GTAP Database

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Augmenting the GTAP Database with Data on Inter-Regional Transactions

Augmenting the GTAP Database with Data on Inter-Regional Transactions

The augmented SAM for a representative region is presented in Table 3. The two most obvious differences between Tables 1 and 3 are the elimination of the regional household account and the inclusion of an additional account called globe. The inclusion of the ‘globe’ account is required because the data on inter-regional transactions/transfers does not provide a full accounting of the transactions between each and every region, but only defines the ‘inflows’ to and ‘outflows’ from each region (see below for further detail about the data). Hence the globe account is an accounting construct; the income to the globe account is the accumulation of all the outflows from every region and its expenditures are the inflows to every region – by definition these are equal. Notice however that the total value of recorded inflows and outflows for each region are not necessarily equal, with the net inflow/outflow being recorded - the ‘balance on transfers’ - as an income to the region’s capital (savings) account. In essence, this approach is identical to that taken in the GTAP database for recording the export and import of trade and transport services for which full bi-lateral transaction data are absent; as such it is a pragmatic solution to a problem presented by suboptimal inf mation. or

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What is Assumed in the GTAP Database's Disaggregation of Labor by Skill Level?

What is Assumed in the GTAP Database's Disaggregation of Labor by Skill Level?

GTAP database has 12 composite regions of which 5 are excluded on the same grounds as before and also due to our lack of information about their individual country coverage in the GTAP database. These five composite regions are Rest of South America (RSM), Central European Associates (CEA), Rest of Middle East (RME), Rest of Southern Africa (RSA), and the Rest of the world (ROW). For the remaining 7 composite GTAP regions, we have calculated simple averages of DNS data of MEDY_AC for 1987 for their component countries to derive the composite regions’ MEDY_AC. These 7 composite regions are Rest of Asia (RAS-includes Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar), Central America and Caribbean (CAM-includes Jamaica and El Salvador), Rest of Andean Pact (RAP-includes Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru), Rest of European Union (REU-includes France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain), EFT (Iceland, Norway, Switzerland), Rest of North Africa (RNF-includes Tunisia) and Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa (RSS-includes Senegal, Zimbabwe). We drop HKG, TWN, VNM from our sample of selected countries.

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Deriving a Global Social Accounting Matrix from GTAP version 5 Data

Deriving a Global Social Accounting Matrix from GTAP version 5 Data

One potential transformation of the GTAP database is its conversion from an input- output based format with additional sub matrices for trade and other transactions into a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) format. Since the databases for ALL whole economy models can always be represented in a SAM format, and some modelers choose to present their model databases in SAM format, such a transformation has attractions. The transformation of the database to a SAM format does however involve some complications. These arise, for the most part, from the fact that the GTAP database does not appear, at first sight, to observe the ‘law of one price’ in the rows of the input-output tables, i.e., the purchaser prices are not common across the rows of the input-output tables, due to the tax specification in GTAP.

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Long-Run Simulations with GTAP: Illustrative Results from APEC Trade Liberalisation

Long-Run Simulations with GTAP: Illustrative Results from APEC Trade Liberalisation

It should not be surprising that the standard benchmark database does not conform with the steady state since this database is a true representation of the global economy at a single point in time (1992 in the case of the current version 3 GTAP database). In the real world we never have truly long-run data since shocks continually buffet the world economy. Over the lengths of run in real time that conditions remain stable, we note that although there is considerable mobility of capital between countries 15 , it is not perfect, with some well established tendencies for savers to prefer to invest at home 16 . The steady state, however, is an idealisation reflecting how we would expect the world economy to look if we were able to enjoy an indefinitely long period without any shock

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Factor Markets in Applied Equilibrium Models: The current state and planned extensions towards an improved presentation of factor markets in agriculture  Factor Markets Working Paper No  23, February 2012

Factor Markets in Applied Equilibrium Models: The current state and planned extensions towards an improved presentation of factor markets in agriculture. Factor Markets Working Paper No. 23, February 2012

The Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET, formerly LEITAP) is a global computable general equilibrium model that covers the whole world economy including factor markets. The model has been applied extensively to trade analyses, biofuel assessments and CAP analyses. This section outlines the current state of factor market modelling in MAGNET. Explicit reference is made to the modifications made to the model to better represent agricultural factor markets over and above the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model which forms the core of the model. The modelling of factor markets has been extended in MAGNET in five key ways; both by incorporating developments from other models such as GTAP-AGR, GTAP-E and GTAP-DYN and through unique innovations. The developments in the MAGNET model better capture the demand and supply of factors and the mobility of factors between sectors. The coverage of factor markets in the GTAP database is first addressed and then each factor market extension is discussed in detail, including the data requirements for the extension. Note that the modular nature of MAGNET allows the factor market in each region to be specified differently with features that pertain to that region. 4.1 Factor market coverage in the GTAP database

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GTAP-MVH, A Model for Analysing the Worldwide Effects of Trade Policies in the Motor Vehicle Sector: Theory and Data

GTAP-MVH, A Model for Analysing the Worldwide Effects of Trade Policies in the Motor Vehicle Sector: Theory and Data

3.2. Theoretical structure for the disaggregation of the mvh sector into 9 mvh industries The theory of our disaggregation method has 2 parts. First, we specify an equation system in which the inputs are: data on trade flows for disaggregated mvh products; U.S. and Canadian input-output data for these products; and initial guesses for outputs of and demands for mvh products for regions other than the U.S. and Canada. The equation system produces revised estimates of inputs to and outputs from disaggregated mvh industries for all regions, apart from the U.S. and Canada, for 2015. In the second part of our methodology the results from the equation system are used to compute splitting shares that are fed into a program that automatically disaggregates our GTAP database for 2011 and rebalances it. At first glance it may seem incongruous to use 2015 shares to disaggregate a 2011 database. However, we use only marco data to update form 2011 to 2015. So embedding 2015 mvh structures in the 2011 data has the advantage that the eventual 2015 database for GTAP-MVH reflects 2015 mvh structures.

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Factor Markets in Applied Equilibrium Models: The current state and planned extensions towards an improved presentation of factor markets in agriculture  Factor Markets Working Paper No  23, February 2012

Factor Markets in Applied Equilibrium Models: The current state and planned extensions towards an improved presentation of factor markets in agriculture Factor Markets Working Paper No 23, February 2012

The Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET, formerly LEITAP) is a global computable general equilibrium model that covers the whole world economy including factor markets. The model has been applied extensively to trade analyses, biofuel assessments and CAP analyses. This section outlines the current state of factor market modelling in MAGNET. Explicit reference is made to the modifications made to the model to better represent agricultural factor markets over and above the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model which forms the core of the model. The modelling of factor markets has been extended in MAGNET in five key ways; both by incorporating developments from other models such as GTAP-AGR, GTAP-E and GTAP-DYN and through unique innovations. The developments in the MAGNET model better capture the demand and supply of factors and the mobility of factors between sectors. The coverage of factor markets in the GTAP database is first addressed and then each factor market extension is discussed in detail, including the data requirements for the extension. Note that the modular nature of MAGNET allows the factor market in each region to be specified differently with features that pertain to that region. 4.1 Factor market coverage in the GTAP database

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International Trade Regulations on BPA: Global Health and Economic Implications

International Trade Regulations on BPA: Global Health and Economic Implications

This paper uses GTAP database version 9 (Narayanan et al., 2015) and the standard GTAP model (Hertel, 1997) to analyze macroeconomic and trade impacts. This is a CGE model, which has been used for research published in journals such as Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences and Nature. This is a global Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model. Global CGE models may serve the best if one is interested in global policy impact, particularly with an inter-sectoral linkages and constrained resources/factors perspective. GTAP model is one of the most widely used one among them and GTAP Data Base is the dataset used in tandem with this model as well as several other global CGE models. GTAP model is defined in linearized difference equations, therefore most of the variables are in percentage change. Each country/region is represented by a regional household, which has a Cobb- Douglas utility function that distributes aggregate demand into three different categories in every regional household, namely, savings, private households and government. Regional household's income comes from various taxes and primary factor payments. Savings from each region are accumulated into global savings, which is allocated to different regions as investment based on the movement of prices of capital goods as well as expected rate of return inferred from the capital stock in the beginning and end of the simulation period.

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A SAM Based Global CGE Model using GTAP Data January 2005

A SAM Based Global CGE Model using GTAP Data January 2005

aggregate group identified in Table 1, while the actual numbers of accounts in each group of accounts are defined for version 5.4 and 6.0 of the GTAP database in Table 2. Given the large number of accounts in the SAMs for each region and the relatively large number of regions the total number of cells in the global SAM is very large, although only slightly over 10 percent of the cells actually contain non zero entries; nevertheless this still means that the GTAP database contains some 4 million transaction values, which implies that there are some 8 million possible prices and quantities that can be deduced from the database. Even allowing for the implications of adopting the law of one price for transactions in the row of a each region’s SAM and for other ways of reducing the numbers of independent prices and

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Welfare Impact of ASEAN Economic Integration: “ASEAN Way” Versus Theory

Welfare Impact of ASEAN Economic Integration: “ASEAN Way” Versus Theory

The GTAP database, according to Aguiar, Narayanan and McDougall (2016), comprises an coprehensive set of accounts measuring the value of annual flows of goods and services with regional and sectoral detail for the entire world economy. Newest version of GTAP, GTAP 9, disaggregates 140 regions, 57 sectors, 8 factors of production, for 3 base years (2004, 2007 and 2011). The database includes bilateral trade in goods and services, immediate inputs among sectors, as well as taxes and subsidies imposed by governments. The GTAP database presents globally consistent data on consumption, production, and international trade (including transportation and protection data), energy data and CO 2 emissions.

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Incorporating International Capital Ownership into the GTAP Model: Results for Asia-Pacific Trade Liberalisation

Incorporating International Capital Ownership into the GTAP Model: Results for Asia-Pacific Trade Liberalisation

In the long-run closure outlined above capital stocks adjust to ensure that the growth rate of capital returns to its pre-simulation value in the GTAP database. That is, the powers of the growth rates of capital are all assumed to be exogenous and the percentage changes in them are set to zero. This is equivalent to an assumption that the shock will not affect the growth rate of capital in the long run. This is only true when discussing the very long run or steady state, where the growth rate of capital is determined by the growth rate of the population and technological growth. It is highly unlikely that an Asia-Pacific trade liberalisation shock will permanently affect either the growth rate of the population or technology. Hence the results of this long-run closure represent the move from an initial steady-state position to a new steady-state position in which the effects of the shock are incorporated but where the growth rate of capital has returned to its pre-simulation or steady-state value. It therefore follows that the initial value of growth in the GTAP database should be consistent with this steady-state growth rate of capital. Since the GTAP database is based on a particular year (in this case 1992), it is highly unlikely that the growth rate in the GTAP database is the steady-state growth rate. Therefore there exists an inconsistency between the long-run closure in the GTAP model and the database. This inconsistency is resolved with the creation of a steady-state database. The method used to create this steady-state database is similar to that used in Walmsley (1998).

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Wiley   High Performance Oracle pdf

Wiley High Performance Oracle pdf

As a DBA using a SAN for your storage, your relationship with database storage can be expressed as a simple requirement: You need the storage to deliver performance and availability. That’s all. Storage matters are out of your hands and are now managed by a group dedicated to meeting your requirements. In the old days, if your database server was short of space, you would have probably followed a somewhat tedious pro- curement process involving your SAs and business users to purchase a new disk. When the disk arrived, an outage would be arranged to install the new disks. With a SAN, you submit a request to increase your database file system by 9GB, and the next day, the file system is bigger. No outage is needed. Because your storage is now managed by a dedicated team, you can rest assured that performance of the storage is being moni- tored for you. Data might be relocated behind the scenes to balance I/O. However, it’s all transparent to the DBA: You see only the benefits of the flexible management of database space, and performance and availability are guaranteed. Many companies use an internal charge-back model to account for storage space on a SAN, where business groups rent space and pay monthly per gigabyte. As a DBA, the use of storage space for your databases is likely to be more carefully scrutinized in the future as a result. If a third party provides your SAN as a managed service, what your organization pays is dictated by how much you use, so good housekeeping of space is critical for keeping costs down. As well as providing raw space, SANs can actually provide benefits that are not available from locally attached storage—such as the near-real-time mirroring of data to a remote site (for disaster recovery) or flash copy for instantaneous backups— completely transparently to the server that runs the application.

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Factor Markets in General Computable Equilibrium Models  Factor Markets Working Document No  47, May 2013

Factor Markets in General Computable Equilibrium Models Factor Markets Working Document No 47, May 2013

The Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET, formerly LEITAP) is a global computable general equilibrium model that covers the whole world economy including factor markets. The model has been applied extensively to trade analyses, biofuel assessments and CAP analyses. This section outlines the current state of factor market modelling in MAGNET. Explicit reference is made to the modifications made to the model to better represent agricultural factor markets over and above the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model which forms the core of the model. The modelling of factor markets has been extended in MAGNET in five key ways; both by incorporating developments from other models such as GTAP-AGR, GTAP-E and GTAP-DYN and through unique innovations. The developments in the MAGNET model better capture the demand and supply of factors and the mobility of factors between sectors. The coverage of factor markets in the GTAP database is first addressed and then each factor market extension is discussed in detail, including the data requirements for the extension. Note that the modular nature of MAGNET allows the factor market in each region to be specified differently with features that pertain to that region. 3.1.1 Flexible structure of factor demand

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Wiley   Building and Managing the Metadata Repository   A Fu pdf

Wiley Building and Managing the Metadata Repository A Fu pdf

physical table implementation and the indexing strategies used for table loads and access. For example, most tables require some sort of B-tree index; however other tables may be better served by bitmap indexing, unless there is a centralized database administrator group that can perform this function. Also, the data modeler needs to be familiar with the functionality and quirks of the RDBMS so that he or she can assist the data acquisition developers with their SQL load scripts if necessary. The data modeler also works closely with the data delivery developers to modify the meta data table designs to facilitate faster and more efficient access. This task may also include adding or modifying indexes and tuning the SQL script used to access the meta model to load the end user reports. Last, in order to construct the meta models, the data modeler needs to work closely with the business and technical end users and the business analyst(s). Here, the data modeler's communications skills are crucial. He or she must ask the right questions to elicit the complete and accurate responses that are necessary for building meta models that will meet the repository's present and future requirements. Table 5.8 lists the recommended

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Factor Markets in General Computable Equilibrium Models  Factor Markets Working Document No  47, May 2013

Factor Markets in General Computable Equilibrium Models. Factor Markets Working Document No. 47, May 2013

The Modular Applied GeNeral Equilibrium Tool (MAGNET, formerly LEITAP) is a global computable general equilibrium model that covers the whole world economy including factor markets. The model has been applied extensively to trade analyses, biofuel assessments and CAP analyses. This section outlines the current state of factor market modelling in MAGNET. Explicit reference is made to the modifications made to the model to better represent agricultural factor markets over and above the GTAP (Global Trade Analysis Project) model which forms the core of the model. The modelling of factor markets has been extended in MAGNET in five key ways; both by incorporating developments from other models such as GTAP-AGR, GTAP-E and GTAP-DYN and through unique innovations. The developments in the MAGNET model better capture the demand and supply of factors and the mobility of factors between sectors. The coverage of factor markets in the GTAP database is first addressed and then each factor market extension is discussed in detail, including the data requirements for the extension. Note that the modular nature of MAGNET allows the factor market in each region to be specified differently with features that pertain to that region. 3.1.1 Flexible structure of factor demand

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Who in Brazil will gain from global trade reforms?

Who in Brazil will gain from global trade reforms?

The global and national welfare effects of multilateral trade reforms and reforms to domestic farm programmes are calculated using GTAPEM, a modified version of the standard GTAP model developed by the OECD. 1 The changes to Brazil’s export and import prices associated with these reforms are fed exogenously into a national CGE model of Brazil, which embeds multiple households categories, classified according to their economic function. This makes it possible to examine the distributional impacts of trade reform within Brazil; in particular, the gains and losses to producers, farm labourers, and urban consumers at varying levels of income. The paper is organised as follows. Section 2 describes the overall welfare impact of reforms on Brazil, and situates these gains relative to the impacts on other countries. Section 3 examines how these gains are distributed across different household types within the Brazilian economy and examines the implications for income distribution. Section 4 concludes with a discussion of how the results can illuminate discussions of trade policy reform.

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A structural decomposition approach to comparing MRIO databases

A structural decomposition approach to comparing MRIO databases

( 𝐱 −𝟏 ). The reason for this is twofold. Firstly, the emissions vector and total output are often taken from two different data sources and their separate contribution to total database variation should be investigated. Secondly, this removes the efficiency vector from the equation which would be dependent on the technology matrix (Dietzenbacher and Los, 2000). This amendment does not follow the proposed form suggested by Dietzenbacher and Los (2000) for cases with dependent determinants. There is no simple way of amending the terms to create independency and we highlight that the dependency issue is problematic for all SDA that assess changes in emissions and energy (Minx et al., 2011). The approach outlined in this study is, however, applied consistently across the pairings investigated and allows for comparisons to be made. The equations calculated and terms used are summarised in Table 3.

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Interscience Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers pdf

Interscience Relational Database Index Design and the Optimizers pdf

Often a database consists of too many tables because it just seemed more appropriate, or maybe the objects just became tables without any performance considerations. Such errors are difficult to correct when the application is in production. One case was recently encountered where even the ideal indexes were unable to make operational transactions, accessing more than a dozen tables, fast enough. The final solution that had to be developed was to synchronously replicate some of the data to a new combined table that was accessed by the critical transactions, while most of the programs continued to access the small tables. Yet another application performed so poorly that it just could not be used. The optimizer being used appeared to have problems with joins that accessed more than 5 tables (which was quite common; in fact some accessed more than 20!). The table structure could have been made very simple, using fewer tables, but that would have required a large rewrite effort.

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Wiley & Sons   Building The Data Warehouse  Third Edition pdf

Wiley & Sons Building The Data Warehouse Third Edition pdf

In order to locate the data, many files and layouts of data must be analyzed. Some files use Virtual Storage Access Method (VSAM), some use Information Management System (IMS), some use Adabas, some use Integrated Database Management System (IDMS). Different skill sets are required in order to access data across the enterprise. Furthermore, there are complicating factors: for example, two files might have an element called BALANCE, but the two ele- ments are very different. In another case, one database might have a file known as CURRBAL, and another collection of data might have a file called INVLEVEL that happens to represent the same information as CURRBAL. Having to go through every piece of data—not just by name but by definition and calcula- tion—is a very tedious process. But if the corporate report is to be produced, this exercise must be done properly. Unless data is analyzed and “rationalized,” the report will end up mixing apples and oranges, creating yet another level of confusion.

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IBM Data Warehousing  With IBM Business  pdf

IBM Data Warehousing With IBM Business pdf

How do some of the more advanced technologies affect your designs? Let’s assume you have identified a spatial need in your organization. Now you need to address the architectural design issues even if you do not plan to implement spatial components for several months. The architect must plan for its inclusion today. Anticipating the need for spatial analysis dic- tates that you create, store, maintain, and provide access to spatial data. This in turn should serve as a constraint regarding the type of software technology and platform specifications you may be currently considering. For example, the relational database management system (RDBMS) you implement for your atomic layer must have a robust spatial extension available. This would ensure maximum performance when you use the geometry and spatial objects in your analytical applications. If your RDBMS cannot handle the spatial-centric data internally, then you will need to establish an external spatial-centric database. This complicates your administration issues and compromises your overall performance, not to mention the additional problems created for your DBAs, since they probably have little understanding of pure spatial databases. On the other hand, if your RDMBS engine handles all the spatial components and its optimizer is aware of the special needs (for example, indexing) of spatial objects, then your DBAs can more readily handle administration issues, and you can maximize performance.

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