endowment paradigm in which participants either received an item and stated how much they would demand to part with it, or were given the opportunity to buy the item. Additionally, half of the participants experienced ostracism during the course of a team-based computer game. The main prediction was that owners who are ostracized will have elevated feelings of ownership towards their good and will correspondingly value their possession more highly. With respect to buyers, theories of psychological ownership provide a less clear prediction. One could expect that, in the absence of legal ownership, ostracism will not affect WTP valuation. On the other hand, feelings of ownership can develop even if a person does not actually own an object (see Reb & Connolly, 2007), and so feeling excluded could make non- owners value the opportunity to acquire consumer goods (Lee & Shrum, 2012), resulting in a higher WTP. Studies 2, 3, and 4 further tested whether ostracism influences how people value their possessions, by asking people about items that they already owned (which, arguably, are more appropriate for testing the model of ownership). The prediction was again that
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the FP realist desires must somehow be closely connected to SV, it is far less clear what role remains for belief, except perhaps to say that agents have beliefs about their subjective desires (SVs). This, though, yields the peculiar result that an agent navigates the world using representational desires and that her course of action is ultimately determined by the presence of a scale-tipping belief about which is the optimal desire to satisfy. That is, this particular account of location might find some room for both belief and desire only by turning the dispute about Humeanism in the wrong direction.
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Gonzalez (1997) discussed the theoretical background of the value of travel time savings as developed within time allocation models. In contrast to the cost saving approach, which approximates the opportunity cost of travel time using the gross wage rate, time allocation models focus on an individual’s subjective value of time. These models take specific interest in the extent to which individuals are willing to make trade-offs between travel time and travel costs and hence implicitly assign a value to travel time savings. Gonzalez (1997, pp. 245) states the following: “ The generally accepted method for estimating a subjective value of time consists in finding the marginal rate of substitution between travel time and travel cost, typically from disaggregate models of discrete choice based on the random utility theory…” . 1 This paper concerns the Marginal Rate of Substitution (MRS) between travel time and travel cost embodied within the Random Regret Minimisation (RRM) model. The RRM model (Chorus 2010, 2012a) represents an alternative decision rule in the discrete choice modelling literature where individuals are minimising their regret instead of maximising their utility. The extent to which individuals are willing to make trade-offs between travel time and travel costs are directly influenced by the modification of the decision rule and the specification of the regret function. The MRS and the implied subjective value of time are therefore not necessarily identical between the RUM and RRM model.
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The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been shown to correlate with the subjective value for options, across reward type and across hundreds of functional neuroimaging studies. Despite the prominence of its role in preference-based decision-making, its specific contributions to how decisions are made have not yet been well-characterised. Study 1 addresses what the vmPFC signal represents during decision-making. While the vmPFC signal has been shown to correlate highly with subjective value in past studies, this signal is also consistent with mental navigation through a conceptual attribute space using a grid-like code. We found that the mental navigation model lacked support in the evidence, and the subjective value model remains the best explanation for vmPFC signal during decision-making. After having established that the signal in vmPFC reflects subjective value, Study 2 addresses whether subjective value representations remain consistent for non-choice preference tasks, and when this representation comes online during the decision process. This study shows that the value network seen previously for choice tasks also is active during a matching bidding task, and that the vmPFC, interestingly, represents value only at the time of the final choice. Finally, in Study 3, I address the question of how the vmPFC is necessary for subjective value in my third chapter. Transitivity (the idea that if A > B, and B > C, then A > C) is a key property of a value-based system. Individuals with ventromedial frontal lobe damage have been found to make more transitivity errors in the past, but it is not known whether vmPFC damage causes fundamentally intransitive choices (implying abolishment of value), or transitive but noisier choices (implying preservation of value but increased instability). We found strong evidence for the second case, demonstrating that vmPFC damage adds instability to valuation but does not abolish it. The evidence I present here is consistent with the theory that vmPFC is involved in a subjective value-based process during decision-making, yet that value is a distributed process over many brain regions where other regions may compensate for the loss of the vmPFC in calculating value.
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unsatisfactory because it leaves the notion of objective value heavily dependent on intrinsic, say physical quality. In order to correct this one can therefore rely on the Kantian transformation of the “objective” into “inter - subjective” that which is outside the individual beyond its subjective measure, but yet is still human. Therefore the objective character of value is extrinsic to the thing. To put it simply, subjective value is of the realm of the individual and as such is a cornerstone of action, while objective value falls under the social – extra individual – realm, wherever this is solidly based upon scientific findings or merely on “common sense”, which can be seen as a framework of possible actions. Or to use Bukharin’s ( 1927: 67) words while interpreting Böhm - Bawerk’s presentation of the Austrian School of Economics, subjective value is a matter of “the laws of formation of individual evaluations”, while objective value is subject to the “laws of the origin of their resultant”. Relying on the treatment of the question Böhm - Bawerk (1886: 4) gives and quoted by Bukharin (1927: 62), objective value is the “virtue or capacity of a commodity to bring about a certain objective result”. This in turn asks for the value of the result itself. However if one relies on the idea of a priori explanation of action, the value of the result itself is to be replaced with the value of that result perceived on the basis of knowledge related to the physical characteristics of the good.
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estimation when these two var- iables are uncorrelated, as indeed we observed here. Our paradigm is also distinct from Christopoulos et al. (2009) who found no difference in VST activation for gamble choices associated with equivalent average magnitudes but different subjective values. In this study the procedure adopted might conceivably have increased attention towards the cer- tain option and, together with evidence showing that attention in ﬂ u- ences VST value responses (FitzGerald et al. 2014), this might explain the observation that VST encoded the subjective value of the certain op- tion alone. Indeed, in the former study the certain option varied more frequently than the gamble, and varied according to a partially predict- able staircase procedure that might also have induced a motivation for subjects to predict future certain options. Our data better ﬁ t with the general proposal that VST represents subjective rather than objective value (Hsu et al. 2009; Kable and Glimcher 2007; Niv et al. 2012; Pine et al. 2009; Tom et al. 2007).
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Here, in Subjective Analysis Mean Opinion Score rating is carried out for three different clean wave files chosen from wideband corpus  as given by rai0010.wav having total no. of samples equal to 73440, rai0008.wav having 82560 samples and rai0014.wav having 109921 samples. MOS analysis is carried out in quiet environment and with high quality headphones. For this analysis twenty un-trained listeners are chosen to participate in MOS rating. Out of which ten listeners are men and ten are women listeners. Each listener is offered with total of 6 decoded wave files( 3 wave files, each with two values of ) . Ratings given by all twenty listeners (for each wave files) are then averaged to produce final MOS ratings. As observed from figure 4, obtain results for MOS scores advocate the performance of developed coder for three wave files. It is evident from the results that MOS scores for all three recovered WB wave files decreases with the increase the value of weight factor() from 0.6 to 0.75. B. Objective Analysis
Abstract. The philosophy of labor law in Russia is only being formed. This is evidenced by only a few philosophical studies on certain aspects of labor law, and the task is to create a new paradigm of Russian labor law on the basis of the ideals of humanism and Enlightenment in order to harmonize it with international labor law standards. The new metaphysics is the overcoming of Cartesian (ontological) dualism in labor law, represented by the counter-narrativeness of the employee and employer, as well as the dominance of its subjects (in particular, this concerns gender prohibitive norms). Thanks to the new metaphysics and its methods, the philosophy of labor law goes beyond the limits of objectivity to the existing (being) of modern labor relations. In their studies, the authors show the influence of philosophical (metaphysical) ideas on the creation and development of the “permissible” (leges permissivae) of Russian labor law. In particular, the studies propose an interpretation of the metaphysical (subjective law) and applied value of the labor law principles on examples of the philosophical moral and legal ideas implementation in the norms of labor law and in the further creation of a leges permissivae policy of labor law.
What makes goods valuable? Are objects intrinsically valuable, valuable based on how much labor they require to make, or are they simply valuable based on how much they satisfy people’s subjective preferences? In a certain sense it might be accurate to exclaim, “We are all subjectivists now.” 1 With a few exceptions, almost all modern economists believe that goods are valued based on how they satisfy individuals’ subjective preferences. Yet economists disagree about what it means to believe in economic subjectivism. George Mason University economist Bryan Caplan (1997) criticizes writers in the tradition of Austrian economics for portraying non-Austrians as non- subjectivists. He writes, “Innumerable Austrian essays and books use the word ‘subjectivism’ in the title. This leaves one with the impression that other economists fail to embrace subjectivism – an impression that is simply false.” Caplan claims that although many Austrian views, including economic subjectivism, are correct, he says they “are simply not distinctive enough to sustain a school of thought.”
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Other findings indicate a positive and significant correlation between environmental value attitudes and drought-coping behavior, which is inconsistent with Abedi Sarvestani (2011). According to this finding, it is necessary to improve the environmental attitudes of farmers by appropriate educational programs in order to improve their view of the environment and motivate them to adopt more appropriate behaviors. In other words, proper education can lead to positive changes in the norms and attitudes of individuals, and this itself requires further research to determine how and with what content. Pearson’s correlation test also showed the lack of a significant relationship between the environmental value attitude of farmers in Kermanshah and their strategy. Therefore, it cannot be asserted that a favorable environmental attitude can lead to a proper strategy because although 53.4 percent of the farmers had biospheric attitudes and 31.9 percent had a social- altruistic attitude, 55.2% of farmers adopted a non-response strategy when dealing with drought. So, even with a biospheric or social- altruistic attitude, one cannot expect the
While Thomas and Diener (1990) find only a modest match between people’s reports of mo- mentary moods and their recall of those moods, Sandvik, Diener, and Seidlitz (1993) find that the self-report measures converge with other types of assessment, including expert ratings based on interviews with respondents, experience sampling measures in which feelings are reported at random moments in everyday life, participants’ memory for positive versus negative events in their lives, the reports of family and friends, and smiling. Despite the positive psychometric qualities of global subjective well-being measures, however, a multi-method battery to assess subjective wellbeing is recommended when this is possible. Additional assessment devices based on memory, informant reports, and experience sampling are likely to supplement the information obtained from global measures and guard against response artifacts, and in some cases the alternative measures may yield different answers about who is the happiest (e.g., Oishi, 2000).
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Political and legal culture has been diversified by the cumulative accretion of values that express human beings’ concerns in reaction to different historical predicaments. New value paradigms coexist with older value paradigms because the latter are central to forms of life that continue to define people’s senses of identity and meaningfulness. By the same token, values are incommensurable with one another because each value presupposes a distinct form of life that cannot be ranked along an ordering of forms of life. 8 That is, values are incommensurable with each other due to the incommensurability of their supporting forms of life. An outsider can interpret the value paradigm of an alien society even if he does not share the relevant form of life, provided he adopts a participant’s point of view. In adopting the internal perspective, the outsider translates the beliefs and concerns of the foreign society into his own forms of life and value paradigms. Other things being equal, the greater the distance between the outsider’s paradigms and those of the society he wants to understand, the higher the risk that the translation will only be an approximate one. 9
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broccoli, carrots, tomatoes, fine beans, berry salad, pepper, lettuce, cucumber and rice cakes. Perceived satiety value was associated with a number of objective and subjective attributes including energy density, fibre, percentage protein, percentage carbohydrates, percentage fat, cost, perceived healthiness, utility for weight management, controllability over eating and frequency of consumption. These attributes will be discussed in turn. It is interesting that the nutritional attribute that foods consumers rated as most satiating i.e. low energy density, corresponds with the established literature from laboratory studies using objectively measured indices of satiety (Rolls, Roe, & Meengs, 2004; Stubbs et al., 1996; Wanders et al., 2011). Low energy density was the strongest correlate of perceived satiety value, followed by high fibre content and low percentage fat. This finding also confirms previous studies that have evaluated the expected satiety value of foods
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Barz et al.  suggested that the treadmill test has high diagnostic value for identifying LSS as detected on MRI. However, the treadmill test has limited diagnostic ability to determine the level of clinical symptoms in patients with LSS. Therefore, the truly responsible spinal level in patients with NIC should be diagnosed [7,9-15] based on changes in subjective symptoms and objective neuro- logical findings before and after the gait-loading test [9-12,14] and nerve root block [13,14,16-18]. The gait- loading test is a provocation test that is able to demon- strate the spinal level truly responsible for symptoms, which may be masked at rest. Hence, the gait-loading test is indispensable for determination of the involved spinal level in patients with LSS [9-12,14].
To examine the relationships between variables, the research was framed by two theoretical perspectives; the multidimensional model of self-concept and the expectancy- value theory. The multidimensional model of self-concept is considered a useful and reliable framework for analyzing global and domain specific self-concept across academic and non- academic domains (Brewer, 1991; Fox, 1998, 2002; Harter, 1999; Horn, 2004a; 2004b; Shavelson et al., 1976). Examination of athletic identity, as it relates to achievement related behavior has not been conducted in any great detail. The Eccles et al. expectancy-value model, an achievement-related behavior theory, provides a good fit for examining adolescent domain-specific athletic identity due to its predictive component which relies heavily on discretionary participation (Eccles & Harold, 1999; Weiss & Ferrer-Caja, 2002; Weiss & Williams, 2004). Whereas expectancy-value theory has been tested rigorously by Eccles and colleagues in contexts that combined academic and physical activity domains (Barber,
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cannot ignore the other, unintended, outcomes. Imagine that in Finger or Accidental Death shooting in order to scare was overwhelmingly likely to unintentionally kill. Whilst this act would pose no problem from the point of view of intentions, it would certainly be subjectively disproportionate and should not be performed, due to the likely but unintended effects. There are therefore (at least) two factors that an approach to subjective proportionality must take into account – the objective proportionality of the intended harm; and the full range of potential outcomes (including their likelihoods of occurring).
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UX is ambiguous, it is a vast term and its definition is still not proposed by the experts. it can be decomposing into concrete attributes. It was found in the survey that UX can be influence by three elements Usability, Affect, and User Subjective Value. DRM survey is helpful in analyzing the subelements of the user experience further. The identifying process consisted of three steps: (a) developing an initial list, (b) mapping episodes on the list, and (c) revising the list .
Abstract: Digital camera sensors are designed to record all incident light from a captured scene, but they are unable to distinguish between the colour of the light source and the true colour of objects. The resulting captured image exhibits a colour cast toward the colour of light source. This paper presents a colour constancy algorithm for images of scenes lit by non-uniform light sources. The proposed algorithm uses a histogram-based algorithm to determine the number of colour regions. It then applies the K-means ++ algorithm on the input image, dividing the image into its segments. The proposed algorithm computes the Normalized Average Absolute Difference (NAAD) for each segment and uses it as a measure to determine if the segment has sufficient colour variations. The initial colour constancy adjustment factors for each segment with sufficient colour variation is calculated. The Colour Constancy Adjustment Weighting Factors (CCAWF) for each pixel of the image are determined by fusing the CCAWFs of the segments, weighted by their normalized Euclidian distance of the pixel from the center of the segments. Results show that the proposed method outperforms the statistical techniques and its images exhibit significantly higher subjective quality to those of the learning-based methods. In addition, the execution time of the proposed algorithm is comparable to statistical-based techniques and is much lower than those of the state-of-the-art learning-based methods.
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See, e.g., Conservatorship of Wendland, 28 P.3d 151 (2001) (upholding a trial court decision to continue life-sustaining treatment despite a proxy decision-maker’s request to withdraw it because the proxy “offered no basis for such a finding other than her own subjective judgment that the conservatee did not enjoy a satisfactory quality of life and legally insufficient evidence to the effect that he would have wished to die”); see also In re Conservatorship of Helga M. Wanglie, No. PX91283, (Hennepin Cnty., Minn., Prob. Ct. 1991) reprinted in L AW & M ED . 369 (1991) (upholding the surrogate’s request for continued treatment of the patient, who was in a persistent vegetative state and who died more than a year later of sepsis); Cruzan v. Director, Missouri Dept. of Health, 497 U.S. 261, 281 (1990) (“a state may properly decline to make judgments about the ‘quality’ of life that a particular person may enjoy and simply assert an unqualified interest in the preservation of human life to be weighed against the constitutionally protected interests of the individual.”).
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DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.77019 210 Open Journal of Social Sciences from the exploration of the value of the subject of education. In a specific field of teacher education, several teacher education activities are involved with multiple subjects participated and teaching and learning as the core. The trainees also in- clude normal school students. According to the logic in which concept guides the action, and the value guides the behavior, the educational activities in which the specific subject participates must inevitably contain the educational value orientation of the subject. At the same time, this value orientation must be based on individuals, with dynamic and generative characteristics. In the educational practice, the cultivation of preeminent teachers is also the process where the value orientation and value guidance of each subject involved in educational ac- tivities generated. This process has characteristics of discontinuity and con- text-based generation. In the same educational field, the diversity of the subject indicates that of value orientation, and is manifested in the “harmony yet differ- ence” in outlooks on teachers, students and education in the opinion of the sub- ject.
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