Quotient space

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Optimizations of Convex and Generalized Convex Fuzzy Mappings in The Quotient Space of Fuzzy Numbers

Optimizations of Convex and Generalized Convex Fuzzy Mappings in The Quotient Space of Fuzzy Numbers

In [14], Qiu et al. intuitively showed a method of finding the inverse operation in the quotient space of fuzzy numbers based on the Mareˇs equivalence relation [9], [10], which have the desired group properties for the addition operation [7], [13], [27]. As an application of the main results, it is shown that if we identify every fuzzy number with the

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Convergence of Successive Approximations for Fuzzy Differential Equations in The Quotient Space of Fuzzy Numbers

Convergence of Successive Approximations for Fuzzy Differential Equations in The Quotient Space of Fuzzy Numbers

In this paper, we have researched the convergence of successive approximations for fuzzy differential equations in the quotient space of fuzzy numbers. We have solved the convergence of successive approximations of the initial value problem for the fuzzy differential equations, provided that f is a continuous with respect to d sup , of uniformly

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Basic theorems for fuzzy differential equations in the quotient space of fuzzy numbers

Basic theorems for fuzzy differential equations in the quotient space of fuzzy numbers

In this paper, we study the fuzzy differential equations in the quotient space of fuzzy numbers. We solve the initial value problem for fuzzy differential equations provided that the involved mappings are continuous, of uniformly bounded variation, and are bounded functions. Then we establish a variety of comparison results for the solutions of fuzzy differential equations.

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A new order preserving average function on a quotient space of strictly monotone functions and its applications

A new order preserving average function on a quotient space of strictly monotone functions and its applications

We introduce an order in a quotient space of strictly monotone continuous functions on a real interval and show that a new average function on this quotient space is order-preserving. We also apply this new order-preserving function to derive a finite form of Jensen type inequality with negative weights.

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Information fusion of ITS based on granular computing

Information fusion of ITS based on granular computing

Quotient space theory and rough set theory are granular computing models, and are discussed in the framework of set theory. They regard the granularity as a subset of the problem domain. They are not mutually exclusive, but different in main focus. From the model point of view, both are described in the model of the ability of human to deal with things in different granularity. They believe that the concepts can be expressed in subsets. Different concepts of granularity can be used different sizes of subsets. All of these representations can be described by equivalence relations. Form the research object point of view, the quotient space theory and rough set theory all take the collection of objects discussed as the problem domain. When discussing the relationship between the objects, they are different. The prototype of rough set theory is probably derived through relational database abstraction, that is, use different attribute values of the elements to describe the relationship between the elements and represent different concept granularity according to the classification of different attributes. The prototype of the quotient space theory is Hierarchical method that in addition to the properties of the elements, it also introduced the relationship between the elements. In our approach, we use rough set theory to predict the traffic flow and use quotient space theory to predict the traffic congestion. The results show the effectiveness and efficiency of our methods.

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Granular computing with multiple granular layers for brain big data processing

Granular computing with multiple granular layers for brain big data processing

In this paper, we firstly review data space, data science, and researches on BDP, and talk about the source, form, sig- nificance, and research works of brain big data. We propose the three mechanisms of MGrC and discuss their relation- ship with five major models of MGrC, i.e., fuzzy set, rough set, quotient space, cloud model, and deep learning. We also discussed the key issues of current BDP and the reasons why MGrC can tackle them. Then we propose the potential of exploring brain big data with MGrC. Future research may include representing the brain big data from real world with MGrR and conducting intelligent computation based on it to offer effective solution to the problems to do successful research in brain BDP.

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On the description and identifiability analysis of experiments with mixtures

On the description and identifiability analysis of experiments with mixtures

to identifiability. Thus numerical approximations are postponed to the estimation phase of an analysis. For example rather than checking numerically if the rank of the design/model matrix for a candidate model is maximal, one computes a basis of the quotient space. This might be advantageous or disadvantageous according to the practical situations. We find that the information embedded in the ideal of a design or of its cone are useful in visualising the constraints imposed on the power terms by the design.

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Rate invariant analysis of covariance trajectories

Rate invariant analysis of covariance trajectories

Let ˜ P be the space of n × n SPDMs, and let P be its subset of matrices with determinant one. The idea is to first identify the space P with the quotient space SL(n)/SO(n) and borrow the Riemannian struc- ture from the latter directly. Then, one can straightfor- wardly extend the Riemannian structure on P to ˜ P . The process starts by choosing a Riemannian metric on G as follows: for any point G ∈ SL(n) the metric is defined by pulling back the tangent vectors under G −1 to I, and then using the trace metric ( see more details in the Section 1 of Supplementary Material I ). This definition leads to expressions for the exponential map, its inverse, parallel transport of tangent vectors, and the Riemannian curvature tensor on SL(n). It also induces a Riemannian structure on the quotient space SL(n)/SO(n) in a natural way because the chosen met- ric is invariant to the action of SO(n) on SL(n). Finally, these results are transferred to P using the mapping

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A KLEINIAN APPROACH TO FUNDAMENTAL REGIONS

A KLEINIAN APPROACH TO FUNDAMENTAL REGIONS

Now, using what we know about the quotient topology and group acitons, an informal definition of a quotient space will be given. Let Γ be the topological group acting on a space X. If we say points on X are equivalent if and only if they lie in the same orbit, then X/Γ is the quotient space of X under the action of Γ. Fundamental domains are useful because they allow us to intuitively visualize X/Γ. The following examples are of well known fundamental domains: the torus (using E 2 ) and the punctured torus (using U 2 ).

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Topology of Language Classes

Topology of Language Classes

We have attempted to improve upon previous defi- nitions of distance between languages in a language space. After considering previous work by Vianu (1977) which defined a language distance using the density of their symmetric set difference, we pro- gressed to a new adaptation of a pseudometric in- spired by Besicovitch (1932). In a language space, the Besicovitch pseudometric was developed which is essentially the upper density of the set-difference between languages. By lifting to the quotient space Q ζ using Besicovitch equivalence, a natural metric topology was developed and shown to be perfect but not compact. Another step of lifting brought us a compact “upper” quotient space N ζ homeomorphic to the unit interval. The ideals of this upper space were studied, also invoking the notion of word ideal defined herein. In the last section it was shown that neither the finite nor locally testable languages are dense in N ζ . Finally, the regular languages were

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Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

Geometry with an Introduction to Cosmic Topology

This map tries very hard to be a homeomorphism. The map is continuous, onto, and it is almost one-to-one with a continuous inverse. It fails in this endeavor only where we join the left and right edges: the points (0, y) and (1, y) in I 2 both get sent by p to the point (1, 0, y) . But p is nice enough to induce a homeomorphism between the cylinder and a modied version of the domain I 2 , obtained by dividing out of I 2 the mapping redundancies so that the result is one-to-one. The new version of I 2 is called a quotient space. We develop quotient spaces in this section because all surfaces and candidate three-dimensional universes can be viewed as quotient spaces. We need the notion of an equivalence relation on a set. To get this, we need the notion of a relation.

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intellectual quotient, spiritual THE EFFECT OF INTELLECTUAL QUOTIENT, SPIRITUAL QUOTIENT, INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION TOWARD COMPETENCE, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENTS  AND LECTURERS’ DEVELOPMENT (STUDY AT ISLAMIC UNIVERSITIES IN EAS

intellectual quotient, spiritual THE EFFECT OF INTELLECTUAL QUOTIENT, SPIRITUAL QUOTIENT, INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION TOWARD COMPETENCE, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENTS AND LECTURERS’ DEVELOPMENT (STUDY AT ISLAMIC UNIVERSITIES IN EAST JAVA)

Sternberg (2008: 67) explains intellectual intelligence is the ability to learn from experience, think using metacognitive processes, and the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment. Intellectual intelligence is the ability to analyze, logic and a person's ratio. Thus, this is related to speaking skills, intelligence of space, awareness of something visible, and mastery of mathematics. IQ measures our speed in learning new things, focusing on various tasks and exercises, storing and recalling objective information, engaging in thought processes, working with numbers, abstract and analytical thinking, and solving problems and applying pre-existing knowledge (Anastasia, 2007: 58).

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Some metric properties of spaces of stability conditions

Some metric properties of spaces of stability conditions

In §4 we independently verify that the metric on the space of numerical stability conditions on a smooth complex projective curve of genus ≥ 1 is complete. We compute this metric as follows. There is a natural action of the universal cover G of GL + 2 R on any space of stability conditions. When the phases of semistable objects are dense for a stability condition σ, the orbit through σ is free and the restriction d G of the metric to it is independent of σ and can be

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Development of Emotional Quotient

Development of Emotional Quotient

Role of Parents in development of Emotional Quotient 1) Personal attention towards their children’s should be provided. 2) Try to develop secure emotional relationship with children. 3) Understand their emotions and give respect to their emotions. 4) Motivate to develop good hobbies in children’s.

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Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient

Spiritual-Intelligence/-Quotient

A third kind of neural organization makes it possible for us to do creative, insightful, rule- making/-breaking thinking [13]. It is heart-to-heart thinking, it is the demystified spiritual—not necessarily religious--thinking with which we reframe and transform our previous thinking---our Spiritual Intelligence, our Spiritual Quotient (SQ), our quantum quest for meaning, our hyperlink to everything. It is in its transformative power that SP differs from EQ, as emotional intelligence allows you to judge what situation you are in and to behave appropriately within the boundaries of the situation, allowing the situation to guide you. Your spiritual intelligence allows you to ask if you want to be in this particular situation in the first place! In our mathematical shorthand, beyond IQ and EQ is SQ, which can develop our capacity for vision, meaning, and value, our dreams, our happiness, our intuition, our beliefs and our subsequent actions. Ideally, based upon our brain design, our three basic intelligences work together and support one another, but each of them has its own area of power and can function in a stand-alone mode.

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The Influences of Job Characteristics, Emotional Quotient, and Spiritual Quotient on Job Satisfaction and Nurses Performance  At Islamic Hospital in Gresik

The Influences of Job Characteristics, Emotional Quotient, and Spiritual Quotient on Job Satisfaction and Nurses Performance At Islamic Hospital in Gresik

The results of the descriptive analysis of job characteristics, emotional quotient, spiritual quotient, job satisfaction, and nurses performance at Islamic Hospitals in Gresik are all perceived to be high, this is indicated by the average score of the answers in the range of 3.4 - 4.2 (high), this shows that the average nurse at Islamic Hospital in Gresik has a good job characteristics, good emotional quotient, good spiritual quotient, good job satisfaction, and good performance.

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On Topological sbĝ – quotient mappings

On Topological sbĝ – quotient mappings

(vii) Contra sbĝ-continuous map[4] if (V) is sbĝ-closed in (X,τ) for every open set V in (Y,σ). (viii) sbĝ – homeomorphism[3] if f is both sbĝ – continuous map and sbĝ – open map. (ix) Strongly sbĝ-continuous[3] if (V) is closed in (X,τ) for every sbĝ-closed set V in (Y,σ). (x) Quotient[12] if f is continuous and (V) is open in X implies V is open in Y.

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Quotient inductive inductive types

Quotient inductive inductive types

Single inductive (and quotient inductive) sets are simply elements of hSet . Induc- tive families [17] indexed over some fixed type A are families A → hSet . For the inductive-inductive definitions we are considering, the situation is more compli- cated, since we allow very general dependency structures. Our only requirement is that there is no looping dependency, since this is easily seen to lead to contra- dictions, e.g. we do not allow the definition of a family A : B → hSet mutually with a family B : A → hSet (whatever this would mean). Concretely, we will ensure that the collection of type formation rules (the type signatures) is given in a valid order, and we refer to the types used as family indices as the sorts of the definition. Hence our first step towards a specification of general QIITs is to explain what a valid specification of the sorts is.

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Affine localization for fixed points of Lipschitz quotient operators

Affine localization for fixed points of Lipschitz quotient operators

Abstract. We modify and apply new property obtained recently in (Udo-utun, Fixed Point Theory and Applications 2014, 2014:65) and results in (Berinde, Carpath. J. Math. 19(1):7-22, 2003; Nonlinear Anal. Forum 9(1):43- 53, 2004) on (δ , k)−weak contractions to obtain asymptotic fixed point theorems for bi-Lipschitz mappings and Lipschitz quotient mappings in Banach spaces. Our results complement and improve several fixed point theorems for Lipschitzian mappings.

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Mastering the Master Space

Mastering the Master Space

terms, coming from the critical points of the superpotential. This vacuum moduli space M is typically a high dimensional object of subtle structure and consists of many branches, such as mesonic versus baryonic, and Higgs versus Coulomb, etc. Conceptually, M is a quotient of F ♭ by the gauge symmetries prescribed by D ♭ . In this short summary of a companion

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