The Y Balance Test (YBT) is a tool used to test a female’s risk for injury. Its protocol is based on research done on the Star Excursion Balance Test. In Y balance test female stand on one leg while reaching out in 3 different directions anterior, posteromedial and posterolateral with the other lower extremity just make a light touch and come to the center. Hip abduction strength was correlated with the posteromedial reach distance, and hip extension strength correlated with posterolateral reach distance on the SEBT. (Hubbard, 2007) The Y Balance Test could be evaluated for prediction of injury in different populations and establish acceptable reach distances for each population. LQYBT has identified athletes at increased risk for injury (Butler, 2013). The LQYBT showed good interrater test–retest reliability (ICC = 0.88- 0.99) (Plisky, 2009; Shaffer, 2013).
performance of a functional task without compromising one’s base of support (4). Assessment of dynamic postural control has the advantage of including additional demands of proprioception, range of motion (ROM), and strength, along with the ability to remain upright and steady (1). Researchers used various methods to evaluate balance. Generally, balance tests are divided into two categories: 1) functional balance tasks like basic skills and sports activities and 2) non-functional balance tasks that are not similar to daily activities or athletic skills. Functional tests of dynamic balance are often tasks that assess the ability to maintain balance while walking, jogging, or doing tasks with the maximum possible speed (5). Methods of measuring the dynamic balance include Berg Balance Scale (BBS), step test (ST), functional reach (FR), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT), and Y Balance Test (YBT). In athletes, the SEBT was used in numerous studies for the assessment of dynamic balance. The SEBT challenges the athlete’s postural control system (6-9). An individual is required to move from the starting position of a two-legged stance to a single-legged stance while maximally reaching along a set of multidirectional lines with the opposite leg and lightly touching down on a tape with the distal end of the reach foot. These reaching tasks are designed to challenge postural control, strength, range of motion, and proprioceptive abilities (10). High intra-rater reliability of measurements with the SEBT was found by Kinzey and Armstrong [ICC (2, 1): 0.67–0.87)] (11) and Hertel et al. [ICC (2, 1): 0.81–0.96] (5). In the SEBT, good neuromuscular control and strength in surrounding musculature are important for an optimal joint positioning throughout the test. The stance requires ankle-dorsiﬂexion, knee-ﬂexion, and hip-ﬂexion range of motion, as well as adequate strength, proprioception, and neuromuscular control, to perform these reaching tasks (9). The SEBT may offer a simple, reliable, and valid low-cost alternative to the more sophisticated instrumented methods that are currently available (1). The SEBT is a test of dynamic stability that may provide a more accurate assessment of lower extremity function compared to tests involving only quiet standing
Instructions and recommendations for standardized protocol were adopted from Plisky and colleagues (2009) and were also applied to the RBT . One LED-light was placed in front of the YBT and three LED-lights were placed on the Y Balance Test KitTM at 80% of each participant’s maximal reach distance. Participants had to take on the YBT standardized starting position (see above). The LED-light in front emitted for 0.2 s one of three selected colours (red, blue, or green), and was al- ways followed instantaneously by a colour-matched LED-light attached to the Y Balance Test KitTM for 2 s. Subjects were instructed to extinguish the corresponding emitting LED-light attached to the YBT axis as fast as possible by passing over the LED-light with one’s foot within a range of 5 cm without losing balance. The 36 visual stimuli of the VMT occurred in a predetermined, but randomised sequence (http://www.randomization.- com). The inter-stimulus time varied between 1.5, 2, or 2.5 s to eliminate anticipatory timing effects, provide enough challenge for the test subject and give enough time to recover the standard position when a balance or decision error was made. Furthermore, the starting point of the colour sequence was randomised for every per- formed RBT, so participants could not memorize the colour sequence, nor the inter-stimulus times when per- forming the test multiple times (e.g. alternating between left and right stance leg).
In this paper, a general dynamic balancing system is designed for the improvement of the locale dynamic balancing instrument. The system mainly consists of two parts, hardware and software. The hardware and software of the system are accomplished by the analysis of each part of the frame. And through analysis and discussion above the locale dynamic balancing technology and dynamic balance theory, the improved algorithm of weighted least square method is proposed. The algorithm is simulated and the simulation results are analyzed.
maintaining balance on the stance leg. They made a light touch with their toe at the maximal reach, and returned to the original double leg stance position. The participant was required to have their hands on their hips for the entire trial, and the stance foot could not move. A tester monitored the participant’s position and observed and recorded the maximal reach distance for each trial. Trials were discarded and repeated if the observer determined that 1) an appropriate position of the stance limb was not maintained with the knee moving out of line with the toe, 2) the stance foot was lifted or moved from the centre of the grid, 3) the participant did not touch down, or touched down more than once, during the trial, 4) considerable support was put in the reaching leg when touching the ground, or 5) the participant lost balance at any point or failed to return to the starting position.
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of our study, football players had a better static balance than swimmers, basketball and cricket players [30-32]. Matsuda et al. explained in their study in the context of the performance of football players require to stand on one leg to kick the ball, whereas other sports do not require this type of locomotor ability and players do not need to correct their body sway while performing a specific skill . Accordance with, a study by k.Gokdemir et al., they com- pared dynamic and static balance performance of seden- tary and different branches athletes. They found that the dynamic balance of basketball is higher than volleyball and football players and static balance performance of basket- ball players was lower than the performance of football and volleyball players. Due to their Hardly engrossment into unipedal stationary balance of basketball players might be the reason for the difference in balance ability .
Regarding tests to measure agility, Raya, Gailey, Gaunaurd, Jayne, Campbell, Gagne, Tucker's (2013) applied the intra-class correlation coefficient as part of an analysis of completion times for the agility T-test (T-Test), the Illinois agility test (IAG) and the Edgren Side Step Test (ESST) that revealed results of 95% CI: 98, .99 and .92 for each test respectively. Pauole, Madole, Garhammer, Lacourse and Rozenek (2000) offer corroborating findings in relation to the T-Test as a measure of agility establishing intra-class correlation coefficient that ranged between 95% CI: .94 - .98, the range present owing to the test results evident for three trials. Given the comparison between Raya et al (2013) and Pauole et al's (2000) findings in relation to the T-Test, this test has been determined as a more reliable test of agility than h the ESST and the IAG. The star excursion balance test has also been found to be reliable for assessing dynamic balance. Gribble, Kelly, Refshauge and Hiller (2013); Hyong and Kim, (2014) and Munro and Herrington (2010) assessed the inter and intra-rater reliability of the star excursion balance test using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and found the test to have moderate to high levels of reliability when assessing dynamic balance. Munro and Herrington's (2010) research revealed test-retest reliability for all reach directions, in the star excursion balance test, in relation to intra-class correlation coefficients ranging from 95% CI: .84 to .92. Similar ranges were revealed in Gribble et al's (2013) study that also considered the efficacy of normalising the measurements in the star excursion balance test by using the scores captured from test as a percentage of relevant leg length (eg length was measured from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the medial malleolus). Reliability for normalised measures proved higher where the intra-class correlation coefficient revealed 95% CI: .89 to .94 compared with non-normalised ICC measurements of 95% CI: .86 to .92. Similar findings were also produced during Hyong and Kim's (2014) research that outlined inter-rater reliability. The ICC values for all directions ranged from 95% CI: .83 to .93. Gribble et al's (2013), Hyong and Kim (2014) and Munro and Herrington's (2010) research were limited to a study of the star excursion balance test itself and not against other balance tests. The wider array of evidence from intra-class correlation coefficient measurements from these researchers that ranges from 95% CI: .83 to .93 provides stronger evidence for this test’s use.
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Measurements; Height (H) for body composition, body weight (W), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), Flamingo Balance Test (FBT) for balance, Sit and Reach Test (SRT) for flexibility, Standing Broad Jump (SBJ) for explosive leg power, Sit-Ups Test (SUT) to be performed in 30 seconds for abdominal strength, Bent Arm Hang (BAH) test for endurance, hand grip strength (HGS) test for grip, and 10 x 5 meter shuttle run (SR) tests for sprint speed were conducted as a part of preliminary and posttests. The body composition was measured by InBody 270 Body Composition Analyzer that performs
Dynamic balance is a key component of injury prevention and rehabilitation in sports. Training the core muscles has been hypothesized as an intervention for improving balance. However, there is a lack of current scientific evidence to support this claim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a core stability program on dynamic balance of volleyball players as measured with the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Thirty healthy participants were divided into 2 groups: control and exercise groups. All participants performed the SEBT before and after 8-week exercise time. During the 8-week time, the exercise group performed a core stability program, whereas the control group abstained from any new exercise. These results also illustrated there was significant differences in the scores for pre-test and post-test of all direction according SEBT in the experimental group. An independent sample t-test was conducted to compare experimental and control group (F=43.573, Sig=0.000). These results were a significant difference in the scores for control and experimental groups. Maximum excursion distances improved for the exercise group, compared with the control group. This result justifies the hypothesis that core strengthening can improve dynamic postural control during landing of volleyball players significantly.
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used to measure physical performance. SPPB consists of three tests that include walking speed, chair stands, and standing balance. Each test is scored from zero (inability to complete the task) to four (highest level of performance). The sum of the score (zero to 12) was used as a measurement of level of physical performance. In the standing balance test, participants were required to maintain tandem, semi-tandem, and side-by-side standing for 10 seconds. For the timed chair test, participants were instructed to sit and stand five times as quickly as possible on a straight back chair with their arms crossed over their chest and back leaning on the chair. In the
For these reasons, we invented a new system to mea- sure position control ability for evaluation in clinical work. Our evaluation system provides back-support via a sliding backboard which enables patients to complete the squat-stand task; the method allows for the patient’s stability and symmetry during the process . These fea- tures allow the system to be used in the early stage of the disease to assess those who do not have the ability to complete real sit-to-stand activities. We could also combine the timing of the squat-stand activity and the posturographic parameters to evaluate the ability of pa- tients better. In addition, the static and dynamic balance tests can be used to quantify the balance controlling ability and reaction to the environment . The static balance test assesses stability and symmetry during static standing , whereas the dynamic balance test can be used to probe vestibular and brainstem function, inclu- ding integration of visual input, balance, and position control . These tests cannot be used to quantify po- sition control during the sit-stand-sit process.
Both these functional test and posturographic tech- niques have been applied to specifically investigate bal- ance deficits in stroke patients [11,12]. Quantitative posturography utilizes force plates to monitor the trajec- tory of the centre of pressure (CoP). The CoP trajectory reflects the body sway during standing and the ability of the nervous and musculoskeletal systems to integrate in- formation from multiple sensory systems, including the visual, the somatosensory, and the vestibular system to maintain balance [13,14]. Alterations of the postural control system are reflected in changes of CoP charac- teristics and parameters [13,14], which is therefore a key variable for monitoring the postural control system [13-16]. Although instrumented posturography has dem- onstrated its validity in monitoring balance, the use of force plates in the clinical practice is not yet common and simple test batteries and questionnaires to test bal- ance and mobility are often employed as useful alterna- tives [7,11,17]. Some of these tests and scales, which are described in detail in the Methods section, include the Fugl-Meyer scale (FM) ; the lower Motricity Index (lo-MI) ; the Trunk Control Test (TCT) ; the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) [21-24]; the Tinetti Balance scale (TB) ; the Berg Balance Test (BBT) ; and the Time up and go Test (TUG) . Some of these tests have proved to be a valid and reli- able indicator for balance ability . For instance, in a study by Bogle et al. (1996), falls in stroke patients were associated with poor performance in the Berg Balance Scale . However, the individual clinical functional tests do not reflect the complexity and multidimensional nature of balance .
ISSN 2348 – 7968 rheumatic, orthopedic and neurological diseases; however, it has only recently become the target of scientific studies. The physical proprieties of water, together with the exercises, can fulfill most of the physical objectives that are proposed in a rehabilitation program. The aquatic environment is considered safe and efficient for the rehabilitation of elderly people, because water acts simultaneously on musculoskeletal disorders and balance improvements14,15. The multiplicity of symptoms such as pain, muscle weak- ness,balance deficits, obesity,arthritic diseases and gait disorders, among others, make it difficult for elderly people to perform exercises on the ground. The situation is different with exercises in an aquatic environment, where there is a reduction in joint overload and less risk of falls and lesions. In addition, floating allows individuals to perform exercises and movements that cannot be done on the ground10,14,16. Although few studies have reported the effects of hydrotherapy on balance and the reduction of falls, all of them have shown benefits, for example, of reduced postural oscillations17, increased functional reach16 and greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs)18. Given the relevance of this subject, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a hydrotherapy program on balance and risk of falls among elderly men.
The aim of our study was to assess the postural equilibrium in secondary school students with type 1 diabetes in Tanta city pre and post equilibrium training program. The age of participated secondary school students are seventeen years old with chronicity of diabetes nearly ten years. Their body mass index between 15-18 kg and m2. Thirty secondary school students participated in this study divided into two equal groups, the first group (control ) consisted of fifteen normal secondary school students on the other hand the second group (study) consisted of fifteen secondary school students with type 1 diabetes. Assessment of equilibrium and equilibrium training program was done on Biodex balance system at stability level eight according to pilot study done before the study.The equilibrium training program and mechanical exercise was conducted in the morning in room equipped with treadmills, stretching mats and biodex Balance System achieved for period of three month (thirty six sessions with frequancy day after day ) then reassessment was done again at stability level eight. The dynamic equilibrium test pre and post treatment program including anteroposterior stability index, mediolatoral stability index and overall stability index. Before equilibrium training program,there was statistically significant difference between study and control group regarding stability indices (OA,AP and ML) at stability level-8 (P< 0.05) which indicating that decrease of equilibrium control in secondary school students with type 1 diabetes. After equilibrium training program, there was no statistically significant difference between study and control group regarding stability indices (OA,AP and ML) at stability level-8 (P> 0.05) which indicating that improvement of equilibrium control in secondary school students with type 1 diabetes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, before equilibrium training program, there is decrease in equilibrium parameters including (OA, AP and ML indices) at level eight of stability in secondary school students with type 1 diabetes compared with normal students .On the other hand, after diet control, mechanical aerobic exercise,insulin therapy and equilibrium training program there is improvement of equilibrium control in secondary school students with type 1 diabetes.
Quadriceps weakness is the major change in OA knee subjects, the lower limb exercises are vigorously implemented (Bennell et al., 2005). A small number of studies have identified the effect of kinesthesia and balance exercise (Proprioceptive exercises) is important in reducing the symptoms and helps in functional improvement when compared to the traditional therapeutic exercises. (Diracoglu et al., 2005 & Fitzgerald et al., 2002). Proprioceptive exercises are designed to improve the dynamic stability using a series of physical activity which challenge the participant ’ s neuromuscular system to maintain the balance and coordination. Usually these exercises are used in the management of ligament injuries such as ACL or ankle ligaments. (Mandelbaum et al., 2005, Liu-Ambrose et al., 2003, & Mcguine et al., 2001). Current literatures show that Proprioceptive exercise has implemented in OA knee has shown beneficial effects. Few case studies have been shown the added effect of these exercises in addition to the normal strengthening exercise. (Fitzgerald et al., 2002).
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The desire to change assessment practices is an im- portant motivational factor for behavior change, and one that has been regarded as a necessary prerequisite for action . However, such motivation is not sufficient, as it is well recognized that there are a number of do- mains involved (at both individual and organizational levels) in changing behavior to implement evidence- based practice . Indeed, despite their positive senti- ment towards improving balance assessment practices, respondents identified a number of factors influencing their ability to change their practice, including individual (e.g. lack of knowledge, low priority), environmental (e.g. lack of time and personnel), and measure-specific bar- riers (e.g. tools not available, tools not appropriate for population). The most commonly cited factors were time and knowledge. Although both are commonly-reported barriers to evidence-based practice [38,39], the finding that lack of knowledge was the main issue affecting as- sessment of reactive postural control may partially ex- plain our previously-reported finding that it was the least commonly assessed component of balance among our respondents. Some respondents expressed issues re- lated to motivation (such as low priority and confidence with performing the assessments) but these were not factors for the majority of PTs. Respondents also identi- fied issues with existing standardized balance measures and how this influenced their assessment abilities. For ex- ample, a number of respondents believed that the existing tools were not appropriate for their population or were not sensitive to change– which, as noted, has also been empirically determined for some standardized balance measures [32,33]. In contrast, some of the factors reported by respondents represent perceptions that are actually
Sequencing four weeks of balance training prior to four weeks of plyometric training in 12-13 year old male elite soccer players resulted in superior performance enhancements compared to plyometric prior to balance training. Plyometric provided significantly greater improvements in the reactive strength index, absolute and relative leg stiffness, and a trend for the Y balance test. Sprinting, change of direction, agility and jumping among other power related activities additionally improved, during the subsequent 4 weeks of balance training.
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a study by Westcott et al., on 24 four-year-old children with normal growth using the P-CTSIB test. They found that reliability of the test items was high in the feet together position, but lower in the heel-toe position. They suggested more tests on older children to determine the effect of the heel-toe position after further development of balance skills . In present study, the reli- ability of the test items was also higher in the feet together position than that of heel-toe posi- tion. The test-retest differences were fewer in the feet together position. However, the total sway amount indicated a lower reliability for positions 5 and 6, compared with those of other positions, which may be due to the disruption of
The experimental protocol involved a set of clinical exams, a 20-min walking period, and a set of pre/post evaluations (Fig. 1). For participants with PD, we began by measuring the motor sub-score of the MDS-UPDRS as a measure of motor dysfunction . Next, or first for participants without PD, we measured self-selected walking speed using the 10 m walk test as it is a valid and reliable measure for assessing functional community ambulation in individuals with PD and older adults [50, 51]. We then performed baseline measures of dynamic balance using the Mini-Balance Evaluations Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), a 14-item balance assessment for dynamic balance and gait, which has been shown to be reliable for assessing balance disorders and fall risk in individuals with PD . The Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale was used to assess each participant’ s overall confi- dence in walking without falling or feeling unsteady . Quantitative assessments of each individual’ s level of static postural sway were performed by measuring their center of pressure (CoP) excursion for two, 30 s trials of quiet stand- ing; one trial with their eyes open and one with their eyes closed. Participants were asked to place their feet shoulder- width apart while standing on two force platforms (Bertec, USA), and to stand as still as possible while looking straight ahead. Anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) excur- sions of the CoP were sampled at 1000 Hz.
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Balance is the body’s ability to maintain its center of mass over the base of support. This ability relies on the inte- grated and coordinated functioning of person’s musculo- skeletal, sensory and central nervous system. The somato sensory system helps in maintaining the balance and pos- tural stability by receiving input from articular, cutaneous, mechanoreceptors and proprioceptors which are sent to acentral nervous system where it is processed and produc- es are sponse to changes in the internal and external envi- ronment [1,2].