Engine in Pusher Configuration

CFD Analysis of Oil Cooler Duct for Turboprop Aircraft Engine in Pusher Configuration

The general goals were to simulate the flow field around the nacelle and OC duct using CFD and thereby estimate pressure drop across the OC and secondary mass [r]

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Microstructural Characterization of Failed Aircraft Antenna

Microstructural Characterization of Failed Aircraft Antenna

This paper presents the failure analysis of aircraft antenna which is a sub-assembly of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) used with Air Traffic Control (ATC) transponder. The base of the damaged antenna (metallic part) is made from Al-based alloy. The micrographs exhibit the typical solidification microstructure consisting of Al-rich matrix along with Si- and Mg-Si-Fe- rich phases. The antenna is coated with the paint consisting of three layers. First and third layers display the presence of Ti and C while second layer consists of Si, Cr and C elements. The small amount of oxygen is also present in all the three layers. The cracks are appeared in the central region of the fin due to impact of external objects (appears to be blankings and particles). Three types of foreign object damage particles are observed on the damaged / hit area. The antenna appears to be damaged during gale as a result of hitting of the large particles lying in aircraft parking area and aircraft engine blankings.
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Report on United States barriers to trade and investment 2006. February 2007

Report on United States barriers to trade and investment 2006. February 2007

Barriers to Trade and Investment Report for 2006 INDEX Agricultural Commodity Loan Programmes Agricultural Export Subsidies Programmes Air Transport Services Ownership Aircraft Engine Ma[r]

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The Prognostic Method of Engine Gas Path Based on Convolutional Neural Network

The Prognostic Method of Engine Gas Path Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Furthermore, the weight-sharing structure network makes them more similar to biological neural networks, which has achieved good results in various fields of pattern recognition [3].There are some studies on prognostic techniques based on deep neural networks [4], but they are rarely used in the PHM system of aircraft engine. In this paper, the prognostic method based on CNN is studied. The proposed method is validated by test data of engine simulation, and compared with other traditional methods. The verification results show that the proposed method has good feasibility and effect, and can be used to conduct research on PHM technology of engine.
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Aerodynamic Fuselage Design and Engine Integration for the Vampire Light Sport Aircraft.

Aerodynamic Fuselage Design and Engine Integration for the Vampire Light Sport Aircraft.

The positioning and cooling provisions for the engine could be performed after the new fuselage design was determined. As requested by LSA America, a Rotax 912 ULS, which is a 4-stroke 4-cyliner horizontally opposed small aircraft engine, was to be integrated into the Vampire airframe. The cylinder bodies were cooled by ram air, and it had radiators for cylinder head and oil cooling. LSA America was unable to provide dimensions and specifications for the engine mount and exhaust system that they use on the Allegro, so integration work with the Vampire was done assuming the stock Rotax engine mount and exhaust components as detailed in the engine’s installation manual [10]. All integration work was performed using a SolidWorks assembly and an engineering model of the Rotax 912 ULS. For cooling, a primary intake scoop was designed and positioned on the roof of the fuselage to cool the engine and provide it with intake air for combustion. A secondary intake scoop was positioned on the belly of the fuselage to allow for some cooling of the exhaust system components and to assist in directing the ram air from the upper scoop out through the engine compartment’s outlet. Several baffles were required to direct the ram air to serve these functions. This section will detail the engine positioning, cooling intakes, and baffle designs.
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Design and Thrust Analysis of Compact Jet Engine

Design and Thrust Analysis of Compact Jet Engine

inlet temperatures beyond the maximum allowable turbine material temperatures of the day. It was not until the middle of this century that gas turbines evolved into practical machines, primarily as jet engines. Although some prototype combustion turbine units were designed, the developments that led to their practical use were a result of World War II military programs. The actual race for jet engines was prompted by World War II and therefore government started subsidization on R&D. Later gas turbines for power generation were to emerge to from these military advances in technology. Only Germany’s Junkers and Great Britain’s Rolls- Royce were successful to enter general production with their engines during the war. Only GE was especially able to transfer knowledge between its ongoing aircraft engine and power generation turbine businesses. The beginning of gas turbine power generation “packages” occurred early 1960s when GE and Westinghouse engineers were able to standardize (within their own companies) designs for gas turbines.
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The Evolution of Reliability and Efficiency of Aerospace Bearing Systems

The Evolution of Reliability and Efficiency of Aerospace Bearing Systems

tation. Therefore the aerospace industry will have to focus on a low-emission and quite air traffic, and on the conservation of natural resources and our en- vironment. The end-use consumer and environmental policy requirements for aircrafts of the next generation translate into components with improved effi- ciency and reliability. Rolling bearings are one of these components which sig- nificantly determine the reliability and mechanical efficiency of aerospace ap- plications such as aircraft and rotorcraft engines and transmission systems. They have to withstand very demanding operating conditions. Especially main shaft bearings in modern aircraft engines experience high rotational speeds and tem- peratures. Furthermore aerospace bearings have to meet the highest reliability standards and require low-weight design solutions. These operating conditions and requirements present a continuous challenge for improvements in all fields of bearing technology. This article presents solutions in aspects of materials, design, analysis, and surface technologies in order to meet the environmental, reliability, and economical requirements of advanced aerospace bearing sys- tems. State of the art bearing analysis and advanced bearing design solutions contributing to lower friction power losses and increased systems efficiency are discussed. Weight, functional, and maintenance benefits are presented with the example of highly integrated aircraft engine main shaft bearings. It is also shown that the progress in bearing materials and surface technology devel- How to cite this paper: Gloeckner, P. and
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Aircraft turbine engine control systems development : historical perspective

Aircraft turbine engine control systems development : historical perspective

was first installed on an aircraft in 1941 [2]. Hans von Ohain had a patent for his engine in Germany in 1936 and the first flight with this engine had taken place in 1939 [2]. The first gas turbine engine developed by Whittle [2] had a simple throttle lever that controlled fuel flow into the engine. To accommodate the functional requirements when fitted on aircraft, design of fuel control system had to take into account effects of altitude, temperature and forward speed [3]. At the same time, continued requirements to improve gas turbine engine performance, production and life limiting processes had their impacts on gas turbine technologies [3]. In the 1950s, aircraft engine control systems were based on hydromechanical technologies and were complex artifacts. They encompassed a large number of components and subcomponents, and they were application-specific, such that a change in the design of the engine required a change in the design of the control system. Hydromechanical control systems reached a technological ceiling in a relatively short time. The maturity of the technology enabled engineers to understand, articulate, and modularize the interfaces between the engine and the hydromechanical control system. Furthermore, performance improvements derived primarily from operational experience rather than from scientific or technological breakthroughs had their impacts on turbine technology[4]. In the mature stage of development reached in the 1970s, hydromechanical control systems were characterized by a relatively low rate of technological change and increasingly predictable interdependencies with the other components. Although hydromechanical control systems had achieved relatively high reliability, they displayed limitations. Higher-thrustengines that were being
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Experimental Estimation of Power Effects on Neutral Point Location

Experimental Estimation of Power Effects on Neutral Point Location

ways to estimate steady, level flight, and consider the effects of flexing prior to flight. The approaches taken here should also be expanded to other UAVs, leading to a wider selection of experimental data for future designers to refer to for power effect estimates. The engine placement and aircraft geometries that influence the flow into the engine have an impact on the power effects on the neutral point. Once a large amount of estimates are made for various geometry configurations and power plants, a single reference source should be compiled to provide a quick guide to make power effect estimations during design. Designers would base their power effect estimates on geometry and power configurations of the UAV. With a large enough base of
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Conceptual Sizing, Rapid Prototyping And Drag Estimation Of A Twin-Engine Trainer Aircraft

Conceptual Sizing, Rapid Prototyping And Drag Estimation Of A Twin-Engine Trainer Aircraft

The first question is, “Can an affordable aircraft be built that meets the requirements?” If not, the customer may wish to relax the requirements. Conceptual design is a very fluid process. New ideas and problems emerge as a design is investigated in ever-increasing detail. Each time the latest design is analyzed and sized, it must be redrawn to reflect the new gross weight, fuel weight, wing size, engine size, and other changes. Early wind-tunnel tests often reveal problems requiring some changes to the configuration. This initial sizing and wind-tunnel testing is the primary focus of this paper.
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Improved Turbine Engine Hierarchical Modeling and Simulation Based on Engine Fuel Control System

Improved Turbine Engine Hierarchical Modeling and Simulation Based on Engine Fuel Control System

8. Dalton J.S., Behbahani Al., /An Integrated Approach to Conversion, Veri^cation, Validation and Integrity of AFRL Generic Engine Model and Simulation", Proceedings of 42nd AIAA"ASME"SAE"ASEEAIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA, C2006E. 9. Gastineau Z., /Robust Multivariable, Quantitative De- sign of an Adaptive Model-Based Control for Jet En- gines", Ph.D. Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Depart- ment, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, C1998E.

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