relatively low, the voltage exerted on the piezoelectric patch must be amplified by the voltage amplifier to implement the vibration control. The control signal calculated by the dSPACE is converted into an analog signal by a D/A converter, and then is magnified 15 times by a voltage amplifier. Signals are then amplified and fed to a digital control system. The control algorithms are implemented using dSPACE DS1103 system with necessary Matlab/Simulink software installed in an industrial computer. The control algorithm is implemented using Simulink software and Real Time Workshop (RTW) is used to generate C code from the developed Simulink model. The C code is then converted to target specific code by real time interface (RTI) and target language compiler (TLC) supported by DS1103 controller board. Then we can design a vibration control experiment in real time by using ControlDestk software provided by dSPACE. The control objective is to minimize the output strain of two sensor outputs within the control bandwidth under the excitation of the disturbance force induced by external force.
The main idea of NMM is to constrain node behavior relaying on monitoring mechanism from neighbors. The specific description is as following. Each node keeps all neighbor statuses. The neighbor status is determined by answer situation of neighbor on query request, which can be divided into two kinds of met or un-met. The node dynamically maintains neighbor based on recorded neighbor status. If a neighbor is in met status, normally routes it. Otherwise, unlink connection to this neighbor. If all adjacent nodes unlink connections with this node, it is in isolated status in system. So it cannot perform querying or routing, so as to avoid forgery behaviors.
Track and field network course offers an independent learning platform that is unconstrained by time and space, students can review or preview according to the requests of established study progress and outline and based on their personal learning ability, learning time and learning conditions, this does the people-oriented to a certain extent, adapted to the students’ individuality demand in learning, no longer like the traditional teaching of track and field, which ruled out differences between the students and according to the same teaching plan, content and standard following the teacher's classroom arrangement for learning. In addition, network teaching mode that combined with vivid visual material and varied theoretical knowledge system is preponderate over the traditional teaching mode, which can not only benefit the establish of students’ action representation, but more easily to form the correct technical movement, visibly network teaching mode in sports skills learning surpasses conventional teaching mode  .
Rodriguez-Vazquez et al.  published a set of papers starting in 1997 in which they applied MOGP to non-linear system identification. Individuals’ selection was based on the Pareto dominance concept with two objectives: Fitness and model complexity. Individuals were ranked, based on how many other individuals dominated them – fitness was based on their rank. They used a fitness sharing/niching technique together with preference information in order to better cover the Pareto front and focus the selection procedure towards specific regions of the Pareto front. Their approach showed a similar or even better performance in some aspects than conventional techniques for non-linear system identification.
Another technique proposed by  secure one way payment system in mobile commerce. This technique uses two modular multiplications, one modular inverse and two hashing by the user using two public key pairs and keyed hash function for computation. In this technique only unilateral communication is sufficient between user and vendor to complete payment. This technique has three main functions; withdrawal, purchase and deposit. Also user does not need to participate in deposit phase so communication load and computation load is low in this scheme. As more
A protocol refers to a set of rules governing the exchange of data between entities. Several notations are utilized in the specification of protocols, including different types of diagrams such as flowchart-like depictions, UML sequence diagrams, and state transition diagrams. This paper is a contribution to this area, proposing a diagrammatic methodology for protocol specification. It is based on the notion of flow of “primitive” things in a system with six stages: creation, release, transfer, arrival, acceptance, and processing. The aim is to introduce a conceptual and complete description of basic streams of flow among entities and stages including “crossing points” that need rules of data transfer. The resultant specification is a map over which a protocol can be superimposed.
was retained and saved for their turn to be used. Thus the shortest path is identified using the proposed protocol which enhances the life time of the network in a hostile environment. The Figure 9 shows the comparison of transmission time between the proposed and the existing algorithm. It is identified that the transmission time for the data to be sent from the source node to the destination node of the proposed system is less than the existing system.
Besides the presence of cerebral veins, tissues using walls, or many small structures such as glands, brain mainly contains three substances (Figure): a. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (or cerebrospinal fluid, CSF) is the fluid that bathes the brain and cerebellum. It is a transparent substance made up of 99% water with an average volume of 150ml, it is absorbed by the cerebral venous system and continually renewed.
With the growth of the demands for massive data storage and processing from large-scale applications like internet and cloud computing, the performance requirement of parallel computers' storage system increases as well. In practice, most parallel computers' storage system need to store many small files besides large files; and the system needs to read and write these small files often, or perform fine-grained read/write to the large files. The fine-grained read/write to large number of files is not caused by occasional application error, they are from different sources; this indicates that the fine-grained read/write of files is common. Therefore researches on the performance of fine- grained read/write have important practical meaning.
Aiming at the characteristics of the change of Cloud Computing load , this paper first proposes the layered load balancing scheduling model on the basis of the analysis of the load-balancing scheduling model ,, then brings about the structure of this system, and at last designs and achieves a type of resource distribution algorithm which comprehensively taking the number and the performance of relative local agent resource as well as the current load situation into account.
Direct adaptive control is based on the observation that the difference between the output of the plant and the output of the reference model (called plant-model error) is a measure of the difference between the real and the desired performance. The reference model is a realization of the system with desired performance. This information is used by the adaptation mechanism (called parameter adaptation) to directly adjust the parameters of the controller in real-time in order to force (asymptotically) the plant model-error to zero. This scheme corresponds to the use of Model Reference Adaptive Systems (MRAS) for the purpose of a general concept called Model Reference Adaptive System (MRAS) for the purpose of control. The indirect adaptive control was originally introduced by Kalman.
 Hagras, H.; Ramadan, R.; Nawito, M.; Gabr, H.; Zaher, M.; Fahmy, H.; , "A fuzzy based hierarchical coordination and control system for a robotic agent team in the robot Hockey competition," Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ) IEEE International Conference, July 18-23, 2010, pp.1-8
Sliding Mode Control with fast response, the perturbation parameters of the controlled system and external interference has strong robustness, so it has been widely used. However, the strong robustness of Sliding Mode Control only reflected in the sliding stage, to the reach stage, the dynamic characteristics are very sensitive to the system parameter perturbation and external disturbance, even instability in the larger parameter perturbation and external disturbance; in addition, due to the sliding mode variable structure control for handling uncertainties switching control will allow system control the volume of the high-frequency buffeting, this high-frequency chattering easily inspire the system 's unmodeled characteristics, thus affecting the system's control performance and high- frequency buffeting can be achieved without any executive agency, therefore, this sliding mode variable structure control can not be achieved in practical applications.
Mixed methods was chosen as the research design for this paper based on its strength which will enable deep understanding of problems, the exploration of the respondents’ perception, better explaination, clarification, confirmation and verification of the relationship between variables. Mixed methods in this paper involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered from questionnaire survey, interview and case study through observation. The population framework consist of all civil servants who are involved in e-learning either at the ministry, department or government agency in the public sector of Malaysia. The sampling framework consist of civil servants who
In this section, we present the numerical results of the two scenarios with the two mobility case problems formulated in Sections 2 and 3. The system parameters were chosen based on Table (1) . Figure 8. shows the bit rate at the downlink versus the SNR at the direct and multi-hop links. The multi-hop link enhanced and increased the bit rate and SNR at the downlink.
OWC systems have applied different techniques to compensate the mentioned problems in the previous section for instance, using receivers with large receive apertures, using different modulation techniques , MIMO , applying new transceivers which have special fine tracking optics and they can be directly connected to single-mode optical fiber [19, 20] and the use of different pulse shapes for transmission [23, 24]. Following the last technique, different Gaussian pulse shapes with reduced duty cycle are proposed to improve the performance of traditional systems which use rectangular pulses [23, 24]. Reference  proposed a rate adaptive communication technique for indoor OWC based on applying adaptable silence periods and on-off keying formats with memory. Reference  proposed solitonic pulse shape for OWC for the first time and they mathematically analyzed solitonic pulse shape for OWC. They mathematically prove that solitonic pulse shape has lower bit error rate and better peak to average optical power ratio compared to rectangular and Gaussian pulse shapes. Their results confirm the significant superiority of the proposed pulse shape for atmospheric OWC links. However they stated that solitonic pulse generation
With the emerging of low cost 3D display devices, different kinds of 3D applications and the amount of 3D content are booming up, recently[1,2]. As an important technique for information security and information protection, digital watermarks have been widely applied into fields such as digital signature and authentication etc[3,4]. Digital watermark now has been widely applied into fields such as audio products, digital images and videos etc [5,6].However, because of its own characteristics such as various representations, unset sequence of data, users could conduct geometry and topology attack, it is difficult to apply the other successful algorithms into the three- dimensional model[7-9].
Huang and Yan  proposed an off-linesignatureverification method using a model-based technique. In this technique, statistical paradigms were built for both structural layout and pixel distribution. Besides simple geometric handwriting features, they proposed this technique to use the directional frontier feature as a structural descriptor of the signature. The statistical methods were used to accept signatures which are closely similar to original samples.
As a new kind of measure to control voltage, Static Var Compensator can rapidly, accurately and continuously adjust voltage of installation area. So it can be better sustain voltage level of installation area, improve transient stability and reduce the oscillation damping in power system. In order to study the characteristics of Static Var Compensator, this paper constructed a kind of Static Var Compensator system that includes Thyristor Switched Capacitor and Thyristor Controlled Reactor sections though Simulink toolbox of MATLAB. Then the model is used for simulation experiment. By setting the relevant parameter, this paper studied the characteristics of Static Var Compensation in power grid. The simulation results show that Static Var Compensation has a good effect in maintaining bus voltage when the power grid is in a dynamic and steady moment, and it also have a ability of the stability control. It can completely work as an important devices of reactive power compensation in power network.
machine system and outside disturbance are considered. Estimate model is controlled by state feedback. Sliding model controller is employed to compensate uncertainty model to guarantee robust. RBF neural network is used to adaptive study uncertainty up bound to reduce shake. The experimental result shows that test equipment conveniences using and higher precision , has important engineering value to three-dimension spatial microgravity simulation.