Abstract: In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), mobilenodes can form an autonomous network without the need to use an existing network infrastructure. Hence, the nodes are free to move from one area to another without any notification. The network can have high or low density of mobilenodes and this is related to the freedom. An increase/decrease in the number of mobilenodes requires the routing protocol to re-update the routing table frequently, which leads to an increase overhead and a lack of stability in the network. In this paper, performance diversities with and without computing the backup route are analysed using a dynamically changing network containing different numbers of mobilenodes that they are moving from low to high speed. The backup route considers node density, variation of speed, movements and backup route length with longer lifetimes. The backup route achieves significant improvements by reducing the packet loss and improves the continuity index for live video streaming, while the routing protocol maintains the new routing table. This backup route helps nodes to reroute the traffic to the destination whilst the new discovery service is completed. Furthermore, ABRT shows better scalability compared to DSDV routing demanding environments with high mobility and heavy traffic loads. A simulation (using an NS2 simulator) is performed to evaluate different scenarios containing a high/low densities to measure and analyse the effects of varying movement (from low to high speed) for each node in the network. We present the results of the simulations for networks of (100,50,25) mobilenodes with variation of movement (1,10,20,40 m/sec).The results show that lost packets, end-to-end delay and the continuity has achieved high performance with backup path in low speed node movements comparing with high movements.
ZIGBEE SIMULATION MODELFOR SIPPORTING MOBILENODES ZigBee technology divides network nodes into three classes, coordinator, router and end device. Coordinator and router use the AODV routing algorithm to forward the data, which can support the mobile network, and do not need to change the network address dynamically. End device is a kind of streamlined function device that does not participate in the process of selecting a routing path. When an end device moves out of the communication range of a parent node, it cannot communicate with other nodes. Therefore, a network layer protocol model and a neighbor table maintenance mechanism based on improved AODV routing algorithm are proposed by the use of maintaining a neighbor table for ZigBee nodes and broadcasting the HELLO information periodically by the router that use the AODV algorithm. So that, ZigBee end device could select routing paths by itself, and do not need to refactor the network to access network again, when it lost the connection with parent node. Algorithm steps of the model are shown as follow steps.
 will be the final paper that will be used as a comparison for our approach. The approach named CMN uses information on the distance between static nodes to determine the location of coverage holes. If the sensors are farther apart than the range of both of their sensing radius', then there must be a hole between them. The coverage holes will be ranked from largest to smallest and the mobilenodes will be placed in these locations, starting from the largest hole. This approach is a good comparison candidate to our approach since both use mobilenodes to cover coverage holes in the grid search space. Even though the literature approach uses a new mobile node each time to path towards coverage holes, it is still a good comparison point since it will show a runtime comparison of an approach that aims to improve area coverage against our own approach. In this literature work they use a ranking of coverage holes to move towards, while in this thesis we deterministically generate a set of optimal positions for the mobilenodes.
The Stealth DHT algorithm was initially proposed with the aim of returning control of the peer-to-peer network to its operator, circumventing the numerous security problems and Digital Rights Management issues commonly associ- ated with such overlays. Service nodes are therefore as- sumed to be owned by a service provider, which, in addi- tion to their high capabilities, should mean that they are also trustworthy. Conversely, stealth nodes would be au- tonomous devices owned by end-users, who request ser- vice(s) from the provider. In this paper, we examine the case of a service provider offering service to wireless users only, some of whom are mobile, while others are stationary. The Stealth DHT algorithm purposefully breaks the pure peer-to-peer paradigm of treating all nodes as equal. We believe that it is this assumption that causes generic DHTs to perform poorly in a mobile environment, further hinder- ing the development of DHT-based mobile applications. By excluding less capable nodes from routing decisions via the stealth node concept and designating highly capable nodes as service nodes, Stealth DHTs help to eliminate the perfor- mance problems associated with mobility and DHTs. Since state information regarding the mobilenodes in Stealth DHTs is never recorded, they will not have any responsi- bility in the network. Thus, they may join, leave, and re- quest services at will with relatively little impact on the performance of the underlying DHT. Better still, if a ser- vice provider owns and manages the service nodes, they will have a complete control over the provided service. We therefore argue that a Stealth DHT in mobile environments combines the scalability, resilience and self-organization of existing DHT based networks with the greater performance and control of a content distribution network (CDN).
In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), sensor nodes periodically sense, record, and transmit environmental information. WSNs require long lifetime and adequate field coverage, which can be problematic under certain conditions. Several studies have addressed these problems using energy harvesting, wireless charging, or mobile sensor nodes. In particular, mobilenodes are effective for adequate field coverage: however, appropriate node movement is critical. In addition, mobilenodes with wireless charging devices can charge the batteries of other nodes. We formulate the problem to extend lifetime and maintain field coverage by determining the positions of mobilenodes that can cover the field effectively and charge the batteries of other nodes simultaneously. We propose a coverage algorithm that can cover a field with a minimal number of nodes and a movement algorithm that determines an efficient mobile node movement schedule to charge static nodes. Simulation results, confirm that the energy charging system used by the proposed method can extend WSN lifetime up to 66%.
where old reference point is the MN’s previous reference point and advance vector is a predefined offset that moves the reference grid. The predefined offset that moves the reference grid is calculated via a random distance and a random angle (since movement is in a forward direction only). Since the same predefined offset is used for all MobileNodes, the reference grid is a 1-D line.
Abstract—With the development of electronic technology and communica- tion protocols, wireless sensor network technology is developing rapidly. In a sense, the traditional static wireless sensor network has been unable to meet the needs of new applications. However, the introduction of mobilenodes extends the application of wireless sensor networks, despite the technical challenges. Because of its flexibility, the mobile wireless sensor network has attracted great attention, and even small, self-controlled mobile sensor devices have appeared. At present, mobile node localization has become one of the hotspots in wireless sensor networks. As the storage energy of wireless sensor network nodes is lim- ited, and the communication radius is small, many scientists have focused their research direction on the location algorithm of mobilenodes. According to the continuity principle of mobile node movement, in this paper we propose an im- proved mobile node localization algorithm based on the Monte Carlo Location (MCL) algorithm, and the method can reduce the sampling interval effectively. First of all, this paper introduces the structure and classification of wireless sen- sor localization technology. Secondly, the principle of the Monte Carlo Loca- tion algorithm is described in detail. Thirdly, we propose an efficient method for mobile node localization based on the MCL algorithm. Finally, the effec- tiveness and accuracy of the new algorithm are verified by comparative analy- sis.
Frequency Modulation (FM) is another popular method. Band ranges and separation of channels in FM differ from region to region [8 ]. Indoor positioning based on FM radio signals is presented in [26, 27]. [28, 29]Hybrid Positioning Systems (HPS) are working by combining many positioning technologies to locate a device. There are positioning systems works well in indoor environments but less accurate in outdoor positioning. Hence the concept of HPS is proposed where it works well for both indoor and outdoor localization problems. Popular examples for HPS are, Combain Mobile, Navizon, SkyHook, Xtify, and Google Maps for Mobile.
In Figure-2 shows, the wireless sensor network combination of seven sensor nodes and three server nodes intersects of the coverage means it is covered by multiple servers. For wireless sensor network, each server covers certain number of nodes. The relationship between the server and the nodes, its manifestations are server1 (N 1 , N 2
Mobile data traffic grows at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 131 percent between 2008 and 2013, and will exceed two Exabyte per month in 2013. Simultaneously, mobile network operators are investing a outsized amount of money to push machine-to- machine (M2M) communications for billions of smart devices (e.g., automobile and sensors), which could create additional mobile traffic. However, currently do not have adequate capacity to have room for such an exponential growth of data. Thus, there is urgency for the research community to look for new solution.
To lessen the blind zone in organize scope; we propose a scope advancement calculation of remote sensor arrange in view of portable hubs. This calculation figures the inconsistency of visually impaired zone in organize scope and acquires the base estimated numerical arrangement by using the quantitative connection between vitality utilization of related hubs and the position of the versatile hubs. In the wake of deciding the ideal relative position of the versatile hubs, the issue of visually impaired zone between the static hubs is tended to. Recreation result demonstrates that the proposed calculation has high powerful flexibility and can address the issue of visually impaired zone maximally. Other than expanding the system scope, the calculation additionally lessens the system vitality utilization; streamlines organize scope control and shows high joining. Keywords: Mobile node; Wireless Sensor Network; network coverage rate; static nodes; the blind zone
Authors of  develop a mobility mechanism for RPL (mRPL) by integrating a mobility detection mechanism based on received RSSI levels. Once connected to a parent, a mobile node will send several data packets to the parent, after which the parent will send back a unicast DIO. This DIO contains the average RSSI level and implicitly filters asymmetric links. As long as the received RSSI levels are above a threshold, data transmission continues. When the mobile node detects that the RSSI value drops under a threshold, it will start searching for a new parent. For this, the mobile node sends a burst of multicast DIS messages. The receiving nodes will reply with DIO messages in unicast, delaying their reply in such a way that collisions do not occur at the mobile node. This process continues until the mobile node finds a new parent with a high quality link (the received RSSI above a threshold). Simulation and experimentation results show that mRPL improves the mobility management in several areas: high packet delivery ratio, responsiveness to network dynamics, e ff ectiveness at high data transmission rate. However, mRPL needs high data rate to maintain the connectivity of mobilenodes (the packet delivery ratio drops by 24% if the data rate is reduced from 100ms to 5s). Generally, applications in LLN only require a low data rate (e.g. 1 packet/15s for vehicle tracking applications ). In addition, the RSSI is known to be unstable and interference sensitive. Operations based on such a versatile parameter are likely to give unreliable results, as shown in .
In our view, th e great perform ance of M aTaCo, com pared to the baselines, is due to the use of relative m obility betw een nodes as tags. In M ANETs where nodes are m obile, the relative m obility betw een nodes co n tributes in stru ctu rin g the population of mobilenodes as it captures the form ation of local interaction groups in the presence of nodes’ mobility. T he population is divided into groups based on their relative m obility where mobilenodes th a t are moving closer to each oth er form ed a local interaction group. Based on th e principle of tag- based cooperation, as explained in section 2.5, if a node w ants to m axim ize its own payoffs, it has to cooperate in its local interaction group. Thus, each mobile node choose to cooperate over defect. Selfish nodes in the netw ork will copy cooperative nodes behavior as they discover th a t cooperative nodes gain higher average payoffs th an themselves. Subsequently, cooperative nodes will take over th e netw ork. T his m echanism makes M aT aC o’s perform ance greater th an the baselines. A lthough RCA and HE are also based on the principle of tag-based cooperation, w hat m akes M aTaCo d istinct from them is the use of relative m obility between nodes as tags. T he results show th a t by using the relative m obility betw een m obile nodes, they can be stru c tu re d into groups. S tru ctu rin g population into groups is one of the im p o rta n t aspects th a t makes a tag-based approach successful. If there is no local interaction group in the population, then there is no reason for a node to cooperate as it does not guarantee to m aximize its own payoff. W hile the use of real num bers in RCA and lists of neighbors in HE can divide a p o p u lation of sta tio n a ry nodes into groups, they are incapable of stru c tu rin g population of mobilenodes as th e sim ulation results show.
A MANET Mobile AD-Hoc Network is a collection of self-configured wireless mobilenodes that form a wireless network independently of any centralized network. MANET are emerging as a very popular technology for future generation of wireless mobile infrastructure. Quality of Service (QoS) is much more difficult and challenging task in MANET. The real time applications like as Multimedia, Video conferencing, disaster recovery etc. can be easily support if Quality of Service can be providing for Mobile Ad-Hoc Network. Quality of Service is usually defined as a set of service requirements that needs to be met by the network while transporting a packet stream from a source to its destination. The provision of QoS in wireless access networks is very challenging because of the movement of the hosts and the characteristics and unpredictable nature of wireless links.
trust (performance at running time) and objective trust (node status) . Higher energy consumption for the duration of data gathering and delivery process is de- creased utilizing a clustering method; hierarchical routing exploits upon these ad- vantages by the division of nodes into clusters. Clustering method generally selects the node with more energy as Cluster Head (CH), which collects the information and transmitted through lower-energy nodes by clustering method . The Cluster based routing protocols (CBR-MOBILE) is proposed to face the challenges of packet loss and energy consumption in Hybrid networks like some sensor nodes are fixed, and other are mobile. It is traffic adaptive protocol that assigns timeslots of mobilenodes which are moves out of cluster can be reassign to the incoming mobilenodes into that cluster. Based on receiving signal strength, data is transmitted to the cluster head . A secure mobile data collector is introduced in clusters to collect the data from cluster head, and forward to the base station. Authors proposed and analyzed three protocols for secure data collection, and it follows tree based connection management among sensor nodes . Optimization of mobile data collector speed, and it’s mobil- ity is changed adaptively based on the requirements of network, are the objectives of paper, and this can be achieved by providing cooperation between sensing nodes, and mobile data collector nodes .
In this paper, we summarized Mobile computing with WirelessLAN and its mobile Ad hoc network and infrastructure. We define the operational model of our mobile computing environment, where we plan to demonstrate our proposed solutions. Mobile cloud computing is the combination of both cloud computing and mobile networks to bring benefits for mobile users, network operators, as well as cloud computing providers. In the present mobile communication environment, lot of research is going on, to improve the performance of issues like handoffs, routing etc. Security is another key issue that needs to be considered, when the setup of communication channel is to be set. Wireless local area network (WLAN) security are inherently weak and do not provide adequate security. Newer, more robust, wireless security technologies are being developed but have not had widespread acceptance within corporate information infrastructures. An ad hoc network is a collection of mobilenodes equipped with wireless communication adapters; these nodes dynamically form a temporary network without the need of any existing network infrastructure. Earlier studies on ad hoc networks aimed to
ABSTRACT: Present peer-to-peer (P2P) file distribution methods in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) can be divided into three categories: local broadcasting based advertisement (push) and discovery (pull)-based and contact- based. The first two techniques can simply be time consuming and low ability to accommodate when the demand grows higher. They are mainly developed for linked MANETs, in which end-to-end relativity among nodes is preserved. The contact-based methods adjust to the adaptable nature of disconnected MANETs but fail to regard the social contents of portable nodes, which can be subjugated to advance the file searching effectiveness. In this paper, we suggest a P2P content-based file distribution system, namely SPOON, for disconnected MANETs. The system uses an interest mining algorithm to derive a node’s concern from its files for content-based file searching. For competent file searching, SPOON assembles similar-interest nodes that frequently gather with each other as a set. It takes the benefit of node portability by designating constant nodes, which has the most common contact with neighbourhood members, as community coordinator for hunt within the community and highly-mobilenodes that visit other communities frequently as community ambassador for search in other communities. An interest-oriented file searching scheme is projected for high file searching efficiency. Supplementary strategies for file transfer, request-completion and avoiding occurrence of loops and node churn consideration are measured to further enhance the file searching competence. We developed a virtual environment using JAVAFX and MYSQL to test our system. The test outcome show that our system considerably lowers communication cost and improves file searching success rate compared to present methods.
Military applications have motivated early research on mobile ad hoc networks. The ability to quickly set up a network among military units in hostile territory without any infrastructure support can provide friendly forces with a considerable tactical advantage on the battlefield. For instance, each soldier can carry a mobile device that represents one of the mobilenodes in an Ad hoc network linking all soldiers, tanks, and other vehicles as shown in Fig 3.3. Recent advances in robotics have also motivated the idea of automated battlefields in which unmanned fighting vehicles are sent into battle. Supporting military applications requires self-organizing mechanisms that provide robust and reliable communication in dynamic battle situations.
The MANET is a self-directed , short-lived association of mobilenodes that communicate with each other via wireless channel and by using intermediate nodes. It form the networks without any fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. Networking these mobilenodes are expected to have significant impact on the efficiency of many military, emergency, commercial, educational, entertainment and civil applications. Since the nodes are energy constrained, links are bandwidth constrained and the topology changes in unpredictable manner, the routing in MANET is a tedious task.
In the above figure 14-15 the number of mobilenodes represented as initialized cipher key phase factor with user specified delay after phase one completed. It is also possible to start phase two in authentication when some data packet comes at ISAKMP server and it doesn’t find any IPSec SA for that packet's source and destination networks. The ISAKMP protocol for creating cookies, generating keys and nonce is being simulated by some simple stub functions. The severs nodes established Security Associations (SA) in the wireless links are bidirectional, that is same SA is used for both inbound and outbound packets.